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The Nature of Design: Biomimetics for adaptive building systems - Lidia Badarnah, UWE

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The Knowledge Transfer Network is building a new UK network, showcasing the benefits of new product development design teams inspired by nature. This event showcase how biomimicry and nature inspired solutions are being used in established innovation processes from a section of innovative companies and it’s an opportunity to learn about how to implement and benefit from Nature Inspired Solutions.

What are Nature Inspired Solutions?

In the past Biomimicry or Biomimetics started from simple imitation of natural organisms. Over time, it has evolved through integration and combination with modern science and engineering to help us discover new materials, ways of combining nano/microstructures, applications, and alternative ways of production and process design thinking leading to nature inspired or bio inspired engineering. Rather than imitating the whole plant, animal or biological process, nature-inspired solutions aim to uncover the underlying mechanisms and apply them in the design of new products, processes or systems in a structured way.

This Nature Inspired Solutions Special Interest Group (NIS SIG) aims to convene and grow the nature inspired solution community and accelerate innovation through cross-sector collaborations.


Find out more about the Nature Inspired Solutions Special Interest Group at https://ktn-uk.co.uk/interests/nature-inspired-solutions

Publicada em: Meio ambiente
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The Nature of Design: Biomimetics for adaptive building systems - Lidia Badarnah, UWE

  1. 1. Lidia%Badarnah,%PhD% Biomime0cs%for%Environmentally% Adap0ve%Building%Systems% Innovate%UK% The%Knowledge%Transfer%Network% The%Studio%|%Birmingham% 10%October%2019% Nature%Inspired%Solu0ons%SIG:%The$Nature$of$Design$
  2. 2. Faculty%of%Architecture% Department%of%Building%Technology% Design%of%Construc0on% % Defined&built&environments Dynamic&environmental&condi5ons Environmental Context
  3. 3. Building%envelopes%are%oPen%considered%as% barriers%or%shields.%% !%Conceiving%the%envelope%in%this%way%limits% poten0ally%efficient%solu0ons,%where%the% building%envelope%is%considered%as%a%medium% rather%than%a%barrier,%just%as%in%living% organisms.%% % … as an interface
  4. 4. resilient%solu0ons% Studying%the%ways%in%which%morphology!(i.e.% form,%structure,%and%colour)%in%nature%is% involved%in%regula0ng%air,%heat,%water,%and% light,%and%how%it%promotes%natural%systems% to%become%beVer%suited%to%their% environmental%condi0ons%% Approach
  5. 5. Adaptation in Nature The%process%by%which%an%organism%becomes% beVer%suited%to%its%environment%
  6. 6. Physiological – biochemical%and%molecular%processes
  7. 7. Morphological – form%and%structure
  8. 8. Behavioural – ac0ons%by%organisms
  9. 9. SantiagoCalatrava LeonardodaVinci FreiOtto VelcroGeorgesde Mestral Designs'inspired'by'Nature!
  10. 10. SantiagoCalatrava LeonardodaVinci FreiOtto VelcroGeorgesde Mestral hook-and-loop system that the seeds use to hitchhike on passing a n i m a l s a i d i n g s e e d dispersal Burdock VelcroGeorgesdeMestral Velcro
  11. 11. Natural%systems%have%flourished% for%nearly%4%billion%years% Resilience%is%typically%associated% with%the%capacity%of%an%element%to% recover%from%a%change,%and/or% respond%appropriately%to%variant% condi0ons.%In%nature,%resilience%is% achieved%by%applying%strategies%of% adapta7on%–%the%process%by%which% an%organism%becomes%beVer% suited%to%its%environment,%which%is% fundamental%for%efficiency%and% survival%over%the%short%and%long% terms.% Resilient% Adap0ve% inspire% innova0ve% solu0ons%% Why%bring%Biomime0cs%to%your%business?% carbon%capture%and%sequestra0on% systems,%water%harves0ng% techniques,%water%transport% systems,%adhesives,%func0onal% materials,%electronics,%energy% conversion%systems,%light% absorbers,%thermal%solu0ons,%and% informa0on%storage.%
  12. 12. Why%bring%Biomime0cs%to%your%business?% Develop%a%problem_based%framework% Establish%a%relevant%database% Iden0fy%strategic%processes% Develop%innova0ve%solu0ons% Enhance%their%compe00ve%edge%% Natural%systems%have%flourished% for%nearly%4%billion%years% Resilience%is%typically%associated% with%the%capacity%of%an%element%to% recover%from%a%change,%and/or% respond%appropriately%to%variant% condi0ons.%In%nature,%resilience%is% achieved%by%applying%strategies%of% adapta7on%–%the%process%by%which% an%organism%becomes%beVer% suited%to%its%environment,%which%is% fundamental%for%efficiency%and% survival%over%the%short%and%long% terms.% Resilient% Adap0ve% inspire% innova0ve% solu0ons%% …through%KTP% Biomime0cs%–%knowledge%base% How?% Opportuni0es% Create%transforma7ve%products$and$ processes%to%solve%par7cular$challenges,% increase%revenues,%reduce%costs,%and% meet$global$needs.%
  13. 13. Crystal!Palace!1851!
  14. 14. Eifel!Tower!1887!
  15. 15. Heliotrop!1994! Phototropism*
  16. 16. FastSkin! Shark!Skin! increases a swimmer's speed by reducing passive drag through water by up to 40% more than the next best swimsuit. Tiny 'teeth' cover the surface of a shark's skin and the shape and positioning of these 'teeth' vary across the body to manage the flow of water. With these findings Speedo created a full 'bodyskin' with different fabrics on different parts of the body and for the first time, male- and female-specific and stroke-specific swimsuits. FastSkinSpeedoAquaLab
  17. 17. Lotus!Effect! self-cleaning! Lotusan The secret of the lotus leaf lies in the waxy microstructures and nanostructures that, by their contact angle with water, cause it to bead and to roll away like mercury, gathering dirt as it goes. Infused with microbumps, the paint is said to repel water and resist stains for decades.
  18. 18. WhaleCinspired!blades! The!flipper!of!a!humpback!whale! Whale-Power Translating whale power into wind power, biomechanist Frank Fish helped design turbine blades with tubercles (nodules) as shown by the flipper of a humpback whale. The whale flipper's scalloped edge helps to generate force in tightly banked turns. The whale-inspired blades are being tested at the Wind Energy Institute of Canada to see if they can make more power at slower speeds than conventional blades, and with less noise.
  19. 19. Flectofin!2009!–!!ITKE%&%The%Biomechanics%Group% The%elas0c%deforma0on%in%the%Strelitzia%reginae%flower%% % Abstrac0on%of%the%deforma0on%principle%in%the%flower%of%S.%reginae,%realised% with%a%simple%physical%model.%% Lienhard%et.al.2011.%Flectofin:%a%hinge_less%flapping%mechanism%inspired%by%nature.%Bioinspir%Biomim%6:045001%% %
  20. 20. Flectofin!2009! Simula0on%of%a%double%Flectofin,%B%posi0on%of%the% planar%fins,%B%real%posi0on%of%the%fins%pushing% against%each%other,$E$opened%fins%due%to%bending% of%the%backbone%% % Facade%Mock_up%with%three%Flectofiǹ%fins%with%various% degrees%of%opening%%
  21. 21. (1)  where%an%observa0on%of% nature%inspires%a%technological% applica0on.% (2)  where%a%solu0on%from%nature% is%sought%for%a%par0cular% engineering%problem.% Challenge% Nature% problem-based Nature% Design% solution-based Biomime0c%publica0ons%per%year% Lepora%et.al.2013.%Bioinspira*on!&!biomime*cs!8,%no.%1:%013001.% % Biomimetics from%the%Greek,%bios%meaning%life,%and%mimesis%meaning%to%imitate.%
  22. 22. Applica7on$Benefits$ enhancing%crea0vity%and%innova0on% op0mizing%resource%(i.e.%materials%and%energy)%use%in%buildings%% lowering%pollu0on,%benefi0ng%health,%and%mi0ga0ng%urban%heat%island%effects% providing%a%founda0on%for%environmentally%responsive%developments% Biomimetics from%the%Greek,%bios%meaning%life,%and%mimesis%meaning%to%imitate.%
  23. 23. The%broad%range%of%possibili0es% The%lack%of%systema0c%selec0on%methods% The%abstrac0on%and%transforma0on%of%relevant%principles%into%building%solu0ons% Challenges
  24. 24. Biomimetics Problem Nature SolutionDomains Different domains and backgrounds The broad range of possibilities Transition 1 Transition 2 Analysis Abstraction L%Badarnah%(2017).%Form%follows%environment:%Biomime0c%approaches%to%building%envelope%design%for%environmental%adapta0on.%Buildings%7%(2),%40
  25. 25. Problem Nature SolutionDomains Transition 1 Transition 2 Biomimetic Design Process – key transitions L%Badarnah%(2017).%Form%follows%environment:%Biomime0c%approaches%to%building%envelope%design%for%environmental%adapta0on.%Buildings%7%(2),%40
  26. 26. Biomimetic Design Process – Transition 1 Problem Nature SolutionDomains Transition 1 Transition 2 L%Badarnah%(2017).%Form%follows%environment:%Biomime0c%approaches%to%building%envelope%design%for%environmental%adapta0on.%Buildings%7%(2),%40
  27. 27. Functional Convergence L%Badarnah%(2017).%Form%follows%environment:%Biomime0c%approaches%to%building%envelope%design%for%environmental%adapta0on.%Buildings%7%(2),%40
  28. 28. Problem Nature SolutionDomains Transition 1 Transition 2 Biomimetic Design Process – Transition 2 L%Badarnah%(2017).%Form%follows%environment:%Biomime0c%approaches%to%building%envelope%design%for%environmental%adapta0on.%Buildings%7%(2),%40
  29. 29. BioGen methodology L%Badarnah,%U%Kadri%(2015).%A%methodology%for%the%genera0on%of%biomime0c%design%concepts.%Architectural%Science%Review%58%(2),%120_133.%
  30. 30. Buildings Nature Active means 2. Identify Scale nano micro meso macro Approach active passive Adaptation Physiological Morphological Behavioral Environment Arid Tropical Temperate Cold Polar Aquatic 1. Define 3. Analyse Morphological means Processes 4. Contextualise 5. Abstract Design ConceptSolution Functions 6. Develop 7. Validate & Apply Framework L%Badarnah,%U%Kadri%(2015).%A%methodology%for%the%genera0on%of%biomime0c%design%concepts.%Architectural%Science%Review%58%(2),%120_133.%
  31. 31. L%Badarnah,%U%Kadri%(2015).%A%methodology%for%the%genera0on%of%biomime0c%design%concepts.%Architectural%Science%Review%58%(2),%120_133.%
  32. 32. Faculty%of%Environment%and%Technology:% •  Architecture$and$the$Built$Environment$ •  Computer%Science%and%Crea0ve%Technologies% •  Engineering%Design%and%Mathema0cs% •  Geography%and%Environmental%Management% % UWE$Bristol$ University$of$the$West$of$England$ Significance & Impact L%Badarnah%(2017).%Form%follows%environment:%Biomime0c%approaches%to%building%envelope%design%for%environmental%adapta0on.%Buildings%7%(2),%40
  33. 33. CompositionArrangementForm Nau0lus%shell% Paper%wasp%nest%
  34. 34. Heat regulation
  35. 35. Heat regulation
  36. 36. Heat regulation Functions Processes Factors Pinnacles Heatregulation Prevent Dissipate Retain Reduce metabolic rate Scatter radiation Evaporation Enhance conduction Enhance convection Minimize condcution Minimize irradiation Density Morphology Heart beat Gain Increase metabolic rate Shivering Volume/Surface ratio Absorb radiation Posture / orientation Airflow Density Circulation Airflow rate Temperature Surface area Colour Conductance Exercise Exchange heat Morphology Respiration rates Morphology Colour Reflectance Posture / orientation Great egret Mammals Camel Fur Squirrel Human skin Lizard Zebra Blood vessels Dolphin’s flippers Blubber Down feathers Elephant skin Skink Bright pigment Chuckwalla Dark pigment Rock Tuna Termite mound FurReduce conduction Density Fibres Reduce convection Surface/Volume ratio Respiration rates Penguin Emit radiation Surface/Volume ratio Pinnacle
  37. 37. Air regulation
  38. 38. Air regulation
  39. 39. Air regulation 68Chapter4 Functions Airregulation Processes Factors Pinnacles Move Pressure difference Exchange Natural convection Temperature gradient Diffusion Permeability Surface-volume ratio Concentration gradient Fractals Counter current flow Pores Stoma Radiation Volume variations Velocity gradient Funnels and mounds Chimneys Conduits diameter Pumps Diaphragm Unidirectional flow Valves Air sacs Lungs Trachea Gills Gills Leaves Egg shell Termite mound Heart Lungs Prairie-dog’s burrow Termite mound Trachea Veins Avian lungs
  40. 40. Water regulation
  41. 41. Water regulation
  42. 42. Table 1. Systematic and abstract representation of literature review for water management. Functions Processes Factors Pinnacles Gain Diffusion Porosity Tree frog [28] Condensation Morphology Thorny devil [51] Rosette plants [26] Sand trenches [25] Spider silk [52] Namib beetle [24] Conserve Reduce irradiation Orientation Cacti [53] Reflection Brittlebush [54] Folding Leaves [55] Shrinking Succulent [56] Reduce evaporation Temperature CAM plants [32] Kangaroo rat [34] Surface area to volume ratio Cacti [57] Permeability Lizards [58] Plants [59] Transport Gravity Morphology Namib beetle [60] Agave [38] Capillary action Morphology Thorny devil [40] Plants’ roots [61] Venation networks [43] Lose Evaporation Vapour pressure difference Stoma [62] Flow rate of air Poor-will [63, 64] Temperature Human skin [49] Surface morphology Elephant skin [65] Table 2. Summary of functional morphologies and their potential application to buildings. Process Morphology Pinnacle Mechanism Water regulation
  43. 43. Light regulation
  44. 44. Light regulation
  45. 45. BuildingsNature Light management Filter Illuminate Harness daylighting visual comfort media energy survival photosynthesis vision communication sensing Transmission Reflection Refraction Scattering Absorption Interception Filter Illuminate Harness ProcessesIdentify angle of incident angle of refraction Reflection Scattering Absorption Transmission Incident light Medium Refraction Light regulation
  46. 46. Light regulation Table 1. Examples from nature for illuminating, filtering, and harnessing light and their potential applications to buildings Functions Processes Factors Pinnacles Mechanism Application Illuminate Transmission Structure Venus flower-basket The distinct hierarchical assembly of the structure provides, besides the remarkable mechanical performance, an effective network for light distribution [15, 16] Lighting Reflection Structure Butterfly wing Structural colouration by multi-film interference [50]. The hierarchical nanostructure of scales, closely packed ridges with horizontal lamellae and micro-ribs, highly reflects certain wavelengths [51] Black-billed magpie Structural colouration by thin-film interference [50]. A hexagonal lattice of parallel air micro-channels in the cortex (a thin film of keratin) of the barbules reflects yellowish-green light [52] Scattering Structure Amphibians Multiple layers filter, scatter, and absorb certain wavelengths and result in a greenish colour [53] Filter Transmission Orientation Cuttlefish Parallel alignment of photoreceptors and their orthogonal arrangement is believed to serve as a polarization analysing system [54] Reducing glare Scattering Distribution Canopy-storey plants Small leaves (instead of big ones) distributed at various levels allowing diffused solar penetration between leaves [42] Reducing intensity Form Silver ragwort Hairy surfaces scatter light and reduce incident light [49] Harness Interception Distribution Sunflower Fibonacci arrangement of seeds results in an efficient dense and compact packing for maximized light exposure [55, 56] Generating energy & Shading Canopy-storey plants Loose and multi-layered distribution of leaves [42] Under-storey plants Dense and mono-layered distribution of leaves [42] Orientation Cornish Mallow Maintain surfaces perpendicular to solar radiation for maximized exposure [57] Reflection Structure Lobster’s compound eye Spherically arranged square tubes reflect light and focus it on one focal point on the retina [19] Refraction Structure Fly’s compound eye Hexagonal array of ommatidia (facets) superposes refracted light on a specific area [58] Absorption Structure Butterfly Variations in film thicknesses can result in 96% absorption of the incident solar radiation [59] Generating energy Pigment Chlorophyll Chlorophylls absorb light for photosynthesis [60]
  47. 47. L.%Badarnah%2012,%Towards%the%LIVING%envelope:%biomime0cs%for%building%envelope%adapta0on%|%PhD%thesis% Multi-regulation
  48. 48. Design$Lessons$from$the$Behaviour$of$Insects$ Emergent%Technologies%&%Design% The%Architectural%Associa0on% % Social%Insects%&%Algorithms%2017/18%
  49. 49. The Social Behaviour of Insects – Eusociality Proposed%Stages%in%the% Evolu0on%of%Chemical% Communica0on%in% Insects% Leonhardt%et.al.%2016%Cell!164,%no.%6:%1277_87.% APer%Plowes%2010.%Nature!Educa*on!Knowledge!3,%no.%10:%7.% % EmiVer% Ancestral$ No%mechanism%for%detec0on%or% response.% EmiVer% Receiver% Percep7on$(Change%in%receiver)% Evolu0on%of%cue%percep0on%and% response.%Receiver%benefits.% Sender% Receiver% Communica7on$(EmiVer%becomes%sender)% Sender%experiences%selec0on%for% signal%effec0veness.%Sender%and% receiver%benefits.%Response% Ecological%Contribu0ons% Kin%Selec0on% Delayed%benefits% Mul0_level%selec0on% Primi0ve% Eusociality% Advanced% Eusociality% Point%of%No% Return%
  50. 50. APer%Heylighen%2016.%Cogni*ve!Systems!Research!38:%4_13.% % The%s0gmergic%feedback%loop%% % mark%/% result%of%ac0on% ac0on% produces% s0mulates% medium% agent% Stigmergy S0gmergy%is%an%indirect%communica0on% method,%through%the%environment,% between%agents%or%ac0ons.% %
  51. 51. Self-organisation & Emergence Agriculture% Warfare% Symbolic%communica0on% Smith%et.al.2008%Nature!Reviews!Gene*cs!9,%no.%10:%735_48.% % Fourcassié%et.al.%2010.%%Journal!of!Experimental!Biology!213,14:%2357_63.% % Schema0c%drawings%showing%the%spa0al% organiza0on%of%traffic%in:%% (A)%the%army%ant%Eciton%burchelli,%% (B)%the%leaf_cupng%ant%AVa%colombica.%% %
  52. 52. Stingless'Bees'
  53. 53. HalcroP,%Megan,%Robert%Spooner_Hart,%and%Lig%Anne%Dollin.%"Australian%S0ngless%Bees."%In%PotDHoney,%35_72:%Springer,%2013.%
  54. 54. Jostling$run$ As%soon%as%a%forager%found%and%fed%at%an%ar0ficial% food%source%with%more%concentrated%sugar%water% (1.5%mol.l–1)%it%exhibited%agitated%zigzag%running% upon%returning%to%the%hive%oPen%colliding%with% nest%mates%both%before%and%aPer%the%unloading% of%food.%Two%different%kinds%of%this%“jostling%run”% can%be%dis0nguished%primarily%based%on%the% direc0on%of%movement%of%the%hive%bee%rela0ve%to% the%direc0on%of%the%movement%of%the%forager.% Hrncir%et.al.%2000%Apidologie!31,%no.%1:%93_113.% S7ngless$Bees$
  55. 55. Cathedral mounds
  56. 56. King%et%al.%PNAS%2015;112:11589_11593%
  57. 57. Leaf6cutter'Ants'
  58. 58. EmTech%AA%London%2017/18%|%Design%team:%Heather%McMenomy%and%Elizabeth%Riederer%
  59. 59. Weaver'Ants'(Green!Forest!Ants)!
  60. 60. Holldoblert%and%Wilson.%"Weaver%Ants."%Scien*fic!American!237,%no.%6%(1977):%146_55.%
  61. 61. Honey Bees %
  62. 62. Karl%von%Frisch%(1886_1982)%–%Nobel%Prize%winner%in%Physiology%or%Medicine%in%1973% “Dancing”%Language%
  63. 63. EmTech%AA%London%2017/18%|%Design%Team%03%[Honey%Bees]%–%Tim%Fu%and%Alina%
  64. 64. Magnetic mounds
  65. 65. Schmidt%"Insights%into%the%Evolu0on%of% Magne0c%termites:%Mound%Shape%and% Popula0on%Gene0cs."%2014.%
  66. 66. EmTech%AA%London%2017/18%|%Design%Team%05%[Magne0c%Termites]:%Abhinav%Chaudhary%and%Miguel%Escallon%
  67. 67. EmTech%AA%London%2017/18%|%Design%Team%05%[Magne0c%Termites]:%Abhinav%Chaudhary%and%Miguel%Escallon%
  68. 68. EmTech%AA%London%2017/18%|%Design%Team%05%[Magne0c%Termites]:%Abhinav%Chaudhary%and%Miguel%Escallon%
  69. 69. EmTech%AA%London%2017/18%|%Design%Team%05%[Magne0c%Termites]:%Abhinav%Chaudhary%and%Miguel%Escallon%
  70. 70. Yellowjacket'Wasps'
  71. 71. EmTech%AA%London%2017/18%|%Design%team%[Yellow%Jacket%Wasps]:%BriVney%Dillon%and%Shivani%Akar%
  72. 72. EmTech%AA%London%2017/18%|%Design%team%[Yellow%Jacket%Wasps]:%BriVney%Dillon%and%Shivani%Akar%
  73. 73. EmTech%AA%London%2017/18%|%Design%team%[Yellow%Jacket%Wasps]:%BriVney%Dillon%and%Shivani%Akar%
  74. 74. EmTech%AA%London%2017/18%|%Design%team%[Yellow%Jacket%Wasps]:%BriVney%Dillon%and%Shivani%Akar%
  75. 75. Biomime0cs% Summary Natural%systems%follow%special% morphological$configura7ons$to%create% interfaces,%allowing%op0mal%interac7on% with%their%immediate$environment.% % Seeking%convergences%is%significant%for% abstrac7on,%where%morphological$ differen7a7ons%are%preserved.% % Developing%building$solu7ons$that%are% beVer%suited%to%their%environmental% condi0ons%will%require%reduced$energy$ demands,%bringing%UK%forward%to%mee0ng% 2050%emissions’%target%goals.%
  76. 76. Lidia%Badarnah,%PhD% Lidia.Badarnah@uwe.ac.uk% Senior%Lecturer%in%Architecture% Department%of%Architecture%and%the%Built%Environment% Faculty%of%Environment%and%Technology% Thank%you!%

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