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• Proposed byVictor
Vroom in 1964
• Focuses on the thought
• How does the work
help the employee
meet their own goals?
• People choose jobs based on their
needs and past experiences
• Behavior/Actions (work effort) is
dictated by conscious choices
• What motivates people is different for
• People will work to optimize their
personal benefits when given options
EMPLOYEES NEED TO SEE
BETWEEN THEIR WORK
AND THE ATTAINMENT OF
THEIR PERSONAL GOALS
EFFORT AND EXPECTANCY
Are the goals attainable?
Effort and Expectancy
• Expectancy is the assessment of the work
needed to complete a job or task
• The probability of 0 means the employee
does not believe the effort will lead to an
• A probability of 1 means that the employee
believes that an acceptable outcome is almost
certain to be met and the employee sees a
relationship between their level of effort and
their personal goals
PERFORMANCE AND INSTRUMENTALITY
Will high performance lead to the reward?
Performance and Instrumentality
• Instrumentality is where the employee makes
estimates about how much their task performance
relates to receiving the reward
• The employee should be able to see a relationship
between how well they perform and the personal
rewards they receive in order to increase their
• If an employee perceives that a relationship between
their performance always exists, the probability of it
existing on new tasks is nearly certain and would be a 1
REWARD AND VALENCE
Is the reward in line with my goals?
Reward and Valence
• Valence is how much an employee prefers
certain rewards over other rewards
• The employee may consider multiple rewards
and choose the one that most meets their
• Valence can be shown on a scale that ranges
from -1 to 1; with a 0-level valence being
indifferent to the award
VROOM’S EXPECTANCY EQUATION
Is the employee motivated?
• Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x
– M = E x I xV
• Using the probabilities for expectancy,
instrumentality, and valence, you can
calculate how motivated employees are
Source: Luneneburg, F.C. (2011) ExpectancyTheory of
Motivation: Motivating by Altering Expectations.