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Feminisation of poverty

poverty, gender economics, feminization, causes of feminisation of poverty

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Feminisation of poverty

  2. 2. A phenomenon in which women represent a disproportionate percentage of the world’s poor.
  3. 3. What is feminisation??? Biology hormonally induced development of female sexual characteristics Activity a sexual or lifestyle practice where a person assumes a female role Sociology a perceived societal shift of gender roles towards the characteristically female
  4. 4. Contd… • Feminisation of agriculture • Feminisation of face • Feminisation of language • Feminisation of migration • Feminisation of poverty • Feminisation of voice • Feminisation of workspace
  5. 5. “ The burden of poverty borne by women, especially in developing countries”. - United Nations Development fund for Women (UNIFEM) United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN WOMEN)
  6. 6. Causes of Feminisation of Poverty • Lack of income • Deprivation of capabilities • Gender biases present in both societies and Govts. • Poverty in choices and opportunities such as ability to lead a healthy, long and creative life • Poverty in basic rights like freedom, respect and dignity. • Etc…..
  7. 7. Diana Pearce (1978) The term Feminisation of Poverty first coined by Diana Pearce in 1978.  according to Pearce’s research, two third of the poor who were over age 16 were women
  8. 8. 1) Disparate Income • Principle reason - lack of income • Prevents women from attaining resources and converting their monetary resources into socio economic status • Deprives women of their basic needs & capabilities • Since women disproportionately earn less than men, they are deprived of basic education and health care – eventually leads to a cycle to debilitate women's ability to earn higher income.
  9. 9. Contd…. • Deprivation passes from one generation to other – leads to a perpetual feminisation of poverty • Main reason of the cycle of poverty among women- lower income- due to care for their offspring • Persistent gender discrimination among labour- never allow the majority of women quality work
  10. 10. 2) Single mother households • Households with female headships -due to men may be 1) migrant workers 2) illness 3) death • At highest risk of poverty due to lack of income and resources • Single mothers are poorest women in the society and their children tend to be disadvantaged in comparison to their peers • Female headed households only have two third of the income of male headed households • Lack critical resources in life – worsens their poverty • Lack of essential life needs comparing to men
  11. 11. 3) Social and Cultural exclusions • Prevents women from attaining formal employment • Never allow women to have much labour productivity, outside the home as well as an economic bargaining position with in the household • Social inequality deprives women’s capabilities particularly employment- leads to women having poverty • Increase in gender segregation and gender wage gap increases women’s susceptibility to poverty
  12. 12. Measures of poverty • An important aspect of analysing the feminization of poverty is understanding how it is measured. • Income is the only base to measure women’s poverty • Have to examine this issue from a multidimensional basis- there must be an accurate research • Three indexes often examined are - Gender Related Development Index - Gender Empowerment Index - Human poverty Index • First two are gendered indices- gather data on women to evaluate gender inequalities and to understand disparities in gender opportunities and choices
  13. 13. Contd… • HPI focuses on deprivation measures rather than income measures • HPI is multidimensional and non income based approach. • Consider four dimensions: -survival -knowledge -decent standard of living -social participation • HPI fails to examine certain deprivations such as lack of property ownership and credit – essential for bargaining position I the household for women • GDI adjusts the Human Development Index in three ways - Shows longevity, or life-expectancy of females and males -Education or knowledge -Decent standard of living
  14. 14. Multidimensional Approach • Capability approach: studies different aspects of poverty that can enable people, especially women, to become agents of their own lives. • Address the feminisation of poverty should focus on the opportunities and personal choices available to the women
  15. 15. 1) Health • Gender inequality in society prevents women from utilizing care services and put them at a risk of poor health • Women in poverty are more vulnerable to sexual violence and risk of HIV/AIDS • Poor health – key factor in household poverty • Govt. should increase health services to mitigate the feminisation in poverty
  16. 16. 2)Education • Gender discrimination and social hierarchy- social level • For the education of male siblings- household level • An important aspect of the capabilities is: - freedom to make informed choices - have opportunities to achieve goals - basic requirement to actively use the resources and - information of basic education
  17. 17. Contd…. • Enables to: - reduce the household poverty - increases children’s chance to get education - enhances maternal health - increase the freedom of movement • Women who achieve greater education are more likely to worry about their children's survival, nutrition, and school attendance
  18. 18. 3) Decision-making power • Is central to the bargaining position of women within the household • About women’s health, their ability to go and visit friends or families and household expenditure- decision made by men • Gender discrimination within the household rooted in patriarchal biases against social status of women • Major determinants of house hold bargaining power- control of income and assets, age and access to and level of education
  19. 19. 4) Employment • Gives financial independence • Higher security to established legal position • Real world experiences • Deeply importance for sheltered or shy women • Gives better bargaining position
  20. 20. Contd… • Formal and informal employment • Formal - govt. regulated, insured wages and rights • Informal - taken place in small, unregistered enterprises - large source of employment for women
  21. 21. Contd… • Burden of care worker – women work longer and harder than men • Having children
  22. 22. Racialization • Minority women in the United States, specifically Black and Latin women are twice as likely as white women to be living in poverty. • Family structure • Education • Access to higher paying jobs
  23. 23. Comparison of need of money for men and women • Shoulder the fiscal and physical responsibility for their children • Unique healthcare problems/access problems related to reproduction increasing both their healthcare costs and risks • Tend to be charged more than men for similar products and services • Females tend to live five years longer; i.e. their funds need to last five years longer than men's funds.