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Unit 4 attitude

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Attitude in psychology

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Unit 4 attitude

  1. 1. The Iceberg How much do you see of an iceberg???
  3. 3. The Iceberg phenomena is also applicable on human beings … especially in their behaviour The Iceberg
  5. 5. Concept  An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's degree of like or dislike for an item.  Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event this is often referred to as the attitude object.  Attitude which represent ones belief, feeling and ideas ,action, tendency towards object and ideas.  When a person feels about something ,about a place, commodity and a situation or an idea is called attitude.
  6. 6. Definition  An attitude is a readiness to respond in such a way that behaviour is given a certain direction. (Travers).  According to Whittaker an attitude is defined as a predisposition or readiness to respond in a pre-determined manner to relevant stimuli.
  7. 7. Nature of Attitude • Attitudes have a subject-object relationship. It is related to specific objects, persons, groups, institutions, values etc. • Attitude are learned. They are not inherent or innate in individual. It depend on the life training and circumstances. • It is relatively enduring states of readiness. It helps us in making proper responses. • It helps in motivation. • It is different according to stimuli. • It ranges fro strongly positive to strongly negative.
  8. 8. Cognitiv e Emotional Component s Behavioral Component s Components of Attitude
  9. 9. Cognitive Components- The Belief , Information, Knowledge and information. Eg-If a Person does not like or negative attitude about the nuclear bomb ,In interview if he asked about the nuclear bomb he give negative points only means he does not like the nuclear bomb that means his belief and information is negative for that. Affective Components- Feelings, Sentiments and moods of emotions towards a particular object Eg-Wanted to go for a night shift job rather that a General Shift Job Behavioral Components-Way of thinking ,Behaving and feelings Eg-If some one like the Principal of the college his attitude is made by feelings and behavioral aspects
  10. 10. Development of Attitude • Attitudes are leant and acquired through the following sources. 1. Integration of experiences: acquired from different experiences of different people from different sources. Attitude of Hindus towards Muslims and vice versa. 2. Differentiation of experiences: when new experiences are acquired they are differentiated or segregated from the old acquired one and more specific attitude is formed.
  11. 11. Development of Attitude • Attitudes are leant and acquired through the following sources. 1. Trauma o dramatic experience: After effect of any trauma or incident. A shopkeeper may develop negative attitude towards students if his shops were burnt by students during a strike. 2. Adoption of the available attitudes: a readymade approach. Following friends, teachers, parents, community etc.
  12. 12. Factors Influencing Attitude Formation A. Factors within the individual  Physical growth and development: poor health, poor adjustment may develop poor attitudes.  Intellectual Development: Factors such as memory, understanding, thinking capacity, reasoning ability etc.  Emotional Development: Factors such as emotional maturity social adjustment, social approval etc.  Social Development: Factors such as Social interaction may create antisocial attitudes.  Ethical and Moral Development: God is one or many. Concept of values and ideals. A. Factors in the Environment:
  13. 13. Factors Influencing Attitude Formation B. Factors in the Environment:  Home and Family: values and concepts in the family, attitude of the family members. Faulty upbringing of the child unhealthy family relationship.  Social environment. School, teachers, classmates, teaching methods, curriculum and subjects etc. it also include religious groups, social clubs, mass media, celebrities, advertisements, newspaper etc.
  14. 14. Behavior and attitude  Attitudes can be favorable or unfavorable or negative or positive and represent predispositions to react or respond to certain stimuli.  Negative attitude towards a religion will color the reactions towards the religion.  Positive attitude towards a political party will appreciate its policies, functions, and governances.  Positive or negative attitude towards social evils such as untouchability, dowry, child marriage, remarriage, population control, environmental protection etc will alter their behavior too.  A students listens to the teacher to whom she has a positive attitude.
  16. 16. Behavior and attitude Positive attitude: The predisposition that results in desirable outcomes for individuals and organizations. Negative attitude: The tendency of a person that result in an undesirable outcome for individuals and organizations.
  17. 17. Attitudinal Change  Providing proper education. Both curricular and coo curricular or formal and informal education.  Making use of propaganda machinery: It is an information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view. Mainly used but organizations and government to increase the rating. Eg. Creation of violence in Kashmir makes the state always hotter both for politics and religious purpose.
  18. 18. Attitudinal Change  Using fear inducing mechanism: Punishment, rules, legal aspects. Eg. The laws on atrocities against women make us to behave properly with women.  Use of modeling technique: Setting an example. Good films, serials, social and political figures can set themselves as an example for making attitudinal change in others.  Direct personal experiences: Eg. If you are helped by a person of another religion during a communal violence then attitude towards that religion also changes.
  19. 19. Attitudinal Change  Bringing desired changes in beliefs and values. Since the attitudes are associated with beliefs and values it is better to educate a person to modify his beliefs and values in order to change the attitude. Eg. If a person possess a negative attitude towards caste/religion because of his sheer ignorance and false beliefs, he may be helped with proper education to change the attitude.
  20. 20. Barriers to Changing an Attitude  Cognitive Dissonance- When a person behaves in a fashion that is inconsistent with his or her attitude, Means he or she knows it is wrong but still continue to inconsistency . Eg. Belittling the evidence about smoking and cancer. Most people think that human data are correlational.  Prior Commitment-Means the belief is unchanged and unwilling to change.  Insufficient Information- Eg. Two Way Communication is not possible from TOP Management and Workers which creates a negative attitude.
  21. 21. Psychometric assessment of Attitude This can be done in two ways. a. Direct Method b. Indirect Method.  Direct Method. 1. Questioning and interview technique: asking the individual directly how he feels about a subject. 2. Check List: asking to mark those statements from a list with which he is in agreement. 3. Attitude Scale: These are described as the following.
  22. 22. Thurston’s Attitude Scale  These are also known as equal appearing intervals scale.  A large number of statements representing a variety of opinions on a subject are collected.  These statements are given to a number of judges who will sort the statements into two categories very favorable to very unfavorable.  The finished scale then consists of the clearly defined opinions on the subject.  Each of these are assigned a value based on the median scale positions given by the judges. (order of arrangement ie from 1 to 11)
  23. 23. Thurston’s Attitude Scale  Below given one example to understand the attitude of people towards temple. Items Scale Value I believe the temples are the greatest institution in India today I believe it is necessary/essential to go temple for living/life | believe in in what temple teaches but with mental reservations I believe in religion but seldom go to temple I do not get any benefit from attending temple service but I think it helps some people. I think the temples are parasites in a society.
  24. 24. Thurston’s Attitude Scale The attitude towards going to temple can be determined as such as these Items Scale Value I believe the temples are the greatest institution in India today 0.2 I believe it is necessary/essential to go temple for living/life 1.5 | believe in in what temple teaches but with mental reservations 4.5 I believe in religion but seldom go to temple 5.4 I do not get any benefit from attending temple service but I think it helps some people. 5.7 I think the temples are parasites in a society. 1.0
  25. 25. Likert Attitude Scale  Likert (1932) developed the principle of measuring attitudes by asking people to respond to a series of statements about a topic, in terms of the extent to which they agree with them, and so tapping into the cognitive and affective components of attitudes.  Respondents may be offered a choice of five to seven or even nine pre-coded responses with the neutral point being neither agree nor disagree.  In constructing such a scale a number of items concerning a particular subject are collected.
  26. 26. Likert Attitude Scale  The individual is asked to indicate the degree of his agreement or disagreement with each item on a five point scale.  A: Agreement, SA: String Agreement, I: Undecided, D: Disagreement, SD: Strong disagreement.  Scores are given from 1 to 5 depends on the type of questions. Scores are analyzed.  Below given one example Items Response We should be willing to fight for our country whether it is in the right or in the wrong. SA, A, I, D, SD Our country should never declare war again under any circumstances SA, A, I, D, SD
  27. 27. Indirect Method: Assessment of Attitude  Verbal expression of attitude has limitations. One may conceal real attitude.  Overt behaviour is not always the true expression of their attitude towards a thing.  In these circumstances we use projective techniques. These are measurement methods in disguised manner.  The examinee may not know the real purpose of the test and may blindly answer. An intelligent interpretation of these tests can determine right attitude.  These techniques are mostly used also for personality assessment and hence it will be discussed in the next unit.
  28. 28. The Choice is YOURS •With a Bad attitude you can never have a positive day •With a Positive attitude you can never have a bad day “Things are the way you think they are, because you think they are that way.”