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Session-on-Test-Construction-Part-I.pptx

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Session-on-Test-Construction-Part-I.pptx

  1. 1. Session on Test Construction for BED Faculty (Part I) September 6, 2022
  2. 2. Test Construction Teacher-made tests should be able to adequately assess the attainment of pre-defined instructional objectives. Following are suggested steps in test construction.
  3. 3. • Identify instructional objectives and specific learning outcomes and state them in terms of desired changes in student behavior. These factors will guide the construction of test items later on. • Outline the subject matter topics to be covered by the test • Prepare a table of specifications. This is a two-way chart that relates the learning outcomes to the course content.
  4. 4. •Select appropriate types of tests. The choice of type of test principally depends on what will be assessed. Ex. Essays are more appropriate when the learning outcomes to be measured are organization of thoughts or ideas; comprehension; application; synthesizing; analyzing; and evaluating skills which can be gleaned from the learner’s written work; and interests, appreciations, beliefs, viewpoints/opinions, attitudes, and value judgements expressed in one’s own writing. Ex. Objective Tests are more appropriate choice if the teacher wants to assess student’s knowledge and ability to recall such knowledge.
  5. 5. Important: In selecting the test, there should be a harmony with the instructional objectives and the teaching methodologies.
  6. 6. • Construct the test items. Once the type of test is determined, the teacher engages in constructing the appropriate items. Order the items. Test items are usually ordered or sequenced according to degree of difficulty. Test items are usually arranged from the easiest to the most difficult, because the students may suffer from a mental block if the first items are the most difficult. Relatively easier items at the beginning of a test are psychologically motivating.
  7. 7. Write the directions. Test directions must satisfy clearly and simply what are expected of the examinees. Ex. “ Solve the following problems, show your solutions and express the answers to the nearest tenth.” is better than “ Solve the following problems.” Prepare the answer sheet and the scoring key.
  8. 8. Constructing Objective Test Items Poor: Where does the Philippine Congress hold sessions? ( The item has many possible answers, but the expected answer is Batasang Pambansa.) Improved: What is the name of the building where the Philippine Congress hold sessions? Short-answer items The items should be so worded as to elicit a brief and specific response
  9. 9. The item should not be directly lifted from the book Poor: Mastery tests are typically criterion- referenced tests. Improved: What type of test compares the examinee’s performance with specific learning outcomes?
  10. 10. A complete direct question is better than an incomplete statement. Poor: Congress holds sessions in Batasang Pambansa. Better: What is the name of the building where Congress holds sessions?
  11. 11. If the response called for is a numeral, the degree of specificity should be indicated. Poor: The quotient obtained when 6 is divided by 8 is 7. Improved: If 6 is divided by 8, the quotient, rounded off to the nearest tenth is (.7)
  12. 12. Blanks provided for in a series of items should be uniform in length o avoid giving cues. All blanks should be placed at the right of the items to facilitate checking Poor: Identify the following measures of central location: A. The most reliable______ B. The midpoint of a distribution______ C. _______ is the measure of central location that has the greatest frequency of occurrence Improved: On the blanks provided, write the measures of central location being described: A. The most reliable _____ B. The midpoint of a distribution _____ C. The score that has the greatest frequency of occurrence ______.
  13. 13. Do not over mutilate an item Poor: For every _______there is an equal and ___________. Improved: For every action, there is an equal and opposite ________.
  14. 14. The blank should not appear at the start of the item. It is perplexing to think of the answer when what is asked for is not yet given. Poor: The ( pistil) is the part of the flower that holds the pollen grains. Improved: The part of the flower that holds the pollen grains is called ______ Better: What part of a flower hoods the pollen grains? (pistil)
  15. 15. The blank should correspond to a significant word in the item; never to an article, conjunction, or preposition, unless those are the foci of the item. Poor: The smallest unit ( of) society is the family. Improved: The smallest unit of society is the ( family). Acceptable: Insert the correct preposition on the blank provided for. The accident resulted ( in ) the death of ten persons.
  16. 16. True or False or Alternative-response items Poor: There are so many societal problems but most young people do not care about them. A person who is truly socially responsible goes out of his way to respond to the problem of the society. Improved: A socially responsible person participates actively in solving societal problems. 1. Avoid long, complicated items.
  17. 17. 2. Avoid the use of negative statements, especially double negatives. A negative statement is used only if significant learning requires it. Poor: If the probability of a correlation is .92, then the variables being correlated are not significantly unrelated. Improved: If the probability of a correlation coefficient is .92, then the variables are significantly related.
  18. 18. 3. The truth or falsity of an opinion is relative to the beholder. Hence, if an item expresses an opinion, its source must be given, unless the ability to identify the source is the one being specifically measured. Poor: T F The insurgency problem in the Philippines is under control. The answer is either true or false, based on the opinion of the examinee. Improved: TF According to Pres. Estrada, the insurgency problem in the Philippines in under control.
  19. 19. 4. The number of TRUE statements should be approximately equal to the number of false statements. A ratio of 40 to 60 still acceptable though.
  20. 20. 5. The length of true and false statements should be approximately equal to avoid giving clues. Poor: T F The period of pendulum is inversely proportional to the square root of its length because the longer the length, the slower it will take the pendulum to swing to and from. Improved: T F The period of a pendulum is inversely proportional to the square root of its length.
  21. 21. 6. To lessen guesswork on the part of the students, modified true-or-false item is preferable to a simple true-or-false item. Poor: Write T if the statement is true or F if it is false: The median is the least reliable measure of central location. Improved: Write true if the statement is correct. If not, change the underlined word to make the statement correct. Write the new word on the space before the item. ( Mode). The median is the least reliable measure of central location.
  22. 22. 7. The item should contain only one idea; otherwise, the examinee may agree with one and disagree with the other. Poor: T F Sound does not travel in a vacuum, hence sound is louder in air than water. (The first part is true, the second is false) Improved: T F Sound is louder when it travels in air than in water. Improved: T F Sound does not travel in vacuum.
  23. 23. MATCHING TYPE 1. Use homogeneous material in the same matching exercise so as not to confuse the learner. Poor: Column A ___1. Discovered the Philippines ___2. First President of the Phil. Commonwealth ___3. Discovered America ___4. President of the Japanese -sponsored Phil. Republic ___5. Wrote Noli Me Tangere Column B A. Jose Rizal B. Jose Laurel C. Elpidio Quirino D. Christopher Columbus E. Apolinario Mabini F. Manuel Quezon G. Ferdinand Magellan H. Gregorio del Pilar I. Diego silang
  24. 24. Improved: Match the descriptions in Column A with the names of heroes in Column B. An answer in Column B can be used only once. Column A ____1. Sublime Paralytic ____2. Founder of the Katipunan ____3. Wrote Noli Me Tangere ____4. Brains of the Katipunan ____5. Founder of the La Solidaridad ____6. Hero of Tirad Pass Column B A. Andres Bonifacio B. Apolinario Mabini C. Diego Silang D. Emilio Jacinto E. Gregorio del Pilar F. Graciano Lopez Jaena G. Jose Rizal
  25. 25. 2. Include an unequal number of premises and responses, unless the direction specifies that a response may be used more than once. The example given in 1 has more responses than premises. 3. In the direction, indicate the basis for matching the items in the two columns. See the direction given in the improved item in 2. 4. Keep the shorter items on the right column. See example in 1.
  26. 26. 5. Keep the list of items to be matched brief. Brevity will enable the examinee to read the responses rapidly; with the sweep of an eye. Literally. See example in 2. 6. Arrange the list of responses in logical order ( e.g. alphabetically for words and chronologically for years.)See the improved item in 1. 7. Place all the items on the same page so that the student does not have to flip the test pages each time s/he looks for the correct response.
  27. 27. Source: Engineering the Curriculum ( a Guidebook for Educators and School Managers) Flordeliza C. Reyes, DLSU-Taft.
  28. 28. Thank you and keep up the good work!
  29. 29. WW (SR) WW (CR) SELECT ED RESPON SE CONSTRUC TED RESPONSE PERFORMANCE TASK 30- 50% 50- 70% A M M T T T A M T 2. Identify in the TOS the corresponding Performance Level and Assessment Format (WW-SR; WW-CR; PT). RAPATAN2021
  30. 30. A M M T T T A A M RAPATAN2 ALIGNMENT OF COMPETENCY WITH PERFORMANCE LEVEL 2. Identify in TOS Corresponding Performance Level and Assessment Format (WW-SR; WW-CR; PT). M M
  31. 31. A M M T T T A M T x x x x x x x x x x x x RAPATAN2 1. Classify Quarter Competencies into A-M-T. 2. Identify in TOS Corresponding Performance Level and Assessment Format (WW-SR; WW-CR; PT). 3. Complete in TOS No. and % of Items, Total Items and No. of days/hrs.
  32. 32. RAPATAN2 MODULAR/BLENDED/ONLINE MODALITIES
  33. 33. OPEN BOOKS CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE TEST CHECKLIST CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE TYPE CHECKLIST ITEMS OPEN BOOKS 1. The Make Meaning competency is stated. 2. Three selections related to the Make Meaning competency are given to the student to read and analyze. 3. Directions ask the student to determine which selection is the best in line with the Make Meaning-type of learning competency. Student is also asked to support answer by citing important parts of the selection. 4. Directions also contain permission to the student to use references and the Internet. Directions also clearly state persons or materials the student is not allowed to consult. 5. The length and readability of the selections are developmentally appropriate. As much as possible, the selections are contextualized in the Philippine setting. 6. A table is given for students to discuss their choice. A prompt on how to begin the answer may or may not be found. 7. Students have to do C-E-R in their answer. They make a Claim on which is the best. They have to give Evidence citing texts and Reason to justify their choice.
  34. 34. No article is selected. If an article is selected, there is no discussion. In addition to Level 3 response, student is able to point out the weaknesses of or limitations of other articles. Student’s reasoning or explanation of his or her choice is coherent. Student is able to support his or her answer with specific texts from the article. Student’s reasoning or explanation explanation of his or her choice is coherent. However, student is not able to support his or her answer with appropriate texts from the article. Student’s reasoning or explanation explanation of his or her choice is confusing. However, in line with the learning competency, student is able to mention important parts of the chosen article. OPEN BOOKS CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE TEST HOLISTIC RUBRIC

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