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Container Orchestration Wars (2017 Edition)

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Container orchestration is the use of declarative configuration and imperative commands to deploy, provision, and execute containerized workloads. It automates the distribution of preprovisioned container images, injection of configuration, scheduling onto machines, lifecycle-management, and monitoring of applications, microservices, and jobs in the cloud. The orchestration space is fast moving and full of competing products, platforms, and frameworks. How do you choose the right one for your requirements?

Karl Isenberg explores the features of several container orchestrators—breaking down the feature sets and characteristics into categories, and scoring multiple solutions against each other while comparing them to other cloud platform layers like infrastructure (IaaS), applications platforms (PaaS), serverless architecture (FaaS), and distributed operating systems—to explain what functionality to look for in a container orchestrator, which products are good at which feature sets, and how you can apply this methodology in your research of other container orchestrators.

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Container Orchestration Wars (2017 Edition)

  1. 1. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1 CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION WARS ( 2017 Edition )
  2. 2. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 KARL WHO? WHERE? - Mesosphere - Pivotal WHAT? - DC/OS - Kubernetes - CloudFoundry - BOSH - github.com/karlkfi - twitter.com/karlkfi - linkedin.com/in/karlkfi - karl.isenberg.us
  3. 3. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTION PLATFORM SPECTRUM CONTAINER PLATFORM LAYERS CONTAINER PLATFORM CAPABILITIES CONTAINER PLATFORM COMPARISON HOW DO I CHOOSE?
  4. 4. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4 INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTION
  5. 5. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5 MONOLITH AT SCALE ONLINE LATENCY ROUTED MULTI-REGION LOAD BALANCED MULTI-ZONE REPLICATED AUTO-SCALED DATA REPLICATION DATA SYNCHRONIZATION AWS Simple Icons By Amazon Web Services, Inc., CC BY-SA 3.0
  6. 6. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6 MICROSERVICES AT SCALE Wheel of Doom From A Journey into Microservices by Hailo
  7. 7. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7 INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTION APPLICATION PROVISIONING ON BARE METAL
  8. 8. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8 “Ultimately, utility cloud providers have exposed how difficult it is to properly operate data centers — and reminded all of us that the ability to expertly operate infrastructure is what really fuels the consumption of open source infrastructure.” Brian Stein (Rackspace VP - 2017)
  9. 9. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9 INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTION APPLICATION PROVISIONING ON VIRTUAL INFRASTRUCTURE PLATFORM (IaaS)
  10. 10. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10 “The goal of Cloud Foundry is to put more of the controls back in the hands of developers so they can self-provision, so there aren’t a lot of roadblocks in their way. But it gives a lot of guardrails.” Chip Childers (Cloud Foundry Foundation CTO - 2017)
  11. 11. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11 INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTION APPLICATION PLATFORM (PaaS / aPaaS) ON INFRASTRUCTURE PLATFORM (IaaS)
  12. 12. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12 “...traditional “PaaS” roles have now been taken over by containers… The piece that is left for PaaS is the part that was always the most important part of PaaS in the first place, and that’s the opinionated developer experience.” Brendan Burns (Kubernetes Cofounder - 2017)
  13. 13. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTION CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION ON INFRASTRUCTURE PLATFORM (IaaS)
  14. 14. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14 INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTION CONTAINER PLATFORM (CaaS) ON INFRASTRUCTURE PLATFORM (IaaS)
  15. 15. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15 INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTION CONTAINER PLATFORM (CaaS) ON BARE METAL
  16. 16. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16 “If your PaaS can efficiently start instances in 20ms that run for half a second, then call it serverless.” Adrian Cockcroft (AWS VP - 2016)
  17. 17. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17 INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTION FUNCTION PLATFORM (FaaS) ON INFRASTRUCTURE PLATFORM (IaaS)
  18. 18. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18 INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTION FUNCTION PLATFORM (FaaS) ON CONTAINER PLATFORM (CaaS)
  19. 19. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19 INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTION FUNCTION PLATFORM (FaaS) ON CONTAINER PLATFORM (CaaS) ON INFRASTRUCTURE PLATFORM (IaaS)
  20. 20. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20 PLATFORM SPECTRUM
  21. 21. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21 PLATFORM SPECTRUM INFRASTRUCTURE PLATFORM ( IaaS ) Virtual Machines Disks Networks Firewalls SOFTWARE PLATFORM ( SaaS ) Whatever You Want ( to pay for ) FUNCTION PLATFORM ( FaaS ) Actions /tmp Triggers Gateways CONTAINER PLATFORM ( CaaS ) Containers Volumes IPs & Ports Load Balancers APPLICATION PLATFORM ( PaaS / aPaaS ) Apps /tmp 80/443 Routes Abstraction Flexibility Velocity Low Level High Level
  22. 22. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22 PLATFORM EXAMPLES INFRASTRUCTURE PLATFORM ( IaaS ) OpenStack vSphere Azure Stack VMs AWS EC2 GCE Azure VMs SOFTWARE PLATFORM ( SaaS ) BYO Salesforce Oracle SAP FUNCTION PLATFORM ( FaaS ) OpenWhisk Fission Iron.io Lambda GCF Azure Functions CONTAINER PLATFORM ( CaaS ) Kubernetes DC/OS Docker Datacenter GKE ECS ACS APPLICATION PLATFORM ( PaaS / aPaaS ) CloudFoundry OpenShift WaveMaker RAD Heroku PCF Jelastic HOSTED
  23. 23. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23 CONTAINER PLATFORM LAYERS
  24. 24. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24 CONTAINER ORCHESTRATION Apps Container Runtime Container Orchestration - User workloads - Distributed container management - Local container management Infrastructure ServicesJobs - Container agnostic infrastructure
  25. 25. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25 CONTAINER PLATFORM Apps Container Storage Container Runtime Container Orchestration System Services - User workloads - System management & service enablement - Distributed container management - Local container management - Container aware infrastructureContainer Networks Infrastructure ServicesJobs - Container agnostic infrastructure
  26. 26. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26 DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEM Apps Container Storage Container Runtime Container Orchestration System Services Container Networks Infrastructure ServicesJobs Security & Multitenancy Logging & Metrics & Monitoring
  27. 27. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 27 CONTAINER PLATFORM CAPABILITIES
  28. 28. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 28 CONTAINERS - Resource Isolation - Resource Constraints - Process Tree - Environment Isolation - Shell / Exec IMAGES - Build - Layers - Download - Cache - Publish - Prune NETWORKS - Container - Bridge - Host - Virtual - Overlay - Remote - User-defined - Port Mapping DATA VOLUMES - Ephemeral - Host - Backup / Restore - Copy In / Out - Shared RUNTIME CAPABILITIES
  29. 29. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29 ORCHESTRATION CAPABILITIES SCHEDULING - Placement - Replication/Scaling - Readiness Checking - Resurrection - Rescheduling - Rolling Updates - Collocation - Daemons - Cron Jobs RESOURCE MGMT - Memory - CPU - GPU - Ephemeral Volumes - Remote Persistent Volumes - Local Persistent Volumes - Ports - IPs (per container) SERVICE MGMT - Labels - Groups/Namespaces - Dependencies - Load Balancing (L7) - VIPs (L3/L4 LB) - DNS - DNS Proxy - Secrets - Config Mgmt
  30. 30. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30 OPERATIONAL CAPABILITIES ADMINISTRATION - GUI - CLI - Metrics API - Logs API - Events API - Rolling Upgrades - Backups & Restores MULTI-INFRASTRUCTURE - Multi-cloud - Multi-zone - Multi-region - Hybrid-cloud - Federation SYSTEM SERVICES - Auto-Scaling - Package Management - Service Catalog - Service Brokers - Admin Proxy - API Gateway
  31. 31. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 31 PLATFORM CAPABILITIES CONTAINER NETWORKS - Overlay - Routing - Network Address Translation (NAT) - Firewalls - Access Control Lists - Quality of Service CONTAINER STORAGE - Local Volumes - Remote Volumes - Block Storage - File System Storage - Object Storage PLATFORM DATABASES - Lock Service - Key-Value Database - Relational Database - Time Series Database
  32. 32. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 32 SECURITY - User Accounts - Service Accounts - System/User Space - E2E Encryption - Non-root User Workloads - Audit Logging - Public Key Infrastructure - Certifications MULTITENANCY - User Groups - Permissions - RBAC - ABAC - Resource Sharing - FIFO - Fair - Quotas - Branding - Quality of Service PLATFORM CAPABILITIES
  33. 33. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 33 NON-FUNCTIONAL QUALITIES SCALABILITY Performance, Responsiveness, Efficiency AVAILABILITY Fault Tolerance, Robustness, Reliability, Resilience, Disaster Recovery FLEXIBILITY Format Support, Interoperability, Extensibility, Container Runtimes USABILITY Familiarity, Maintainability, Compatibility, Debuggability PORTABILITY Host OS, Cloud, Bare-Metal, Hybrid SECURITY Encryption Quality, Vulnerability Process, Fast Patching, Backporting
  34. 34. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 34 CONTAINER PLATFORM COMPARISON
  35. 35. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 35 Docker Kontena ECS Nomad Kubernetes Rancher Cattle DC/OS OpenShift TODAY’S CONTESTANTS
  36. 36. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 36 CloudFoundry GKE Heroku Tectonic Juju Triton HONORABLE MENTIONS
  37. 37. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Placement Replication/Scaling Readiness Checking Resurrection Rescheduling Rolling Updates Collocation 37 SCHEDULING CONTAINER PLATFORM COMPARISON (06/2017) Kubernetes DC/OS ECS Docker Nomad Cattle Kontena Included New/External/Partial/Experimental OpenShift Daemons Cron Jobs
  38. 38. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 38 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CONTAINER PLATFORM COMPARISON (06/2017) Memory Kubernetes DC/OS ECS Docker Nomad Cattle Kontena Included New/External/Partial/Experimental CPU GPU Disk Space Ephemeral Volumes Remote Persistent Vols Local Persistent Vols Ports IPs (per container) OpenShift
  39. 39. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 39 SERVICE MANAGEMENT CONTAINER PLATFORM COMPARISON (06/2017) Labels Kubernetes DC/OS ECS Docker Nomad Cattle Kontena Included New/External/Partial/Experimental Groups/Namespaces Dependencies Load Balancing (L7) VIPs (L3/L4 LB) DNS DNS Proxy Secrets Config Mgmt OpenShift
  40. 40. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 40 HOW DO I CHOOSE?
  41. 41. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 41 KUBERNETES - Huge community - Solid API - Some assembly required - Multitude of vendors/installers OPENSHIFT - Application platform based on Kubernetes - Always trailing Kubernetes releases - No assembly required - Open core, enterprise platform DC/OS - Runs native applications (non-Docker) - Specialized in data services - Ambitious scope (on-prem AWS) - No assembly required - Open core, enterprise platform DOCKER - Huge community - Fast moving API - Integrated orchestration and runtime - Recent pivot from runtime to orchestration - Open core, enterprise platform HEAVY HITTERS
  42. 42. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 42 EC2 CONTAINER SERVICE (ECS) - Hosted-only solution - Tight integration with AWS services - Closed platform RANCHER CATTLE - Gateway to Kubernetes, Mesos, and Docker - Open platform, enterprise support NOMAD - Provisioner with orchestration features - Runs native applications (non-Docker) - Tight integration with Vault and Consul - Some assembly required - Open platform, enterprise support KONTENA - Simple to set up - No assembly required - Open core, enterprise platform LITE ORCHESTRATION
  43. 43. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 43 CONSIDERATIONS - Which is more important to you: velocity or flexibility? - Do you want an opinionated application platform? - Do you need to support Big Data initiatives and pipelines? - Do you want a hosted solution? - Are you willing to build out your own integrations? - Do you need on-prem & hybrid capabilities? - Do you want to avoid infrastructure lock-in? - Are you already invested in a specific infrastructure? - Are you already invested in a specific operating system? - Do you need federation and multi-region support? - Do you want multitenancy or is multi-instance good enough? - How important are seamless automated rolling upgrades? - How many nines do your customers need? - How important is reverse compatibility & API stability? - Do you need to support non-Docker workloads? HOW DO I CHOOSE?
  44. 44. © 2017 Mesosphere, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 44 KARL ISENBERG karlkfi

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