3. The word crime is derived from the Latin root
cernō, meaning "I decide, I give judgment".
In 13th century English crime meant "sinfulness".
Crime or offence (or criminal offence) is an act
harmful not only to some individual or individuals
but also to a Community, society or the state ("a
public wrong"). Such acts are forbidden and
punishable by law.
Crimes are are usually analyzed by division into the
following categories by The Australian Institute of
o Drugs and alcohol, Economic crime, Violence,
Environmental crime, Property Crime, Organised
and transnational crime, Cyber crime.
4. Factors which influence’s crime –
1.Ecological Factor ,2.Sociological Factors
,3.Physiological/ Physical Factors , 4.The
parenting factors ,5.Disorganized living under
congested conditions,6.The Movies,7.Inequality,
Poverty and Unemployment ,8.Age and Gender
,9.Alcohol consumption ,10.Illegal drug
The Impact of Crime on Victims -
8. Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce and
deter crime and criminals. It is applied specifically to efforts made
by governments to reduce crime, enforce the law, and maintain
It is proved that crime prevention methods are really works and
they help in reducing crime (by Economic and Social Council
Resolution 2002/13, annex).
Situational Crime Prevention
• Situational crime prevention (SCP) is a relatively new concept that
employs a preventative approach by focusing on methods to reduce
the opportunities for crime.
• Another aspect of SCP that is more applicable to the cyber
environment is the principle of safeguarding. The introduction of
these safeguards is designed to influence the potential offender's
view of the risks and benefits of committing the crime.
• Situational Crime Prevention and Fraud, Urban design and planning,
Crime prevention - Social Developmental crime prevention, Community
9. The World Health Organization Guide (2004) complements the World
Report on Violence and Health (2002) and the 2003 World Health
Assembly Resolution 56-24 for governments to implement nine
recommendations, which were:
o Create, implement and monitor a national action plan for violence
o Enhance capacity for collecting data on violence.
o Define priorities for, and support research on, the causes,
consequences, costs and prevention of violence.
o Promote primary prevention responses.
o Strengthen responses for victims of violence.
o Integrate violence prevention into social and educational policies, and
thereby promote gender and social equality.
o Increase collaboration and exchange of information on violence
o Promote and monitor adherence to international treaties, laws and other
mechanisms to protect human rights.
o Seek practical, internationally agreed responses to the global drugs and
global arms trade.
10. • Some strategies and action plans are underpinned
by the basic principles for the prevention of
crime of United States of America (Guidelines for
the Prevention of Crime, ECOSOC Resolution
2002/13, Annex) those are –
• Government leadership.
• Socio-economic development and inclusion .
• Cooperation and partnerships.
• Sustainability and accountability .
• Human rights/rule of law/culture of lawfulness .
• Technical Assistance.
16. • Law against Women Crimes
o A body of rules and statutes that defines conduct prohibited by the gove
rnment. It created new punishments for certain crimes and started
programs to prevent violence and help victims.
• Law against Women Crimes under the Indian Panel Code (IPC)
o Section – 376 IPC for Rape.
o Section – 363-373 IPC for Kidnapping.
o Section – 302/304-B IPC for Dowry, Dowry death and attempts.
o Section – 498-A IPC for mentally and physically Torture.
o Section – 354 IPC for Molestation.
o Section 509 IPC for Sexual Harassment.
• Law against Women Crimes under Special Laws (SLL)
o Prevention Act, 1956 against Immoral Trafficking.
o Prohibition Act, 1961 against Dowry.
o Prohibition Act, 1986 against Indecent Representation of Women.
o Prevention Act, 1987 against Commission of Sati.
o National Commission for Women Act, 1990.
o Domestic Violence Act, 2005 for Protection of Women.
o (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 against Sexual.
Harassment of Women at Workplace.
17. Section Offence Punishment
326A Acid attack
Imprisonment not less than ten years but which may extend to
imprisonment for life and with fine which shall be just and
reasonable to meet the medical expenses and it shall be paid to
Attempt to Acid
Imprisonment not less than five years but which may extend to
seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.
354A Sexual harassment
Rigorous imprisonment up to three years, or with fine, or with
both in case of offence described in clauses (i), (ii) or
(iii)Imprisonment up to one year, or with fine, or with both in
Act with intent to
disrobe a woman
Imprisonment not less than three years but which may extend
to seven years and with fine.
In case of first conviction, imprisonment not less than one
year, but which may extend to three years, and shall also be
liable to fine, and be punished on a second or subsequent
conviction, with imprisonment of either description for a term
which shall not be less than three years, but which may extend
to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.
Imprisonment not less than one year but which may extend to
three years, and shall also be liable to fine.
19. Goa Children's Act, 2003, was the only specific
piece of child abuse legislation before the 2012 Act.
Child sexual abuse was prosecuted under the
following sections of Indian Penal Code:
o I.P.C. (1860) 375- Rape
o I.P.C. (1860) 354- Outraging the modesty of
o I.P.C. (1860) 377- Unnatural offences
o I.P.C. (1860) 511- Attempt
However, the IPC could not effectively protect the
child due to various loopholes like:
o IPC 375 doesn't protect male victims or
anyone from sexual acts of penetration other
than "traditional" peno-vaginal intercourse.
o IPC 354 lacks a statutory definition of
"modesty". It carries a weak penalty and is a
compoundable offence. Further, it does not
protect the "modesty" of a male child.
o In IPC 377, the term "unnatural offences" is
not defined. It only applies to victims
penetrated by their attacker's sex act, and is
not designed to criminalize sexual abuse of
20. Computer crime, or cybercrime, is crime that involves a computer and a
network.The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be
the target.Dr. Debarati Halder and Dr. K. Jaishankar (2011) define Cybercrimes as:
"Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a
criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or
mental harm, or loss, to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern
telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and
groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS)“.
21. Cyber laws
• Information Technology (Amendment) Act 2008 has been
notified and enforced on 27th Oct, 2009.This Act
punishes various cyber crimes including Cyber
24. “Indian tiger is Tibet’s second skin’’ by London-
based Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) and Tehelka
ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME IN
25. Environmental laws of India
• National Forest Policy, 1988.
•Policy statement for Abatement of Pollution, 1992.
•National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment
and Development, 1992.
27. • Failure enforcement of law
• Most of the police man and government officers
• Laws are not maintained in the jails.
• Lawyers find new ways to cheat the INDIAN
• VERY LENTHY judgment period (some of the cases
may going on for 30 years but the court cannot give
• Holmes are not safe, those are most crime effect
area ( child labour, human trafficking , sexual
harassments ,rape etc.)
• INDIAN SOCIETY doesn't accept girl victims .
• People are not very aware about our constitution .
• CORRUPTED POLITICIANS are the major reason
behind many criminal cases in India .
• by KAKALI ROY.
30. The Constitution of India
lays down the framework
of the legal system of
1.Bribe Giving is Not an Offence
• The common idea is that only the bribe-
taker can be can be condemned, and not
the bribe giver. However, according to the
Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988, the act
of giving bribe is as grave an offence as
taking it, and the giver is punishable with
the same penalty as the receiver.
2. Section 233 IPC Allows Free Murder of
Assaulter by Woman
• 97 IPC allows a person associated with the
assaulted woman to attack the assaulter
to defend her, but, the rules or providing
substantial evidence still holds.
3. As per Section 377 IPC, Homosexuals
are Criminals. Dowry and Inheritance.
4. Dowry and Inheritance, 498A IPC but,
the practice is still in vogue.Dowry and
inheritance are not the same thing.
Sec. 498A does not is entitle a girl from
her right or share in the Will, nor does
• 5. Marital Rape and Section 376 IPC.
Homosexuality is a
32. • CRIME PREVENTION COUNCIL OF INDIA- The Crime Prevention
Council of India was set up in the same like organisation was set up in
1938 by Late Gopinath Srivastava under the name and title Apradh
Nirodhak Samitee for rehabilitation of disposed prisoner from Jail.
o The main objective of the district crime prevention council is to profess against
crimes and to create such an atmosphere in society so that there is a
change in a criminal tendency of individuals to such an extent that the
crime is hated by them.
• Empower and encourage women.
• Education in the different schools and colleges of the district, with
joint efforts of teachers, guardians and students.
• India: The Panchayat Policing System in Mumbai was developed to
provide better policing access to the inhabitants of slums, where lack of
confidence in the police was a major factor affecting willingness to report
crimes. Residents of slums had much poorer security and safety protection and
higher risks of victimization than those in planned and established
neighborhoods. Local women residents have been trained to work in the police
stations in the slum areas. They interact with the public and help to increase the
confidence of the slum population in the police and willingness to report
34. Crime prevention as a permanent
feature of government
The Guidelines emphasize the need for Governments to ensure a permanent
place for crime prevention in their structures and programmes.
A permanent central authority
In Germany, the Crime Prevention Council of Lower Saxony was set up in
1995 by a resolution of the state government to reduce crime in the state and
improve feelings of security among citizens. It now includes 250 member
organizations (government departments, authorities, associations) and 200
municipal crime prevention bodies and associations. Canada, Chile, Sweden,
Australia, Mexico, Nigeria also have a permanent central authority.
A crime prevention plan with clear priorities and targets
Japan adopted its five-year Action Plan to Create a Crime-Resistant Society in
2003. The plan included 5 major objectives with 148 related targeted actions to
Morocco has adopted a four-year Security Action Plan 2008-2012, which
includes national and local initiatives.
In the United Kingdom, Scotland has a 10-year Strategic Violence Reduction
Plan launched by the Scottish Violence Reduction Unit in December 2007.
35. Multisector coordination and partnerships-
• Hungary adopted its 2003 National Strategy for the Social
Prevention of Crime and appointed a National Crime Prevention
Board to implement the strategy( Crime Prevention Unit of the
Ministry of Justice).
• Targets were youth delinquency, urban crime, domestic violence,
victimization and recidivism.
• The Board includes representatives from key departments such as
health, housing and education, the police, corrections, local
governments, academic institutions, churches and non-
Public safety programme in Brazil -
• Brazil launched its new public safety programme, the National
Programme for Public Security with Citizenship (PRONASCI), in
• It is based in the Ministry of Justice, and involves 94 tructural
actions and local programmes.
• The overall goals of the programme are to directly benefit some 3.5
million public safety professionals, young people and their families,
and to reduce the homicide rate from 29 per 100,000 to 12 per
100,000 over the next four years.
36. Public education and work with the media
• There are some major reasons why Governments must engage with the public
and the media on crime prevention issues and their strategy.
• Public policy can be driven by public anxiety and demands for tougher action,
in the absence of a clear understanding of the alternatives.
• In almost all countries the media tend to focus on the most violent offences
and events, and are a powerful influence shaping public attitudes towards
• It is evident, nevertheless, that when people are given more balanced
information, they are willing to support crime prevention.
Training and capacity-building for government and other bodies
• Governments should support the development of crime prevention skills by:
• (a) Providing professional development for senior officials in relevant agencies;
• (b) Encouraging universities, colleges and other relevant educational agencies to offer
basic and advanced courses, including in collaboration with practitioners;
• (c) Working with the educational and professional sectors to develop certification and
• (d) Promoting the capacity of communities to develop and respond to their needs.
• The Government of Australia has worked closely with the Australian Institute
of Criminology, a specialized government-funded research institute, in
developing its crime prevention programmes and monitoring and evaluating
37. • European exchange and learning programme promoting
sustainable urban development (URBACT), and the Safer Cities
Programme of the United Nations Human settlements
Programme (UN-Habitat) have considerable experience in
facilitating such exchanges.
• The Safer Cities Programme of UN-Habitat was established in 1998, at
the request of African mayors.
• International workshops on crime prevention, held during the United
Nations Congresses on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, in Vienna in
2000, in Bangkok in 2005 and in Salvador in Brazil in 2010 have provided
opportunities to exchange experience across regions on specific policies
• Geographical information systems ( GIS )-
• Geographical information systems (GIS) are another tool that has come to
be widely used to support policing and crime prevention. These are
computer-based systems for combining police crime data with spatial
• A well known example was the introduction of the GIS system
COMPSTAT in New York City in the 1990s, together with a daily
analysis of crime events and rapid police responses to prevent future
• The city of Diadema, Sao Paulo, Brazil, introduced a GIS system in
2000, as part of its policy on public safety and the prevention of crime.
38. • Planning interventions
• Those planning interventions should promote a process that
• (a) A systematic analysis of crime problems, their causes,
risk factors and consequences, in particular at the local
• (b) A plan that draws on the most appropriate approach
• interventions to the specific local problem and context;
• (c) An implementation plan to deliver appropriate
interventions that are efficient, effective and sustainable;
• (d) Mobilizing entities that are able to tackle causes;
• (e) Monitoring and evaluation.
39. • Education of crime prevention
• Many international and regional organizations are members
of the United Nations crime prevention and criminal justice
programme network, including:
• International Centre for the Prevention of Crime (ICPC), based in
• Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, in Saudi Arabia.
• Latin American Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment
of Offenders, based in Costa Rica, and the Institute’s office in Brazil.
• European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated
with the United Nations, based in Finland.
• United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute,
based in Italy.
• Korean Institute of Criminology.
• African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of
Offenders, based in Uganda.
• Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the
Treatment of Offenders, in Japan.