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Chapter 15 globalism 20 21st century

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Chapter 15 globalism 20 21st century

  1. 1. GlobalismGlobalism The information Age Chapter 15 A Moving force in the evolution of globalism was satellite television, the internet, and colonialism.
  2. 2. MAYA LIN THE VIETNAM’S VETERANS MEMORIAL, (1982) •Names of the 57,939 Americans who were killed in the Vietnam War.
  3. 3. End of Colonialism Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) Peaceful protests against colonial oppression 1948 - assassinated - Hindu fanatic
  4. 4. Racial Equality Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929- 1968) Protestant pastor and civil rights activist Assassinated in April 4, 1968 Oscar Graves, 1982, Dr. Martin Luther King Detroit MI
  5. 5. Betye Saar Attack on the icons of commercial white culture political and social protest Betye Saar (1926– ), The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, 1972. Mixed media
  6. 6. Kara Walker She suggests that liberation is an on going process Kara Walker (1969- ), A Work on Progress, 1998. Cut paper and adhesive, Installation Kara Walker (1969- ), Slavery! Slavery!, 2000Darkytown Rebellion ,2001
  7. 7. calls attention to the controversial issue of abortion in contemporary society Gender Equality Barbara Kruger, (b.1945) Barbara Kruger (1945– ), Untitled ("Your body is a battleground"), 1989. Photographic silkscreen on vinyl
  8. 8. JUDY CHICAGO THE DINNER PARTY, (1974-1979), 48 x 48 x 48ft.
  9. 9. Sexual Identity Aids Memorial Quilt, 1996
  10. 10. Gender Identity Robert Mapplethorpe, Lisa Lyon, 1982 Gender-bending parody
  11. 11. Ethnic Identity • Shirin Neshat rebellious silence “Women of Allah” 1994 • Ethnic and feminist issues in the Muslim world. • Addresses the role of militant Muslim women who fought in the 1979 revolution that overthrew Iran’s ruling dynasty.
  12. 12. Hispanic Voices  Oscar Hijuelos, Cuban- American, 1951-2013 The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love, 1989  Sandra Cisneros, Mexican- American, b. 1954 The House On Mango Street, 1984  Junot Diaz, Dominican- American, b. 1968 The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, 2008 Hispanic Voices
  13. 13. Made New York the center of the art world, and was often called the “New York School”.
  14. 14. paint is spontaneously dripped, splashed or smeared onto the canvas, rather then being carefully applied. Willem de Kooning- Paris Review 1979 Action Painting Willem de Kooning, Woman I 1950-1952
  15. 15. “I have no fears about making changes, destroying the image… because the painting has a life of its own.” Jackson Pollock
  16. 16. Jackson Pollock Shimmering Substance 1946
  17. 17. Jackson Pollock Enchanted Forest 1947
  18. 18. Jackson Pollock Lavender Mist 1950
  19. 19. Arshile Gorky - One Year the Milkweed 1944
  20. 20. Mark Rothko Red, Orange, Tan and Purple 1949
  21. 21. Once you “got” Pop, you could never see a sign the same way again. And once you thought Pop, you could never see America the same way again. --Andy Warhol late 1950s and 1960s
  22. 22. Pop Artists used bold, flat colors and hard edge compositions adopted from commercial designs. Warhol, Campbell's Soup II, 1969, © AWF Warhol, Brillo Soap Pads Box, 1964, © AWF
  23. 23. Warhol, Three Coke Bottles, 1962, © AWF The pioneer figure in pop art was Andy Warhol. Warhol, Listerine Bottle, 1963, © AWF
  24. 24. Warhol appropriated (used without permission) images from magazines, newspapers, and press photos of the most popular people of his time Silver Liz [Ferus Type], 1963, © AWF ©2006 Life Inc. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture and advertisement.
  25. 25. Warhol took common everyday items and gave them importance as “art” He raised questions about the nature of art: Knives, 1981, © AWF What makes one work of art better than another? Brillo Soap Pads Box, 1964, © AWF
  26. 26. Other Pop Artist: used new technologies and methods: Claes Oldenburg, Floor Burger 1962, © Claes Oldenburg
  27. 27. Pop Artists used common images from everyday culture as their sources. Roy Lichtenstein, Masterpiece, 1962
  28. 28. Robert Rauschenberg, Retroactive II, 1963
  29. 29. Audrey Flack, Marilyn, 1977, Oil over acrylic on canvas Influenced by realism in photography “I studied art history, it was always the photographs, I never saw the paintings, they were in Europe” Marilyn Monroe – references to her death (clocks, hourglass)
  30. 30. Chuck Close, Big Self-Portrait, 1967 – 1968, Acrylic on Canvas (8’11” x 11’2”) Large Scale Portrait Paintings based on Photographs
  31. 31. Duane Hanson, Supermarket Shopper, 1970, Polyester resin and fiberglass polychromed in oil with clothing, steel cart, and groceries “The subject matter I like best deals with the familiar lower and middle class American types of today.”
  32. 32. Christo and Jeanne-Claude, Running Fence (California, USA), Pink woven synthetic fabric, 1972 - 1976 Environmental art project Artists claim that the art has no meaning. Their goal is to create something beautiful and to see the landscape in a new way.
  33. 33. Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1970, Black rock, salt crystals, earth, red water (Utah, USA)
  34. 34. Keith Haring, Untitled, 1985, Mixed Media on Canvas Keith Haring (1958-1990) started by drawing in NY Subways (related to Grafitti art / Street Art)
  35. 35. Norman Foster, Swiss Rebuilding (30 St. Mary Axe), London, 2003 First environmentally sustainable skyscraper
  36. 36. Santiago Calatrava, Innovation, Science , and technology Building, Florida Polytechnic University, Lakeland, Florida, 2014.
  37. 37. Terrorism Carolee Schneermann, Terminal Velocity, 2001- 2005
  38. 38. Music Elvis Presley (1935-1977) Born, Tupelo, Mississippi , “That’s All Right Mama” in July 1954 Rockabilly, retaining many of the original’s blues inflections but with Presley’s high tenor voice adding a lighter touch
  39. 39. James Brown ( 1933- 2006) born, South Carolina, raised in Augustus Georgia. Singer, songwriter, dancer, musician, record producer and bandleader. Founder of funk music. "Godfather of Soul"
  40. 40. Ray Charles (1930-2004) Born in Albany, Georgia Raised in Greenville, Florida He pioneered soul music genre during the 1950s by combining blues, rhythm and blues, and gospel styles
  41. 41. Aretha Franklin (1942-2018) Memphis, Tennessee "The Queen of Soul” Franklin began her career as a child singing gospel at New Bethel Baptist Church in Detroit, Michigan, where her father C. L. Franklin was minister.
  42. 42. The Beatles, British group, 1960’s John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr Liverpool, London sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll often incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, and unconventional recording techniques
  43. 43. Bob Dylan (b. 1941) Hibbing, Minnesota His lyrics incorporated a wide range of political, social, philosophical, and literary influences artist
  44. 44. Dance Merce Cunningham (1919-2009) John Cage Body-sculptures Pilobolus Dance Theater, 2004
  45. 45. The End!!
  46. 46. American Precursors to ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM
  47. 47.  In western art, for the first forty years of the 20th century, the further you were away from Paris, meant the further you were from the art world. American art was far from cutting edge. It evolved sluggishly from historical paintings to landscapes and agricultural genre scenes.  Flashes of brilliance did occur here and there and the artists that provided these flashes were very influential in what was to be the art movement that changed the epicenter of the art world firmly from Paris to New York. George Bellows, Stag at Sharkey’s, 1909 Oil on Canvas 36 1/4x48 ¼” The Cleveland Museum of Art,
  48. 48. Thomas Hart Benton  He considered himself to be a “Regionalist” artist. His work seems to be highly influenced by Baroque. An Illinois native, he painted his live in the Navy and daily life in the ship yards of Norfolk VA. This lead to epic scenes filled with many workers and lots of machinery. Cut the Line 1944 I really wanted to find a size for this, but couldn’t… :(
  49. 49.  Benton hated Avante Garde art. He didn’t like anything that was going on in Europe and considered himself very conservative amongst some of his peers in the art world. Eventually became the teacher of Jackson Pollock. Wreck of the Ol’ 97 Train 1943 29x46”
  50. 50. American Social Realism American Realism came from a backlash American Impressionism, many artist wanted their art to represent their current day America. Thomas Pollock Anshutz The Ironworkers Noontime 1880 Oil on Canvas Robert Henri was a teacher out of PAFA (Penn Academy of Fine Arts, Phila) who, with some other friends, started the Ash Can School. This was a group of painters who wanted their paintings to be ‘realistically ugly’. Street scenes and realistic urban landscapes were a cornerstone for this movement. Above is a painting by a teacher of Henri’s named Thomas
  51. 51. Ash Can School Everett Shinn, The Fight Robert Henri, Snow in New York George Bellows, Cliff Dwellers, 1913
  52. 52. John French Sloan "Six o'clock, Winter" 1912 The Ash Can argued that ‘life is beautiful, this is what life actually looks like.’
  53. 53. Edward Hopper Rooftops 1926 12x19 Watercolor on paper Hopper, a realist and another member of the Ash Can School is easily the most famous member to come out of the movement. Hoppers early work was in American Impressionism, but later, his palette darkened and he became intrigued with indoor painting and urban realism.
  54. 54. Nighthawks,1942 New York Movie 1939 Automat Hopper
  55. 55. What it is… Abstract Expressionism is a painting movement in which artists typically applied paint rapidly, and with force to their huge canvases in an effort to show feelings and emotions. non-geometrically, sometimes applying paint with large brushes, and looks as if to be an accident but is really quite planned.
  56. 56. European artists began moving to America during WW II. The main result of the new American fascination with Surrealism was the emergence of Abstract Expressionism. Produced in New York roughly between 1940- 1960. Jackson Pollack Ocean Greyness 1953 History…
  57. 57. Arshile Gorky was the artist to put this movement into motion, because his art ideals were obtained from Surrealism, Picasso, and Miro. Emphasized the depiction of emotion’s rather then objects. Paintings consisted of shapes, lines, and forms meant to create a separate reality from the visual world.
  58. 58. “What was to go on the canvas was not a picture, but an event.” Critic- Harold Rosenberg Hans Hoffman Rising Moon
  59. 59. European Influence European Surrealists obtained their notion of the unconscious mind, from Sigmund Freud. Many Americans at this time, derived Carl Jung’s theory- the “collective unconscious” holds that beneath ones private memories, is a store house of feeling and symbolic thoughts. With all the European influence, Abstract Expressionists sought universal themes within themselves.
  60. 60. Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) Influenced by Mexican muralist painters, and Surrealism. Canvases were usually on the floor, or the wall where he dripped or poured on the paint. Used knives, sticks, or towels instead of brushes. Occasionally putting sand, broken glass, or other matter, into his paintings. Resulted in direct expression and “Action Painting”.
  61. 61. 3 Factors in work of the 1940’s Intense childhood memories of Armenia, prime subject matter. Growing interest in Surrealism. Many discussion with colleagues about Jungian ideas. Jungian analysis is a specialized form of psychotherapy in which the Jungian analyst and patient work together to increase the patient’s consciousness in order to move toward psychological balance and wholeness. Arshile Gorky (1904-1948)
  62. 62. Waterfall- Arshile Gorky (1943) •The unstructured shapes, and drips of paint hint at the fluidity of the Waterfall.
  63. 63. Willem de Kooning A pioneer in Abstract Expressionism. Tried to capture energy and emotion through Action Painting. Alternated between abstract and figural painting. Blended traditional forms, with a sense of uncertainty.
  64. 64. Willem de Kooning Pink Angels 1945
  65. 65. Willem de Kooning Black Friday 1948
  66. 66. Willem de Kooning Women III 1952
  67. 67. Willem de Kooning, Excavation, 1950
  68. 68. Franz Kline (1910-1962) His works around 1946 had a Cubist structure, or were abstract. Around 1950, he made large calligraphic paintings in black and white. In 1958, Kline introduced color in some of his works.
  69. 69. Franz Kline Figure Eight 1952
  70. 70. Franz Kline New York, N.Y. 1952
  71. 71. Franz Kline Untitled 1958
  72. 72. Color Field Painting The Second Type of Abstract Expressionism paintings. Paintings with solid area of color covering the whole canvas. Meant to be seen up close, so the viewer is immersed in color.
  73. 73. Mark Rothko (1903-1970) Asymmetrical blocks of color, and painted the edges of his canvases, then displayed them without frames. Titles were unimaginative leaving the interpretation up to the viewer.
  74. 74. Mark Rothko Orange and Red on Red 1957
  75. 75. Kenneth Noland (1924-2010) First to stain canvases with thinned paints. Appeared as pure and saturated color. Made concentric rings, and parallels, in relation to the size of the canvas.
  76. 76. Kenneth Noland Heat 1958
  77. 77. Kenneth Noland Back and Front 1960
  78. 78. Sculptures David Smith is one of the most famous Abstract Expressionism sculptor’s He created large, steel geometric sculptors His motivations were similar to that of the painters His most famous sculptors are his Cubi series
  79. 79. David Smith Cubi XIX 1964
  80. 80. What it Influenced Created a whole new way to look at art Influenced later art movements Pop Art Minimalism Tachisme
  81. 81. The art world today reflects many of the ideas, methods and materials initiated by the Pop Art movement. Barbara Kruger, Untitled, 1991 Courtesy: Mary Boone Gallery, NY In Untitled, 1991, Barbara Kruger uses the iconography of the American flag and hard edge graphics to pose a series of provocative questions about American cultural values. In Rabbit, 1986, artist Jeff Koons cast a mass-produced inflatable Easter bunny in highly polished stainless steel. The sculpture became iconic of art in the 1980s. Jeff Koons, Rabbit, 1986, © Jeff Koons
  82. 82. New realism (Super-realism) American Art Movement in late 1960’s – 1970’s Extension of Pop Art (similar subjects, but different style) Highly detailed and realistic (sometimes called Photorealism)
  83. 83. Site-specific Art / Environmental Art Progressive Movement developed in the 1960’s in USA Increased concerns about environment (pollution, litter, urban sprawl Challenges traditional assumptions about art
  84. 84. Neo-Expressionism Movement in 1980’s inspired by German Expressionists and Abstract Expressionists Reintroduced human feeling back into art
  85. 85. Large scale painting Thick, encrusted surface (highly textured) Re-examination of German History “Nigredo” means black (symbolic meaning) Anselm Kiefer, Nigredo, 1984, Mixed media (including natural materials – straw and lead) on paper (11’ x 18’)
  86. 86. Francesco Clemente, Francesco Clemente, Oil on Canvas, 1985 Clemente’s work draws inspiration from Expressionism and Surrealism Self-Portrait Two sides of personality / “inner self” Francesco interested in connection of art to spirituality
  87. 87. Post-Pop American artists in 1980’s still influenced by Pop Art from the 1960’s Consumerism and Popular culture Humor
  88. 88. Jeff-Koons, Pink Panther, 1988, Porcelain sculpture Magazine centerfold with well-known cartoon character Commercialism / Consumerism Kitsch (bad taste) “everything wrong with contemporary American society”
  89. 89. Keith Haring in his “Pop Shop” in New York City
  90. 90. Adidas shoe with Keith Haring designs
  91. 91. Joseph Beuys, How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare, 1965, Performance art Performance art Sacred ritual “the condition of modern humanity” Head coated with honey and covered with gold leaf (spiritual power)
  92. 92. Laurie Anderson, O Superman, 1985, Performance Art Anderson wrote music and lyrics Experimentation with sound (electric violin and synthesized voice) Feminist art combining elements of pop art, pop music, World music, dada
  93. 93. Montri Toemsombat, Performance, 2003, Performance at the Venice Biennale (Italy) Art inspired by Buddhism Critical of Thai culture (materialism) Ritul / Meditation Literally wearing text (text on clothing, text and tattoos) Artist is interested in relationship of fashion to art
  94. 94. Technology and Art Video, Digital Imagery Artists started experimenting with video in 1960’s Looking at an image in a video monitor / screen (related to Renaissance idea of looking through a frame into a picture) Element of time
  95. 95. Origins Artists began experimenting with video since the invention of the television. Wolf Vostell was the first artists to include working television sets in his 1959 assemblage “Deutscher Ausblick.” Wolf Vostell, Deutscher Ausblick, 1959. Click on image or copy link to view. http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=KJq9eh6QsBg
  96. 96. History Andy Warhol and Nam June Paik were the pioneers of the Video Art movement. Warhol created films in his factory using 8mm, 16mm cameras and screened them for friends. Warhol's films included were “Sleep”, “Eat”, “Empire”, and “Chelsea Girls” which are now considered part of the genre. Andy Warhol
  97. 97. History With the invention of the Sony Portapak in 1965, the first portable video recorder, artists were able to instantly record visual ideas for their work. Sony Portapak 1965
  98. 98. History Nam June Paik (1932- 2006) was one of the first artist to obtain a portapak, and created the first video art piece titled “Electronic Video Recorder”. Nam June
  99. 99. Well-known Korean-born video artist who moved to New York Experimented with electronic music (collaborated with Japanese artist) “Time collage” combining painting, music, Eastern philosophy, global politics, technology, etc. Nam June Paik, Global Groove, 1973, Video Still
  100. 100. Video Art Versus Film Making Video Art before the digital age could be recorded and played back instantly. Where film once it was shot had to be developed then edited. Video art does not need actors, dialogue, or plot. The video artist is concerned with exploring the medium itself, or to use it to challenge the viewer's ideas of space, time and form.
  101. 101. Jenny Holzer, Protect Me From What I Want, 1988, LED Electronic Signboard (Times Square, New York City) Social Consciousness Uses advertising format to deliver messages Art in Public Spaces
  103. 103. Bill Viola, The Crossing, 1996, Sound / Video Installation Slow motion video with fire and water (the elements) Relationship to Religion (Viola interested in World Religions)
  104. 104. Existentialism Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) Basic premise: the idea that existence precedes essence, that one’s material being exists prior to and independent of any intrinsic factors. Each individual is the sum of his or her actions. Condemned to be free, each individual bears the over -whelming burden of total responsibility. Being and Nothingness 1943
  105. 105. The Cold War Berlin Wall – divided East and West Germany Korean War (1905-1953)– divided North and South Korea, Soviet Union and United States, 3 million Koreans died, mostly civilians Vietnam War (1964-1973)- 50 thousand Americans died, 15 million Vietnamese died, US withdrew and communist Vietnam was established. Collapse of Soviet Union and the fall of the Berlin Wall 1989.
  106. 106. Art and Society Art as a social tool used to help change society Social and Political issues Art by and for minorities (issues of gender, race, sexuality)
  107. 107. Gender Equality Germaine Greer (1939-) The Obstacle Race: The Fortunes of Women Painters and their work (1979) She explains the scarcity of women artists: There is……no female Leonardo, no female Titian, no female Poussin, but the reason does not lie in the fact that women have wombs, that they can have babies, that their brains are smaller, that they lack vigor, that they are not sensual. The reason is simple that you cannot make great artists out of egos that have been damaged, with wills that are defective, with libidos that have been driven out of reach and energy diverted into neurotic channels.
  108. 108. Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #35, 1979, Black-and- white photograph Sherman plays different roles in her photographs (dressed in costume) - Not a Self-Portrait Feminism - Questions how women have been portrayed in movies, photography, art Photography shows the shutter release cable on the floor (artist took her own photograph)
  109. 109. Barbara Kruger, Untitled (I Shop Therefore I Am), 1987, Photographic silkscreen on vinyl Look of Advertising (Kruger worked as a graphic designer before becoming an artist) Deceptiveness of Media’s messages “I think, therefore I am” - Philosophical statement by Descartes
  111. 111. String Theory Brian Greene (b.1962) describes a multidimensional universe in which loops of strings and oscillating globules of matter unite all of creation into vibrational patterns. Chaos Theory Finds that universal patterns underlie all of nature and repeat themselves in physical phenomena ranging from the formation of a snowflake to the rhythms of the human heart. Human Genome By the year 2000, molecular biologists were able to ascertain the order of nearly three billion units of DNA. Language Theory Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), that all forms of expression and all truths in are dominated by the modes of language used to convey ideas.
  112. 112. The Pop artists moved away from Abstract Expressionism which was the “in” style of art in the 50s. The Abstract Expressionist evoked emotions, feelings and ideas through formal elements such as: • Line • Color • Shape • Form • Texture Jackson Pollock, Number 4, 1950 Carnegie Museum of Art; Gift of Frank R. S. Kaplan/©ARS
  113. 113. Warhol used the repetition of media events to critique and reframe cultural ideas through his art Jackie paintings, 1964, © AWF
  114. 114. • Andy Warhol, Brillo Boxes installation,
  115. 115. Pop artists stretched the definitions of what art could be and how it can be made. “The Pop idea, after all, was that anybody could do anything, so naturally we were all trying to do it all…” ---Andy Warhol photo by Hervé Gloaguen

Notas do Editor

  • Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)
    – Hindu, led India’s struggle for
    independence from Great Britain.
    Peaceful protests against colonial oppression
    Followers were called “Mahatma” or ”great souls”
    His program of nonviolent resistance, including fasting, and peaceful demonstrations, influenced subsequent liberation movements throughout the world.
    1947 India’s independence, one year later he was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic who opposed his conciliatory gestures toward India’s Muslim minority.
  • Protestant pastor and civil rights activist who modeled his campaign of peaceful protest on the example of Gandhi.
    As president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, King served as an inspiration to all African –Americans.
  • Betye Irene Saar (July 30, 1926 in Los Angeles, California) is an American artist, known for her work in the field of assemblage. Her education included a time at the University of California, Los Angeles, from where she received a degree in design in 1949, and graduate studies in printmaking and education at Pasadena City College, California State University, Long Beach, from 1958 to 1962. Her interest in assemblage was inspired by a 1968 exhibition by Joseph Cornell, though she also cites the influence of Simon Rodia's Watts Towers, which she witnessed being built in her childhood.[1] She began creating work typically consisting of found objects arranged within boxes or windows, with items drawing on various cultures reflecting Saar's own mixed heritage (African, Native American, Irish and Creole).[1]
    In the late 1960s Saar began collecting images of Aunt Jemima, Uncle Tom, Little Black Sambo, and other stereotyped African American figures from folk culture and advertising. She incorporated them into collages and assemblages, transforming them into statements of political and social protest. In the 1970s Saar shifted focus again, exploring ritual and tribal objects from Africa as well as items from African American folk traditions. In new boxed assemblages, she combined shamanistic tribal fetishes with images and objects intended to evoke the magical and the mystical.
    When her great-aunt died, Saar became immersed in family memorabilia and began making more personal and intimate assemblages that incorporated nostalgic mementos of her great aunt’s life. She arranged old photographs, letters, lockets, dried flowers, and handkerchiefs in shrinelike boxes to suggest memory, loss, and the passage of time.
    In the early 1980s Saar taught in Los Angeles at the University of California and the Otis Art Institute now called Otis College of Art and Design. In her own work she began using a larger, room-size scale, creating site-specific installations, including altar-like shrines exploring the relationship between technology and spirituality, and incorporating her interests in mysticism and Voodoo. Pairing computer chips with mystical amulets and charms, these monumental constructions suggested the need for an alliance of both systems of knowledge: the technical and the spiritual.
    Saar was a part of the black arts movement in the 1970s, challenging myths and stereotypes. In the 1990s, her work was politicized while she continued to challenge the negative ideas of African Americans. One of her better-known and controversial pieces is that entitled “The Liberation of Aunt Jemima.” It is a “mammy” doll carrying a broom in one hand and a shotgun in the other, and placed in front of the syrup labels. Her work began with found objects arranged in boxes or windows. The items would reflect her mixed ancestry.
    Her ancestry is a mixture of African-American, Irish, and Native American. She married a white ceramist and conservator.
    Betye Saar continues to live and work in Los Angeles. Saar is the mother of two artists, Alison Saar and Lezley Saar.
    She has been awarded honorary doctorate degrees by California College of Arts and Crafts, California Institute of the Arts, Massachusetts College of Art, Otis College of Art and Design, and San Francisco Art Institute.
  • Used a more subtle and complex approach to matters of race
    Walker was born in Stockton, California.[1] Her retired father is a formally educated artist, a professor, and an administrator.[1] Her mother worked as an administrative assistant.
    [edit] Career
    Some of Walker's exhibitions have been shown at The Apartheid Museum in Johannesburg, The Renaissance Society in Chicago, the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, and the Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago. Walker has also been shown internationally and featured on PBS. Her work graces the cover of musician Arto Lindsay's recording, Salt (2004).
    Walker has produced works in ochre gouaches, video animation, shadow puppets, and "magic-lantern" projections, as well as a number of black-paper silhouettes,[2] perhaps her most recognizable works to date.
    Walker's silhouette images work to bridge unfinished folklore in the Antebellum South, raising identity and gender issues for African American women in particular. However, because of her confrontational approach to the topic, Walker's artwork is reminiscent of Andy Warhol's Pop Art during the 1960s (indeed, Walker says she adored Warhol growing up as a child). Her nightmarish yet fantastical images incorporate a cinematic feel. Walker uses images from historical textbooks to show how African American slaves were depicted during Antebellum South. Some of her images are grotesque, for example, in The Battle of Atlanta, [3] a white man, presumably a Southern soldier, is raping a black girl while her brother watches in shock, a white child is about to insert his sword into a nearly-lynched black woman's vagina, and a male black slave rains tears all over an adolescent white boy.
    Walker debuted a public exhibition at the The Drawing Center in New York City in 1994. Her installation Gone: An Historical Romance of a Civil War as it Occurred between the Dusky Thighs of One Young Negress and Her Heart "polarized the New York art world".[4]
    In 1997, Walker—who was 28 at the time—was one of the youngest people to receive a MacArthur fellowship.[5] There was a lot of criticism because of her fame at such a young age and the fact that her art was most popular within the white community.
    In response to Hurricane Katrina, Walker created "After the Deluge," since the hurricane had devastated many poor and black areas of New Orleans. Walker was bombarded with news images of "black corporeality," including fatalities from the hurricane reduced to bodies and nothing more. She likened these casualties to African slaves piled onto ships for the Middle Passage, the Atlantic crossing to America.
    “ I was seeing images that were all too familiar. It was black people in a state of life-or-death desperation, and everything corporeal was coming to the surface: water, excrement, sewage. It was a re-inscription of all the stereotypes about the black body.[6]
  • Aware of the extent to which commercialism shapes identity, she creates photographs that deftly unite word and image to resemble commercial billboards. The artist calls attention to the controversial issue of abortion in contemporary society
  • A room-sized sculpture consisting of a triangular table with 39 place settings, each symbolizing a famous woman in myth or history. The feminist counterpart of the Last Supper, pays homage to such immortals Nefertiti, Sappho, queen Elizabeth 1, and Virginia Woolf.
  • Represents the movement for body-conscious politics and socially responsible art that animated the last decade of the 20th century.
  • Oscar Hijuelos, Cuban-American, 1951-2013
    The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love, 1989- brought attention to the impact pf Latin American music on American culture and , more generally, to the role of memory in reclaiming one’s ethnic roots.
    Sandra Cisneros, Mexican-American, b. 1954
    The House On Mango Street, 1984-a series of vignettes that describe the experience of a young girl gowing up in the latino section of Chicago,
    Junot Diaz, Dominican-American, b. 1968
    The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, 2008- Oscar de León (nicknamed Oscar Wao, a bastardization of Oscar Wilde) is an overweight Dominican growing up in Paterson, New Jersey. Oscar desperately wants to be successful with women but, from a young age, is unable to find love, largely because he is a nerd obsessed with science fiction and comic books. His great fear is that he will die a virgin.
    After high school, Oscar attends Rutgers University. His sister's boyfriend Yunior (the narrator of much of the novel) moves in with Oscar and tries to help him get in shape and become more "normal". After "getting dissed by a girl", he attempts to kill himself by drinking two bottles of liquor and jumping off the New Brunswick train bridge. He survives the fall but is seriously injured.
    Oscar recuperates and graduates from Rutgers. He substitute teaches at his former high school and dreams about writing an epic work of science fiction. Eventually, he moves to the Dominican Republic and falls helplessly in love with Ybon, a prostitute who lives near him. Ybon is kind to Oscar but rejects his frequent romantic overtures. Ybon's boyfriend, a violent police captain, becomes jealous of Oscar and sends two goons who kidnap Oscar, take him to the sugarcane fields, and beat him into a coma. Oscar's family takes him back to the United States to heal.
    Oscar recovers from the beating, borrows money from Yunior, and returns to the Dominican Republic. He spends 27 days writing and stalking Ybon. She is horrified at first but softens and eventually has sex with Oscar. Ybon's boyfriend's goons then find Oscar, take him back to the sugarcane fields, and kill him
  • Abstract Expressionism is a painting movement in which artists typically applied paint rapidly, and with force to their huge canvases in an effort to show feelings and emotions.
    non-geometrically, sometimes applying paint with large brushes, and looks as if to be an accident but is really quite planned.
    European Surrealists obtained their notion of the unconscious mind, from Sigmund Freud.
    Many Americans at this time, derived Carl Jung’s theory- the “collective unconscious” holds that beneath ones private memories, is a store house of feeling and symbolic thoughts.
    With all the European influence, Abstract Expressionists sought universal themes within themselves.
  • Artists wanted to establish their
    independence from European surrealists
    and other art trends.
    Abstract Expressionism was the first
    art movement to influence artists
    over seas, rather than vice versa.
  • One of the two techniques for Abstract Expressionism was known as Action Painting.
    A pioneer in Abstract Expressionism.
    Tried to capture energy and emotion through Action Painting.
    Alternated between abstract and figural painting.
    Blended traditional forms, with a sense of uncertainty
  • European artists began moving to America during WW II.
    The main result of the new American fascination with Surrealism was the emergence of Abstract Expressionism.
    Produced in New York roughly between 1940-1960.
  • Influenced by Mexican muralist painters, and Surrealism.
    Canvases were usually on the floor, or the wall where he dripped or poured on the paint.
    Used knives, sticks, or towels instead of brushes.
    Occasionally putting sand, broken glass, or other matter, into his paintings.
    Resulted in direct expression and “Action Painting”.
  • Arshile Gorky was the artist to put this movement into motion, because his art ideals were obtained from Surrealism, Picasso, and Miro.
    Emphasized the depiction of emotion’s rather then objects.
    Paintings consisted of shapes, lines, and forms meant to create a separate reality from the visual world.
    3 Factors in work of the 1940’s
    Intense childhood memories of Armenia, prime subject matter.
    Growing interest in Surrealism.
    Many discussion with colleagues about Jungian ideas.
    Jungian analysis is a specialized form of psychotherapy in which the Jungian analyst and patient work together to increase the patient’s consciousness in order to move toward psychological balance and wholeness.
  • Asymmetrical blocks of color, and painted the edges of his canvases, then displayed them without frames.
    Titles were unimaginative leaving the interpretation up to the viewer.
  • from Abstract Expressionism which was the “in” style of art in the 50s. The Abstract Expressionist evoked emotions, feelings and ideas through formal elements such as:
  • Billboards
    Pop Art was an art movement in the late 1950s and 1960s that reflected everyday life and common objects. Pop artists blurred the line between fine art and commercial art.
  • “Pop Artists did images that anybody walking down the street could recognize in a split second…all the great modern things that the Abstract Expressionists tried so hard not to notice at all.”—Gretchen Berg.
    Pop art was appealing to many viewers, while others felt it made fun of common people and their lives. It was hard for some people to understand why Pop Artists were painting cheap, everyday objects, when the function of art historically was to uphold and represent culture’s most valuable ideals.
    Andy Warhol
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search
    For the song by David Bowie, see Andy Warhol (song).
    This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (July 2011)
    Andy Warhol Andy Warhol by Jack Mitchell Birth name Andrew Warhola Born August 6, 1928Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S. Died February 22, 1987 (aged 58)New York City, New York, U.S. Nationality American Field Printmaking, Painting, Cinema Training Carnegie Mellon University Movement Pop art Works Chelsea Girls (1966 film)Exploding Plastic Inevitable (1966 event)Campbell's Soup Cans (1962 painting) Andy Warhol (August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987) was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. After a successful career as a commercial illustrator, Warhol became a renowned and sometimes controversial artist. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture and advertisement. He worked in a range of media, including painting, printmaking, sculpture, film, and music. He founded Interview Magazine and was the author of numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Warhol and Popism: The Warhol Sixties. Andy Warhol is also notable as a gay man who lived openly as such before the gay liberation movement. His studio, The Factory, was a famous gathering place that brought together distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, playwrights, Bohemian street people, Hollywood celebrities, and wealthy patrons.
    Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions, books, and feature and documentary films. He coined the widely used expression "15 minutes of fame". In his hometown of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, The Andy Warhol Museum celebrates his life and work.
    The highest price ever paid for a Warhol painting is US$100 million for a 1963 canvas titled Eight Elvises. The private transaction was reported in a 2009 article in The Economist, which described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market".[1] Warhol's works include some of the most expensive paintings ever sold.
  • Andy Warhol was one of the most famous Pop Artists. Part of his artistic practice was using new technologies and new ways of making art including:
    Photographic Silk-Screening
    Mass production
    Media events
    Warhol used the repetition of media events to critique and reframe cultural ideas through his art
  • Mass production
  • Advertisements
    Consumer goods
    Comic strips
  • Acrylic Paints
    Fluorescent and
    Metallic colors
  • Still Life “Vanitas” painting - symbolism relating to “emptiness”
    Airbrushed (commercial photo retouching tool)
  • Avoided creative compositions, flattering lighting, and facial expressions
  • Stereotypical “average” Americans
    Sculptures sometimes mistaken for real people
    Made plaster molds from real people
  • 5.5 meters high
    40 Kilometer long nylon fence
    Money raised by selling their preliminary drawings
  • Manipulated the earth the create an environmental sculpture
    “enduring power of nature”
    Inspired by the location and the molecular structure of salt crystals that coat the rocks
    Spiral Jetty under water
  • Keith Haring friends with Andy Warhol
    East-Village New York style
    Art for “the people”
    THE END.
  • Elvis Presley
    January 8, 1935Tupelo, Mississippi, U.S.
    DiedAugust 16, 1977 (aged 42)Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
    Cause of deathHeart attackResting placeGracelandMemphis, Tennessee35°2′46″N 90°1′23″WOccupationSinger, actorSpouse(s)Priscilla Presley(m. 1967; div. 1973)
    ChildrenLisa Marie PresleyRelativesRiley Keough (granddaughter)Awards Presidential Medal of Freedom (2018)Musical careerGenresRock and roll
    rhythm and blues
    Years active1953–1977LabelsSun
    RCA (Victor)
    Associated actsThe Blue Moon Boys
    The Jordanaires
    The Imperials
    Million Dollar Quartet
    Websiteelvis.comSignature Elvis Aaron Presley[a] (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is often referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or simply "the King".
    Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and relocated to Memphis, Tennessee, with his family when he was 13 years old. His music career began there in 1954, recording at Sun Records with producer Sam Phillips, who wanted to bring the sound of African-American music to a wider audience. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a pioneer of rockabilly, an uptempo, backbeat-driven fusion of country music and rhythm and blues. In 1955, drummer D. J. Fontana joined to complete the lineup of Presley's classic quartet and RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, who would manage him for more than two decades. Presley's first RCA single, "Heartbreak Hotel", was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. With a series of successful network television appearances and chart-topping records, he became the leading figure of the newly popular sound of rock and roll. His energized interpretations of songs and sexually provocative performance style, combined with a singularly potent mix of influences across color lines during a transformative era in race relations, made him enormously popular—and controversial.
    In November 1956, Presley made his film debut in Love Me Tender. Drafted into military service in 1958, Presley relaunched his recording career two years later with some of his most commercially successful work. He held few concerts however, and guided by Parker, proceeded to devote much of the 1960s to making Hollywood films and soundtrack albums, most of them critically derided. In 1968, following a seven-year break from live performances, he returned to the stage in the acclaimed television comeback special Elvis, which led to an extended Las Vegas concert residency and a string of highly profitable tours. In 1973, Presley gave the first concert by a solo artist to be broadcast around the world, Aloha from Hawaii. Years of prescription drug abuse severely compromised his health, and he died suddenly in 1977 at his Graceland estate at the age of 42.
    Presley is the best-selling solo artist in the history of recorded music. He was commercially successful in many genres, including pop, country, blues, and gospel. He won three competitive Grammys[5], received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame.
  • James Brown
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigationJump to searchFor other people named James Brown, see James Brown (disambiguation).
    James Brown
    Brown performing in February 1973
    BornJames Joseph Brown Jr.
    May 3, 1933Barnwell, South Carolina, U.S.
    DiedDecember 25, 2006 (aged 73)Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
    record producer
    Spouse(s)Velma Warren(m. 1953; div. 1969)
    Deidre Jenkins(m. 1970; div. 1981)
    Adrienne Rodriguez(m. 1984; wid. 1996)
    Tomi Rae Hynie(m. 2001)
    Children9 (possibly 13; see below)Musical careerGenresFunk
    rhythm and blues
    Years active1953–1988
    Scotti Bros.
    Associated actsThe Famous Flames
    The J.B.'s
    The Dapps
    Bobby Byrd
    Lyn Collins
    Bobby Bennett
    Bootsy Collins
    Websitejamesbrown.comJames Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006) was an American singer, songwriter, dancer, musician, record producer and bandleader. A progenitor of funk music and a major figure of 20th-century music and dance, he is often referred to as the "Godfather of Soul".[1] In a career that lasted 50 years, he influenced the development of several music genres.[2]
    Brown began his career as a gospel singer in Toccoa, Georgia. He joined an R&B vocal group, the Gospel Starlighters (which later evolved into the Famous Flames) founded by Bobby Byrd, in which he was the lead singer.[3][4] First coming to national public attention in the late 1950s as a member of the singing group The Famous Flames with the hit ballads "Please, Please, Please" and "Try Me", Brown built a reputation as a tireless live performer with the Famous Flames and his backing band, sometimes known as the James Brown Band or the James Brown Orchestra. His success peaked in the 1960s with the live album Live at the Apollo and hit singles such as "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag", "I Got You (I Feel Good)" and "It's a Man's Man's Man's World".
    During the late 1960s, Brown moved from a continuum of blues and gospel-based forms and styles to a profoundly "Africanized" approach to music-making that influenced the development of funk music.[5] By the early 1970s, Brown had fully established the funk sound after the formation of the J.B.s with records such as "Get Up (I Feel Like Being a) Sex Machine" and "The Payback". He also became noted for songs of social commentary, including the 1968 hit "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud". Brown continued to perform and record until his death from pneumonia in 2006. Brown was inducted into 1st class of the National Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame in 2013 as an artist and then in 2017 as a songwriter.
    Brown recorded 17 singles that reached number one on the Billboard R&B charts.[6][7] He also holds the record for the most singles listed on the Billboard Hot 100 chart which did not reach No. 1.[8][9] Brown has received honors from many institutions, including inductions into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Songwriters Hall of Fame.[10] In Joel Whitburn's analysis of the Billboard R&B charts from 1942 to 2010, Brown is ranked No. 1 in The Top 500 Artists.[11] He is ranked No. 7 on Rolling Stone's list of its 100 greatest artists of all time. Rolling Stone has also cited Brown as the most sampled artist of all time
  • ha Franklin
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigationJump to search"Aretha" redirects here. For other uses, see Aretha (disambiguation).
    "Queen of Soul" redirects here. For other uses, see Queen of Soul (disambiguation).
    Aretha Franklin
    Franklin in 1968
    BornAretha Louise Franklin
    March 25, 1942Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
    DiedAugust 16, 2018 (aged 76)Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
    Resting placeWoodlawn CemeteryDetroit, MichiganOccupationSinger
    Years active1956–2018Home townDetroit, MichiganSpouse(s)Ted White(m. 1961; div. 1969)
    Glynn Turman(m. 1978; div. 1984)
    Children4Parent(s)Clarence LaVaughn Franklin
    Barbara Siggers Franklin
    RelativesErma Franklin (sister)
    Carolyn Franklin (sister)
    Cecil Franklin (brother)
    Awardssee, listMusical careerGenresSoul
    WebsiteOfficial website SignatureAretha Louise Franklin (March 25, 1942 – August 16, 2018) was an American singer, songwriter, pianist, and civil rights activist.[2] Franklin began her career as a child singing gospel at New Bethel Baptist Church in Detroit, Michigan, where her father C. L. Franklin was minister. At the age of 18, she embarked on a secular career recording for Columbia Records. However, she achieved only modest success. She found acclaim and commercial success after signing with Atlantic Records in 1966. Hit songs such as "Respect", "Chain of Fools", "Think", "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman", "I Never Loved a Man (The Way I Love You)", and "I Say a Little Prayer", propelled her past her musical peers. By the end of the 1960s, Aretha Franklin had come to be known as "The Queen of Soul".
    She continued to record acclaimed albums such as I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You (1967), Lady Soul (1968), Spirit in the Dark (1970), Young, Gifted and Black (1972), Amazing Grace (1972), and Sparkle (1976) before experiencing problems with her record company. Franklin left Atlantic in 1979 and signed with Arista Records. She appeared in the 1980 film The Blues Brothers before releasing the successful albums Jump to It (1982), Who's Zoomin' Who? (1985), and Aretha (1986) on the Arista label. In 1998, Franklin returned to the top 40 with the Lauryn Hill-produced song "A Rose Is Still a Rose", later issuing the album of the same name, which went gold. That same year, Franklin earned international acclaim for her performance of "Nessun dorma" at the Grammy Awards, filling in at the last minute for Luciano Pavarotti, who had canceled after the show had already begun.[3][4] In a widely noted performance, she paid tribute to 2015 honoree Carole King by singing "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman" at the Kennedy Center Honors.
    Franklin recorded 112 charted singles on Billboard, including 77 Hot 100 entries, 17 top-ten pop singles, 100 R&B entries, and 20 number-one R&B singles, becoming the most charted female artist in history. Franklin's other well-known hits include "Rock Steady", "Call Me", "Ain't No Way", "Don't Play That Song (You Lied)", "Spanish Harlem", "Day Dreaming", "Until You Come Back to Me (That's What I'm Gonna Do)", "Something He Can Feel", "Jump to It", "Freeway of Love", "Who's Zoomin' Who", and "I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)" (a duet with George Michael). She won 18 Grammy Awards[5], including the first eight awards given for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance (1968–1975), and she is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 75 million records worldwide.[6]
    Throughout her career, Franklin received numerous honors. She was awarded the National Medal of Arts, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In 1987, she became the first female performer to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. She also was inducted to the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005 and to the Gospel Music Hall of Fame in 2012.[7] In 2010 Rolling Stone magazine ranked her number one on their list of the "100 Greatest Singers of All Time"[8] and number nine on their list of "100 Greatest Artists of All Time".[9]
    1Early life
    2Music career
    2.1Beginnings (1952–1960)
    2.2Columbia (1961–1966)
    2.3Atlantic (1967–1979)
    2.4Arista (1980–2007)
    2.5Later years (2008–2018)
    3Music style and image
    4Civil rights activism
    5Personal life
    5.2Death and funeral
    6Legacy and honors
    6.1Honorary degrees
    6.3In other media
    9See also
    12External links
    Early life
    Franklin's birthplace, 406 Lucy Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee[10]
    Aretha Louise Franklin was born on March 25, 1942, to Barbara (née Siggers) and Clarence LaVaughn "C. L." Franklin. She was delivered at her family's home located at 406 Lucy Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee. Her father was a Baptist minister and circuit preacher originally from Shelby, Mississippi, while her mother was an accomplished piano player and vocalist.[11] Both Mr. and Mrs. Franklin had children from prior relationships in addition to the four children they had together. When Aretha was two, the family relocated to Buffalo, New York. By the time Aretha turned five, C. L. Franklin had permanently relocated the family to Detroit, where he took over the pastorship of the New Bethel Baptist Church.[12]
    The Franklins had a troubled marriage due to Mr. Franklin's infidelities, and they separated in 1948.[13] At that time, Barbara Franklin returned to Buffalo with Aretha's half brother, Vaughn.[14] After the separation, Aretha recalled seeing her mother in Buffalo during the summer, and Barbara Franklin frequently visited her children in Detroit.[15][14] Aretha's mother died of a heart attack on March 7, 1952, before Aretha's tenth birthday.[16] Several women, including Aretha's grandmother, Rachel, and Mahalia Jackson, took turns helping with the children at the Franklin home.[17] During this time, Aretha learned how to play piano by ear.[18] She also attended public school in Detroit, going through her freshman year at Northern High School, but dropping out during her sophomore year.[19]
    Aretha's father's emotionally driven sermons resulted in his being known as the man with the "million-dollar voice". He earned thousands of dollars for sermons in various churches across the country.[20][21] His celebrity status led to his home being visited by various celebrities. Among the visitors were gospel musicians Clara Ward, James Cleveland, and early Caravans members Albertina Walker and Inez Andrews. Martin Luther King Jr., Jackie Wilson and Sam Cooke all became friends of C. L. Franklin, as well.[22][23] Ward was romantically involved with Aretha's father from around 1949 to Ward's death in 1973, though Aretha "preferred to view them strictly as friends".[24] Ward also served as a role model to the young Aretha.[25][26]
    Music career
    Beginnings (1952–1960)
    Just after her mother's death, Franklin began singing solos at New Bethel, debuting with the hymn "Jesus, Be a Fence Around Me".[17][27] When Franklin was 12, her father began managing her; he would bring her on the road with him during his so-called "gospel caravan" tours for her to perform in various churches.[28] He also helped her sign her first recording deal with J.V.B. Records. Recording equipment was installed inside New Bethel Baptist Church and nine tracks were recorded. Franklin was featured on vocals and piano.[29] In 1956, J.V.B. released Franklin's first single, "Never Grow Old", backed with "You Grow Closer". "Precious Lord (Part One)" backed with "Precious Lord (Part Two)" followed in 1959. These four tracks, with the addition of "There Is a Fountain Filled with Blood", were released on side one of the 1956 album, Spirituals. This was reissued by Battle Records in 1962 under the same title.[30] In 1965, Checker Records released Songs of Faith, featuring the five tracks from the 1956 Spirituals album, with the addition of four previously unreleased recordings.
    During this time, Franklin would occasionally travel with The Soul Stirrers.[31] According to music producer Quincy Jones, while Franklin was still young, Dinah Washington let him know, "Aretha was the 'next one'".[32] In 1958, Franklin and her father traveled to California, where she met singer Sam Cooke.[33] At the age of 16, Franklin went on tour with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and she would ultimately sing at his funeral in 1968.[34]
    As a young gospel singer, Franklin spent summers on the gospel circuit in Chicago and stayed with Mavis Staples' family.[35] After turning 18, Franklin confided to her father that she aspired to follow Sam Cooke in recording pop music, and moved to New York.[23] Serving as her manager, C. L. Franklin agreed to the move and helped to produce a two-song demo that soon was brought to the attention of Columbia Records, who agreed to sign her in 1960. Franklin was signed as a "five-percent artist".[36] During this period, Franklin would be coached by choreographer Cholly Atkins to prepare for her pop performances. Before signing with Columbia, Sam Cooke tried to persuade Franklin's father to sign her with his label, RCA, but his request was denied. Record label owner Berry Gordy was also looking to sign Franklin and her elder sister Erma to his Tamla label. However, C.L. Franklin felt the label was not yet established enough, and he turned Gordy down. Franklin's first Columbia single, "Today I Sing the Blues",[37] was issued in September 1960 and later reached the top 10 of the Hot Rhythm & Blues Sellers chart.[38]
    Columbia (1961–1966)
    In January 1961, Columbia issued Franklin's first secular album, Aretha: With The Ray Bryant Combo. The album featured her first single to chart the Billboard Hot 100, "Won't Be Long", which also peaked at number 7 on the R&B chart.[39] Mostly produced by Clyde Otis, Franklin's Columbia recordings saw her performing in diverse genres such as standards, vocal jazz, blues, doo-wop and rhythm and blues. Before the year was out, Franklin scored her first top 40 single with her rendition of the standard "Rock-a-Bye Your Baby with a Dixie Melody", the b-side of which was the R&B hit "Operation Heartbreak". "Rock-a-Bye" became her first international hit, reaching the top 40 in Australia and Canada.[citation needed] By the end of 1961, Franklin was named as a "new-star female vocalist" in DownBeat magazine.[40] In 1962, Columbia issued two more albums, The Electrifying Aretha Franklin and The Tender, the Moving, the Swinging Aretha Franklin,[41][42] the latter of which reached No. 69 on the Billboard chart.[43]
    In the 1960s, during a performance at the Regal Theater, WVON radio personality Pervis Spann announced that Franklin should be crowned "the Queen of Soul".[44][35]Spann ceremonially placed a crown on her head.[45] By 1964, Franklin began recording more pop music, reaching the top 10 on the R&B chart with the ballad "Runnin' Out of Fools" in early 1965. She had two R&B charted singles in 1965 and 1966 with the songs "One Step Ahead" and "Cry Like a Baby", while also reaching the Easy Listening charts with the ballads "You Made Me Love You" and "(No, No) I'm Losing You". By the mid-1960s, Franklin was netting $100,000 from countless performances in nightclubs and theaters.[46] Also during that period, she appeared on rock-and-roll shows such as Hollywood A Go-Go and Shindig!. However, she struggled with commercial success while at Columbia. Label executive John H. Hammond later said he felt Columbia did not understand Franklin's early gospel background and failed to bring that aspect out further during her period there.[37]
    Atlantic (1967–1979)
    In November 1966, Franklin's Columbia recording contract expired and she chose to move to Atlantic Records.[47][48] In January 1967, she traveled to Muscle Shoals, Alabama, to record at FAME Studios and recorded the song "I Never Loved a Man (The Way I Love You)", backed by the Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section. Franklin only spent one day recording at FAME, as an altercation broke out between her manager and husband Ted White, studio owner Rick Hall, and a horn player, and sessions were abandoned.[37][49] The song was released the following month and reached number one on the R&B chart, while also peaking at number nine on the Billboard Hot 100, giving Franklin her first top-ten pop single. The song's b-side, "Do Right Woman, Do Right Man", reached the R&B top 40, peaking at number 37. In April, Atlantic issued her frenetic version of Otis Redding's "Respect", which reached number one on both the R&B and pop charts. "Respect" became her signature song and was later hailed as a civil rights and feminist anthem.[37][50]
    Franklin in 1967
    Franklin's debut Atlantic album, I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You, also became commercially successful, later going gold. Franklin scored two more top-ten singles in 1967, including "Baby I Love You" and "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman". Her rapport with producer Jerry Wexler helped in the creation of the majority of Franklin's peak recordings with Atlantic. In 1968, she issued the top-selling albums Lady Soul and Aretha Now, which included some of her most popular hit singles, including "Chain of Fools", "Ain't No Way", "Think" and "I Say a Little Prayer". That February, Franklin earned the first two of her Grammys, including the debut category for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance.[51] On February 16, Franklin was honored with a day named for her and was greeted by longtime friend Martin Luther King Jr., who gave her the SCLC Drum Beat Award for Musicians two months before his death.[52][53][54] Franklin toured outside the US for the first time in May, including an appearance at the Concertgebouw, Amsterdam, where she played to a near hysterical audience who covered the stage with flower petals.[55] She appeared on the cover of Timemagazine in June.[56]
    "Respect" was a huge hit for Franklin, and became a signature song for her.
    Problems playing this file? See media help.Franklin's success expanded during the early 1970s, during which she recorded the multi-week R&B number one "Don't Play That Song (You Lied)", as well as the top-ten singles "Spanish Harlem", "Rock Steady" and "Day Dreaming". Some of these releases were from the acclaimed albums Spirit in the Dark and Young, Gifted and Black. In 1971, Franklin became the first R&B performer to headline Fillmore West, later that year releasing the live album Aretha Live at Fillmore West.[57] She returned to Gospel music in a two-night, live-church recording, with the album, Amazing Grace, in which she reinterpreted standards such as Mahalia Jackson's "How I Got Over".[58] Amazing Grace sold more than two million copies.[59] The live performances were filmed for the purpose of a concert film directed by Sydney Pollack, but due to synching problems and Franklin's own attempts to prevent the film's distribution, its release was only realized by producer Alan Elliott in November 2018.[60] Franklin's career began to experience problems while recording the album, Hey Now Hey, which featured production from Quincy Jones. Despite the success of the single "Angel", the album bombed[citation needed] upon its release in 1973. Franklin continued having R&B success with songs such as "Until You Come Back to Me" and "I'm in Love", but by 1975 her albums and songs were no longer top sellers.[citation needed] After Jerry Wexler left Atlantic for Warner Bros. Records in 1976, Franklin worked on the soundtrack to the film Sparkle with Curtis Mayfield. The album yielded Franklin's final top 40 hit of the decade, "Something He Can Feel", which also peaked at number one on the R&B chart. Franklin's follow-up albums for Atlantic, including Sweet Passion (1977), Almighty Fire (1978) and La Diva (1979), bombed on the charts,[citation needed] and in 1979 Franklin left the company.[61]
    Arista (1980–2007)
    Franklin in 1998
    In 1980, after leaving Atlantic Records,[62] Franklin signed with Clive Davis's Arista Records and that same year gave a command performance at London's Royal Albert Hall in front of Queen Elizabeth. Franklin also had an acclaimed guest role as a soul foodrestaurant proprietor and wife of Matt "Guitar" Murphy in the 1980 comedy musical The Blues Brothers.[63][64] Franklin's first Arista album, Aretha (1980), featured the No. 3 R&B hit "United Together" and her Grammy-nominated cover of Redding's "I Can't Turn You Loose". The follow-up, 1981's Love All the Hurt Away, included her famed duet of the title track with George Benson, while the album also included her Grammy-winning cover of Sam & Dave's "Hold On, I'm Comin'". Franklin achieved a gold record—for the first time in seven years—with the 1982 album Jump to It. The album's title track was her first top-40 single on the pop charts in six years.[65] The following year, she released "Get It Right", produced by Luther Vandross.[66] In 1985, inspired by a desire to have a "younger sound" in her music, Who's Zoomin' Who? became her first Arista album to be certified platinum. The album sold well over a million copies thanks to the hits "Freeway of Love", the title track, and "Another Night".[67] The next year's Aretha album nearly matched this success with the hit singles "Jumpin' Jack Flash", "Jimmy Lee" and "I Knew You Were Waiting for Me", her international number-one duet with George Michael. During that period, Franklin provided vocals to the theme songs of the TV shows A Different World and Together.[68] In 1987, she issued her third gospel album, One Lord, One Faith, One Baptism, which was recorded at her late father's New Bethel church, followed by Through the Storm in 1989. The same year, Franklin performed "America the Beautiful" at WWE's Wrestlemania III, the company's third annual "entertainment spectacular", in her home state of Michigan.[citation needed] Franklin's 1991 album, What You See is What You Sweat, flopped on the charts. She returned to the charts in 1993 with the dance song "A Deeper Love" and returned to the top 40 with the song "Willing to Forgive" in 1994.[69]
    Franklin's final top 40 single was 1998's "A Rose Is Still a Rose". The album of the same name was released after the single. It sold in excess of 500,000 copies; earning a gold album.[70]
    Franklin performing in April 2007 at the Nokia Theater in Dallas, Texas
    That same year, Franklin received global praise after her 1998 Grammy Awards performance. She had initially been asked to come and perform in honor of the 1980 The Blues Brothers film in which she appeared with Dan Aykroyd and John Belushi. That evening after the show had already begun, Luciano Pavarotti himself contacted show producers and said he was too ill to perform the opera aria "Nessun dorma" as planned. The show's producers were desperate to fill the time slot, and approached Franklin with their dilemma. She was a friend of Pavarotti, and had sung the selection two nights prior at the annual MusiCares event. She asked to hear Pavarotti's rehearsal recording, and after listening, agreed that she could sing it in the tenor range that the orchestra was prepared to play in. Over one billion people worldwide saw the performance, and she received an immediate standing ovation. She would go on to record the selection, and perform it live several more times in the years to come; the last time being in Philadelphia for Pope Francis at the World Meeting of Families in September 2015. A small boy was so touched by her performance that he came onto the stage and embraced her while Franklin was still singing.[3][4]
    Her final Arista album, So Damn Happy, was released in 2003 and featured the Grammy-winning song "Wonderful". In 2004, Franklin announced that she was leaving Arista after more than 20 years with the label.[71] To complete her Arista obligations, Franklin issued the duets compilation album Jewels in the Crown: All-Star Duets with the Queen in 2007.[72] The following year, she issued the holiday album This Christmas, Aretha, on DMI Records.[73] In February 2006 she performed "The Star-Spangled Banner" with Aaron Neville and Dr. John for Super Bowl XL, held in her hometown of Detroit.[74]
    Later years (2008–2018)
    On January 20, 2009, Franklin made international headlines for performing "My Country, 'Tis of Thee" at President Barack Obama's inaugural ceremony with her church hat becoming a popular topic online. In 2010, Franklin accepted an honorary degree from Yale University.[74] In 2011, under her own label, Aretha's Records, she issued the album Aretha: A Woman Falling Out of Love.
    Franklin singing at the 2009 inauguration of President Obama
    In 2014, Franklin was signed under RCA Records, controller of the Arista catalog and a sister label to Columbia via Sony Music Entertainment, and worked with Clive Davis. An album was planned with producers Babyface and Danger Mouse.[75] On September 29, 2014, Franklin performed to a standing ovation, with Cissy Houston as backup, a compilation of Adele's "Rolling in the Deep" and "Ain't No Mountain High Enough" on the Late Show with David Letterman.[76] Franklin's cover of "Rolling in the Deep" was featured among nine other songs in her first RCA release, Aretha Franklin Sings the Great Diva Classics, released in October 2014.[77] In doing so, she became the first woman to have 100 songs on Billboard's Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart with the success of her cover of Adele's "Rolling in the Deep", which debuted at number 47 on the chart.[78]
    In December 2015, Franklin gave an acclaimed performance of "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman" at the 2015 Kennedy Center Honors during the section for honoree Carole King, who co-wrote the song.[79][80][81][82] During the bridge of the song, Franklin dropped her fur coat to the stage, for which the audience rewarded her with a mid-performance standing ovation.[83][84] She returned to Detroit's Ford Field on Thanksgiving Day 2016 to once again perform the national anthem before the game between the Minnesota Vikings and Detroit Lions. Seated behind the piano, wearing a black fur coat and Lions stocking cap, Franklin gave a rendition of "The Star-Spangled Banner" that lasted more than four minutes and featured a host of improvizations.[85] Franklin released the album A Brand New Me in November 2017 with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, which uses archived recordings from Franklin.[86] It peaked at number 5 on the Billboard Top Classical Albums chart before her death and rose to number 2 after her death.[citation needed]
    While Franklin canceled some concerts in 2017 due to health reasons, and during an outdoor Detroit show, she asked the audience to "keep me in your prayers", she was still garnering highly favorable reviews for her skill and showmanship.[87][88][89] At the Ravinia Festival on September 3, 2017, she gave her last full concert.[90][91]Franklin's final performance was at the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in New York City during Elton John's 25th anniversary gala for the Elton John AIDS Foundation on November 7, 2017.[92]
    Music style and image
    Franklin waiting to perform at the White House, in 2015
    According to Richie Unterberger, Franklin was "one of the giants of soul music, and indeed of American pop as a whole. More than any other performer, she epitomized soul at its most gospel-charged".[1] She had often been described as a great singer and musician due to "vocal flexibility, interpretive intelligence, skillful piano-playing, her ear, her experience".[93] Franklin's voice was described as being a "powerful mezzo-soprano voice". She was praised for her arrangements and interpretations of other artists' hit songs.[94] According to David Remnick, what "distinguishes her is not merely the breadth of her catalogue or the cataract force of her vocal instrument; it's her musical intelligence, her way of singing behind the beat, of spraying a wash of notes over a single word or syllable, of constructing, moment by moment, the emotional power of a three-minute song. 'Respect' is as precise an artifact as a Ming vase".[84] Describing Franklin's voice as a youngster on her first album, Songs of Faith, released in 1956 when she was just 14, Jerry Wexler explained that it "was not that of a child but rather of an ecstatic hierophant".[95] Critic Randy Lewis assessed her skills as a pianist as "magic" and "inspirational". Musicians and professionals alike such as Elton John, Keith Richards, Carole King, and Clive Davis were fans of her piano performances.[96]
    Civil rights activism
    From her time growing up in the home of a prominent African-American preacher to the end of her life, Franklin was immersed and involved in the struggle for civil rights and women's rights. She provided money for civil rights groups, at times covering payroll, and performed at benefits and protests.[97] When Angela Davis was jailed in 1970, Franklin told Jet: "Angela Davis must go free ... Black people will be free. I've been locked up (for disturbing the peace in Detroit) and I know you got to disturb the peace when you can't get no peace. Jail is hell to be in. I'm going to see her free if there is any justice in our courts, not because I believe in communism, but because she's a Black woman and she wants freedom for Black people".[97] Her songs "Respect" and "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman" became anthems of these movements for social change.[98][99] Franklin and several other American icons declined to take part in performing at President Donald Trump's 2017 inauguration as a large-scale act of musical protest.[100]
    Franklin was also a strong supporter for Native American rights.[101] She quietly and without fanfare supported Indigenous Peoples' struggles worldwide, and numerous movements that supported Native American and First Nation cultural rights.[101]
    Personal life
    After being raised in Detroit, Franklin relocated in the 1960s to New York City, where she lived until moving to Los Angeles in the mid-1970s. She eventually settled in Encino, Los Angeles, where she lived until 1982. She then returned to the Detroit suburb of Bloomfield Hills, Michigan to be close to her ailing father and siblings. Franklin maintained a residence there until her death. Following an incident in 1984, she cited a fear of flying that prevented her from traveling overseas; she performed only in North America afterwards.[44]
    Franklin and William Wilkerson at the 2011 US Open
    Franklin was the mother of four sons. She first became pregnant at the age of 12 and gave birth to her first child, named Clarence after her father,[102] on January 28, 1955. According to the news site Inquisitr, "The father of the child was Donald Burk, a boy she knew from school".[103] On January 22, 1957 Franklin had a second child, named Edward after his father Edward Jordan.[104] Franklin did not like to discuss her early pregnancies with interviewers.[105] Both children took her family name. While Franklin was pursuing her career and "hanging out with [friends]", Franklin's grandmother Rachel and sister Erma took turns raising the children.[106] Franklin would visit them often.[107] Franklin's third child, Ted White Jr., was born in February 1964[108] and is known professionally as Teddy Richards. He provided guitar backing for his mother's band during live concerts.[109] Her youngest son, Kecalf Cunningham, was born in 1970 and is the child of her road manager Ken Cunningham.[110]
    Franklin was married twice. Her first husband was Theodore "Ted" White, whom she married in 1961 at age 19.[111][112]Franklin had actually seen White the first time at a party held at her house in 1954.[113] After a contentious marriage that involved domestic violence, Franklin separated from White in 1968, divorcing him in 1969.[114] Franklin then married her second husband, actor Glynn Turman, on April 11, 1978 at her father's church. By marrying Turman, Franklin became stepmother of Turman's three children from a previous marriage. Franklin and Turman separated in 1982 after Franklin returned to Michigan from California, and they divorced in 1984. At one point, Franklin had plans to marry her longtime companion Willie Wilkerson.[115] Franklin and Wilkerson had had two previous engagements stretching back to 1988. Franklin eventually called off the 2012 engagement.[116]
    Franklin's sisters, Erma and Carolyn, were professional musicians as well and spent years performing background vocals on Franklin's recordings. Following Franklin's divorce from Ted White, her brother Cecil became her manager, and maintained that position until his death from lung cancer on December 26, 1989. Sister Carolyn died the previous year in April 1988 from breast cancer, while eldest sister Erma died from throat cancer in September 2002. Franklin's half-brother Vaughn died two months after Erma in late 2002.[117] Her half-sister, Carol Kelley (née Jennings; born 1940) is C. L. Franklin's daughter by Mildred Jennings, a then 12-year-old congregant of New Salem Baptist Church in Memphis, where C. L. was pastor.[117]
    Franklin was performing at the Aladdin Hotel in Las Vegas, on June 10, 1979, when her father, C. L., was shot twice at point-blank range in his Detroit home.[118] After six months at Henry Ford Hospital while still in a coma, C.L. was moved back to his home with 24-hour nursing care. Aretha moved back to Detroit in late 1982 to assist with the care of her father, who died at Detroit's New Light Nursing Home on July 27, 1984.[119]
    Her music business friends included Dionne Warwick, Mavis Staples, and Cissy Houston, who began singing with Franklin as members of the Sweet Inspirations. Cissy sang background on Franklin's hit "Ain't No Way".[120] Franklin first met Cissy's daughter, Whitney, in the early 1970s. She was made Whitney's honorary aunt, not a godmother as has been occasionally misreported, and Whitney often referred to her as "Auntie Ree".[121] She had to cancel plans to perform at Houston's memorial service on February 18, 2012, when a leg spasm prevented her from attending.[122]
    Franklin was a Christian,[123][124] and was a registered Democrat.[125]
    Franklin had weight issues for many years. In 1974, she lost 40 pounds (18 kg) on a crash diet[126] and maintained her new weight until the end of the decade.[127] She again lost weight in the early 1990s, before gaining some back.[128] A former chain smoker who struggled with alcoholism, she quit smoking in 1992.[129] She admitted in 1994 that her smoking was "messing with my voice",[130] but after quitting smoking she said later, in 2003, that her weight "ballooned".[131]
    In 2010, Franklin canceled a number of concerts to have surgery for an undisclosed tumor.[128] Discussing the surgery in 2011, she quoted her doctor as saying that it would "add 15 to 20 years" to her life. She denied that the ailment had anything to do with pancreatic cancer, as had been reported.[132] On May 19, 2011, Franklin had her comeback show at the Chicago Theatre.[133] In May 2013, she canceled two performances because of an undisclosed medical treatment.[134] Later the same month, she canceled two June concerts and planned to "resume her touring schedule in July".[135] A show scheduled for July 27 in Clarkston, Michigan, was canceled due to continued medical treatment.[136] She canceled an appearance at a Major League Baseball luncheon in Chicago honoring her commitment to civil rights on August 24[137] and also a performance on September 21 in Atlanta.[138] During a phone interview with the Associated Press in late August 2013, Franklin stated that she had a "miraculous" recovery from her undisclosed illness but had to cancel shows and appearances until her health was at 100%, estimating she was about "85% healed".[139] Franklin later returned to live performing, including a 2013 Christmas concert at Detroit's MotorCity Casino Hotel. She launched a multi-city tour in mid-2014, starting with a performance on June 14 in New York at Radio City Music Hall.[140]
    Death and funeral
    On August 13, 2018, Franklin was reported to be gravely ill at her home in Riverfront Towers, Detroit.[141][142] She was under hospice care and surrounded by friends and family. Stevie Wonder, Jesse Jackson and ex-husband Glynn Turman visited her on her deathbed.[143] Franklin died at her home on August 16, 2018, aged 76,[144]without a will.[145] The cause of death was pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET),[146][147] though widely mis-reported as pancreatic cancer, a different disease.[148][149] Numerous celebrities in the entertainment industry and politicians paid tribute to Franklin, including former U.S. president Barack Obama who said she "helped define the American experience".[150] Civil rights activist and minister Al Sharpton call
  • The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history.[1] With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, and to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s.[2] They often incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, and unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, and in later years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, and they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements.
  • Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman on May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, and visual artist who has been a major figure in popular culture for six decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s, when songs such as "Blowin' in the Wind" (1963) and "The Times They Are a-Changin'" (1964) became anthems for the Civil Rights Movement and anti-war movement. His lyrics during this period incorporated a wide range of political, social, philosophical, and literary influences, defied pop-music conventions and appealed to the burgeoning counterculture.