Sex Trafficking Issues December 2011 giving circle pppresentation
1. An intergenerational network of Vermont women with the
common goal of supporting sustainable change in the lives
of women and children around the world. We are pooling
our resources to leverage the power of our donations, to
fund existing non-profits whose programs and services
address the issues of human rights, safety, health and
education for those in need.
2. SEX TRAFFICKING
Prostitution: One who solicits and accepts payment for sex acts.
Human Trafficking or Trafficking in persons are umbrella terms
for activities when someone obtains or holds a person in
Forms of human trafficking include:
Debt Bondage Among Migrant Laborers
Involuntary Domestic Servitude
Forced Child Labor
4. Human Trafficking
Trafficking of persons divided into 2 distinct types
Distinction exists to separate labor violations from violations
that are more akin to forcible sexual assault.
Sexual Trafficking is the recruitment, transportation (within
national or across international borders), transfer, harboring,
or receipt of persons for the purposes of commercial sexual
Sexual trafficking is accomplished by means of fraud,
deception, threat of or use of force, abuse of a position of
vulnerability, and other forms of coercion.
5. Sex Trafficking
Sex Trafficking also occurs within debt bondage and
also occurs in domestic servitude as these are
A person’s initial consent to participate in prostitution
is not legally determinative.
If held in service through psychological manipulation
or physical force, they are trafficking victims.
Use of children in the commercial sex trade is
prohibited under both US law and Palermo Protocol
and legislation around the world.
6. U.N. Definition
"Trafficking in persons" shall mean the
recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt
of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other
forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of
the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the
giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the
consent of a person having control over another person, for
the purpose of exploitation.
Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation
of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual
exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery of practices
similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
7. Early History of Sex Trafficking
The sex trade can be traced back to the Sumerians and Babylonians.
Regulations against the sex trade increased across Europe after the
outbreak of syphilis in Naples during the fifteenth century.
Sex trafficking increased across the world in the 19th century.
This practice, going on throughout the centuries, finally became a
political issue in the early 1900s.
8. 20th Century
In 1902, the International Agreement for the Suppression of the
White Slave Traffic was drafted.
This eventually led to the United States passing the Mann Act of
1910 which "forbids transporting a person across state or
international lines for prostitution or other immoral purposes”.
1949 Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons
and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others.
Ratified by forty-nine countries around the world.
9. 20th Century
1999 The ILO (International Labor Organization of
the U.N) passes the Convention against the Worst
Forms of Child Labor.
Established widely recognized international standards
protecting children against forced or indentured labor,
child prostitution/pornography, use of children in drug
trafficking and other work harmful to the health, safety
and morals of children.
10. Trafficking Victims Protection Act
2000 enactment by the United Nations General
Assembly of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and
Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and
Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA)
made sex trafficking a serious violation of US Federal
law. (United States)
Annual Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report used as
diplomatic tool in engaging foreign governments.
45 states, including D.C., now have sex trafficking criminal
statutes, and forty-eight states have labor trafficking
9 Lag Behind: Lowest rank Massachusetts, West Virginia,
and Wyoming. Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Montana,
South Carolina, and South Dakota have laws that only meet
0 to 2 conditions tracked by the ratings.
Other states that also improved include Virginia, Hawaii,
and Ohio – all three moved up from the bottom tier.
Vermont made significant progress from last year’s 2010
ratings. July 2011. Vermont Act. No. 55(H.153)
12. The Statistics
Human trafficking is the second largest global organized
crime today. Specifically, trafficking for sexual
exploitation generates 27.8 billion dollars a year.
Human trafficking is an organized criminal industry that
affects every nation. 161 countries have been identified
as being affected by human trafficking, including 127
countries of origin, 98 transit countries, 137 destination
More than 600,000 people are bought and sold across
international borders each year. Approximately 80% of
human trafficking victims are women and girls and
up to 50% are minors.
Approximately 80% of trafficking involves sexual
exploitation, with the victims forced into the sex trade.
13. The Statistics
Child trafficking is one of the fastest growing crimes in
There are 1 - 2.5 million children exploited by the
international sex trade, some as young
as 4 and 5.
This year alone, more than 1 million children
worldwide will become victims of child trafficking.
The global market of child trafficking is over
$12 billion a year.
14. The Statistics
Sex Trafficking of Minors in the U.S.
100,000 underage girls are being sold for sex in America.
The average age of entry into prostitution is 12-14 years
Each minor victim is sold for sex on an average of 10-15
times a day, 6 days a week.
1 out of every 3 teens on the street will be lured toward
prostitution within 48 hours of running away from
15. Defining the Problem
Women, men, girls, and children as young as 5 years old
Lives made vulnerable by poverty.
Lack of education.
Members of marginalized groups, and from
Children who are runaways from physically,
emotionally, or sexually abusive homes.
Residents of conflict, war-torn areas.
16. The Problem
How Victims are Lured
The promise of a good job.
A false marriage proposal that will actually be
By being sold into the sex trade by parents, husbands,
By being kidnapped by traffickers.
17. The Problem
The Life of a Sex Trafficking Victim
Hell on Earth
A world without rights, laws, or compassion. A day-to- day routine that includes:
Beatings and constant threats
Being forced to service 10 to 100 customers in one day
Unsanitary living conditions
Physical injuries (broken bones, concussions, burns, vaginal and anal tearing;
traumatic brain injury)
Contraction of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B and C, Gonorrhea
Drug and alcohol addiction
Forced or coerced abortions
18. The Problem
How are Victims Exploited?
False offers and ads promising jobs as waitresses, maids, and dancers in other countries,
or in a nearby city.
“Seasoning” by starvation, confinement, beatings, physical abuse, rape, gang rape,
electric shock, threats of violence to the victims and their families, psychological
manipulation, forced drug use, and threatening to reveal their activities to their family
and their families’ friends.
Physical restraint, including chains and locked rooms.
Told that failure to perform an act would result in serious harm.
Debt-bondage, to “pay off” living expenses and initial transportation fees to the
destination country. Victims are told they must pledge their personal services to repay
Continued threats of injury or death to the victim or their families back home.
Theft of their travel documents to make escape more difficult.
Fines for not meeting daily quotas of service or for “bad” behavior
Fear for their lives if they attempt to flee. It’s difficult for victims to find help because of
language, social, and physical barriers that keep them from obtaining assistance.
19. The Problem
WHO are the Exploiters?
Pimps and brothel madams
Every man who pay to have sex with children and women
Travel agencies that handle sex tourism
Families who sell their daughters into sex slavery
Corrupt police departments and corrupt local, state, and
Pornographers who exploit women, and the people who
The 3 billion dollar/year child pornography industry
(100,000 websites)… 50% of internet child pornography
comes from the U.S.
20. What Can Be Done?
Reduce/eliminate gender inequality
Create employment opportunities to combat driving
force of poverty
Work to alleviate all conditions that allow for
trafficking to occur
Education and protection programs in vulnerable
Educate general population about issue
Work to combat societal acceptance of sex trade
Greater protection of women’s rights
21. What Can Be Done?
Intervention at the borders
Rescue: Non-profit organizations working to identify
and rescue victims
Greater investigation, prosecution, and punishment of
those involved in sex trafficking
Rehabilitation and Reintegration programs
Adequate remedies for the human rights violations
suffered by the victims, including compensation
Agreements and enforcement between countries to
22. FRIENDS OF MAITI NEPAL
Friends of Maiti Nepal established 2001 as official US
representative 501 (c) 3 organization whose purpose is
to raise funds and awareness of Maiti Nepal.
Maiti Nepal Vision: a society free of the sexual and
other forms of exploitation of children and women.
Mission: To combat exploitation, violence and
trafficking of children and women through
comprehensive prevention and rehabilitation
programs promoting education, empowerment, health
and social inclusion.
23. HOW CAN THEY ACCOMPLISH THIS?
Operate 3 Prevention Homes which provide
shelter, life and income generating skills and
formal and informal education and awareness
Safe Migration Program
Mass Awareness Campaigns/Resource Center
Youth Partnership Project
9 Transit Homes
Year 2010: 2478 Interceptions achieved
24. Maiti Nepal
Two Rehabilitation homes
Kathmandu and Itahari served 255 children,
girls and women
Half Way House: Kathmandu provides shelter
to girls under age 18.
Legal Aid: provided to 3369 people in 2010
Medical services: 38 bed Clinic and 2 Hospices
Teresa Academy: founded in 1998. 400 students
26. Maiti Nepal
What our donation can buy
$50 Vocational education: $50 investment supplies one
month of vocational education; $600 pays for a full course
(one year of training).
$300 Plain Sponsorship Includes annual school
admission fee, monthly school fees, books and other
materials, school uniform.
$750 Comprehensive Sponsorship for 1 year: Meals,
lodging, medicine, clothing, annual school admission fee,
monthly school fees, books and other materials and school
28. TRANSITIONS GLOBAL
PHNOM PENH, CAMBODIA
Transitions Global provides shelter, counseling,
rehabilitation, education, vocational training, job
placements, and reintegration services to survivors of sex
trafficking in Southeast Asia.
They empower survivors of sex trafficking with the
opportunity to heal from the past and obtain the most
basic of human rights - freedom and hope.
Their program is based on a trauma recovery and
empowerment model that holistically assists survivors in
successfully re-entering society.
29. TRANSITIONS GLOBAL
Transitional Living Center
This core program is in Phnom Penh, and serves twenty
Cambodian and Vietnamese girls each year with comprehensive
S.T.A.R. House (Secondary Transitional Apartment Residence)
This is the next step in the girls’ reintegration, with a capacity for
eight girls. This transitional house gives the girls a chance to
practice their newly developed life skills and learn to live
independently under limited supervision. For girls who are ready
for independence early, or for girls who have a viable family
option, they provide long-term reintegration support and re-
30. TRANSITIONS GLOBAL
What our donation can buy
$80 Supplies a girl's bike to get back and forth to
school and work.
$150 Covers the cost of a week of aftercare for a
$350 Pays for a girl's wardrobe – new outfits,
workout clothes, shoes, professional clothing.
$525 Covers the cost of a girl's attendance in a
private high school – tuition, uniforms, and
$1,000 Funds the annual cost of a girl's high-quality
vocational training in the job field of her choice.
$8,950 Pays for the annual cost for a girl – from rescue to
31. TRANSITIONS GLOBAL
$367,543 Contributions and Grants
$19,000 Consulting Fees
$255,421 Operating Expenses
$1,233 Fundraising Expenses
$40-$60,000/year The Boca Restaurant Group, Cincinnati
$35,000 Singapore donor
$25,000 Arthur B. Schultz Foundation
32. Future Meeting Dates
The first Wednesdays of each month
January 4, 2012
February 1, 2012
March 7, 2012
April 4, 2012
May 2, 2012
June 6, 2012