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PIAAC’s assessment of “problem solving in technology rich environments” differs from the PISA 2012 assessment of problem solving in two important aspects2. Firstly, it is primarily concerned with “information‐rich” problems. Examples include needing to locate and evaluate information on the Web or on social In PISA, ICT is integral to the assessment of problem solving but it is not integral to its definition of problem solving
PISA collaborative problem solving
OECD International assessmentof problem solving skillsEducating for Innovative Societies26 April 2012Michael DavidsonOECD Directorate for Education
The story so far….• PISA 2003– Problem solving (paper based)• PIAAC– Problem solving in technology‐rich environments(computer based)• PISA 2012– Dynamic problem solving (computer based)• PISA 2015– Collaborative problem solving (computer based)
PISA 2003 problem solving• Problem solving is an individual’s ability to usecognitive processes to confront and resolve real,cross-disciplinary situations where the solutionpath is not immediately obvious and where theliteracy domains or curricular areas that mightbe applicable are not within a single domain ofmathematics, science or reading.
The PISA 2012 definition of problemsolving competency• problem solving competency is an individual’scapacity to engage in cognitive processing tounderstand and resolve problem situationswhere a method of solution is not immediatelyobvious. It includes the willingness to engagewith such situations in order to achieve one’spotential as a constructive and reflectivecitizen.
PISA 2015 Collaborative problemsolving- challenges• Group or individual?• Integration of problem solving skills with studentdispositions towards social interaction?• Practicalities– Sampling– Computer capabilities– Scoring• Human-computer approach valid?– Interactive rather than collaborative?
The PISA 2015 definition ofcollaborative problem solving (draft)• Collaborative problem solving competency isthe capacity of an individual to effectivelyengage in a process whereby two or moreagents attempt to solve a problem by sharingthe understanding and effort required to cometo a solution.
PISA 2015 CPS (draft)EstablishingunderstandingTakingactionEstablishingorganisationExploring and UnderstandingRepresenting and FormulatingPlanning and ExecutingMonitoring and Reflecting
Thank you.www.pisa.oecd.orgSample computer based items: http://erasq.acer.edu.au/