DIFFERENT TYPES OF FABRIC PRINTS
5.Heat Transfer Printing:
11.Flexo textile printing
Textile printing is the process of applying colour to fabric in definite patterns or designs.
In properly printed fabrics the colour is bonded with the fibre, so as to resist washing
and friction. Textile printing is related to dyeing but in dyeing properly the whole fabric is
uniformly covered with one colour, whereas in printing one or more colours are applied
to it in certain parts only, and in sharply defined patterns. In printing, wooden blocks,
stencils, engraved plates, rollers, or silkscreens can be used to place colours on the
fabric. Colorants used in printing contain dyes thickened to prevent the colour from
spreading by capillary attraction beyond the limits of thepattern or design.
In the process of printing color designs are developed on fabrics by printing with
dyes and pigments in pa ste form with specially designed machines.
Printing is used to apply colour only on localized areas.
Printed fabrics, usually have clear-cut edges in the printed portions on the face of the
fabric. Printing allows flexibility in creating great designs, and enables the creation of
relatively inexpensive, patterned fabric. Woodblock printing is a technique for printing
text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and probably originating in
China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper. As a method of
printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before 220.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used
widelythroughout East Asia and probably originating in China in antiquity as a method of
printing on textiles and later paper. As a method of printing on doth, the earliestsurviving
examples from China date to before 220.Textile printing was known in Europe, via the
Islamic world, from about the 12thcentury, and widely used. However, the European
dyes tended to liquify, whichrestricted the use of printed patterns. Fairly large and
ambitious designs were printedfor decorative purposes such as wall hangings and
lectern-cloths, where this wasless of a problem as they did not need washing. When
paper became common, thetechnology was rapidly used on that for woodcut prints.
Superior cloth was alsoimported from Islamic countries, but this was much more
expensive.The Incas of Peru, Chile and the Aztecs of Mexico also practiced textile
printingprevious to the Spanish Invasion in 1519; but owing to the lack of records before
thatdate, it is impossible to say whether they discovered the art for themselves, or,
insome way, learned its principles from the Asiatics.During the latter half of the 17th
century the French brought directly by sea, fromtheir colonies on the east coast of India,
samples of Indian blue and white resistprints, and along with them, particulars of the
processes by which they had beenproduced, which produced washable fabrics.As early
as the 1630s, the East India Company was bringing in printed and plaincotton for the
English market. By the 1660s British printers and dyers were making
their own printed cotton to sell at home, printing single colors on plain backgrounds:
less colourful than the imported prints, but more to the taste of the British. Designs
were also sent to India for their craftspeople to copy for export back to England.
There were many dyehouses in England in the latter half of the 17h
century, Lancaster being one area and on the River Lea near London another. Plain
cloth was put through a prolonged bleaching process which prepared the material to
receive and hold applied color; this process vastly improved the color durability of
English calicoes and required a great deal of water from nearby rivers.
One dyehouse was started by John Meakins, a London Quaker who lived
in Cripplegate. When he died, he passed his dyehouse to his son-in-law Benjamin
DIFFERENT TYPES OF FABRIC PRINTS
THERE are five main Types of printing a fabric, these being the block, roller,
screen,heat transfer and ink-jet methods.The heat transfer method differs
from the others in that it involves the transfer of color from the design
printed on paper through the vapour phase into the fibres of the fabric. With
the other methods the dye or pigment is applied to the fabric surface
through a print paste medium. The ink jet printing process howeveris a
comparatively recent innovation and is referred to as a 'non-impact'
method, because the print paste is fired on to the textile from a jet which is
not actually in contact with the fabric.
The blocks are usually made of wood and the designis hand carved, so
that it stands out inrelief against the background surface.The print paste is
applied to the design surface on the block and the block then pressed
against the fabric. The process is repeated with different designs and
colours until the pattern is complete.
Block printing is a slow laboriousproceess and is not suitable for high volume
commercial useit is a method still practised in the orintal countrieswhere
markets exist for the typesof printed fabric produced.
Roller printing has traditionally been preferred for long production
runs because of the very high speeds possible. It is also a
versatile technique since up to a dozen different colours can be
printed simultaneously. The basic roller printing equipment,
shown in consists of a number of copper faced rollers in which
the design is etched. There is a separate printing roller for each
colour being printed. Each of the rollers rotates over the
fabric under pressure against an iron pressure roller. A blanket
and backing cloth rotate overthe pressure roller under the fabric
and provide a flexible support for the fabric being printed.
This type of printing has increased enormously in its use in recent years because of its
versatility and the development of rotary screen printing machines which are capable of
very high rates of production. An additional significant advantage is that heavy depths of
shade can be produced by screen printing, a feature which has always been a limitation
of roller printing because of the restriction to the amount of print paste which can be
held in the shallow depth of the engraving on the print roller. Worldwide, some 61% of
all printed textile fabric is produced by the rotary screen method and 23% by flat screen
printing. There are two basic types of screen printing process, the flat screen and the
rotary screen methods.
SCREEN PRINTING Heat Transfer Printing
Heat Transfer Printing:
Transfer printing techniques involve the transfer of a design from one medium to
another.The most common form used is heat transfer printing in which the design is
printed initially on to a special paper, using conventional printing machinery. The paper
is then placed in close contact with the fabric and heated, when the dyes sublime and
transfer to the fabric through the vapor phase.
Ink-Jet Printing :
There has been considerable interest in the technology surrounding non-impact printing
mainly for the graphic market, but the potential benefits of reductions in the time scale
from original design to final production has led to much activity in developing this
technology for textile and carpet printing processes. The types of machines developed
fall into two classes,
Carpet Printing :
The printing of carpets only really achieved importance after the introduction of tufted
carpets in the late 1950s. Until then the market was dominated by the woven Wilton
carpets and Axminster designs were well established, but by the 1980s tufted carpet
production accounted for some 80% (by area) of UK production. Much of this carpet
production was printed because the range of patterns possible to produce using tufting
machines was limited and there was a desire to produce a great flexiblty of design for
these types of carpet.
The printing of a design on the sheet of warp yarms before
weaving.The filling is either white or a neutral colour and a
grayedeffect is produced in the areas of the design.
A method of printing from photoengraved rollers. The resultant design looks like a
photograph. The designs may also be photographed on a silk screen which is used in
Printing by the use of pigments instead of dyes. The pigments do not penetrate the fiber
but are affixed to the surface of the fabric by means of synthetic resins whichare cured
after application to make them insoluble. The pigments are insoluble, and application
the form of water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions of pigment pastes and resins. The
colors produced are bright and generally fat except to crocking.
A method of printing to obtain a raised design on a sheer ground. The design is applied
with a special chemical onto a fabric woven of pairs of threads of different fibers. One of
the fibers is then destroyed locally by chemical action. Burn-out printing is often used on
velvet The product of this operation is known as a burnt-out print.
Flexo textile printing
Flexo textile printing on textile fabric was successful in China in the last 4 years Central
Impression Flexo, Rubber Sleeves as the printing plate in round engraved by laser
(Direct Laser Engraving), Anilox in Sleeve technologies are applicated in the area. Not
only the solid, but also 6 to 8 colours in fine register, higher resolution ratio and higher
productivity which are the outstanding advantages extraordinary different from the
traditional screen textile printing. Aerospace Huayang, Hell system
Flexo textile printing WOOLEN FABRIC PRINTS
he printing of wool differs little from the printing of cotton in general. Most of the colours
employed in the one industry are used in the other, and the operations of steaming,
washing and soaping are almost identical. Unlike cotton, however, wool requires to be
specially prepared, after bleaching, if the full tinctorial value of the colours is to be
obtained. Two quite different methods of preparation are resorted to, namely (1)
the chlorination of the wool; and (2) the precipitation of stannic acid on the fibre. In the
first method the woollen fabric is first passed through a solution of bleaching powder,
then well squeezed and passed, without washing, into dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric
acid, squeezed again and well washed in water, after which it is dried. Great care and
experience are demanded in this operation to prevent the wool from becoming hard and
yellow. In the second method the cloth is padded in sodium stannate, well squeezed,
passed into dilute sulphuric acid, well washed and dried. For certain styles of work it is
necessary to combine both preparations
Finishing is most efficiently carried out on
printing defects fabrics now a day it s apply all
types of fabric.today it is also applies on
different types of garments so it is the very
important process and the final treatment
process for textile materials we have learnt
about different printing textiles finishing. It is
very important assignment for us
It is very helpful in our industrial or practical life.
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