1. FTECH 2110 – Basic Food Preparation
Source: BROWN, A. (2011) Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation, 4th ed. Cengage Learning Inc., USA.
5 - Poultry
2. The word poultry refers to all
domesticated birds raised for
their meat. Although
chickens are the most
popular poultry consumed,
other species include
turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea
fowls, and pigeons (squabs).
8. The composition of poultry (muscle tissue, connective
tissue, etc.) is similar to that of other meat.
Turkeys and chickens have
both white and dark meat,
the lightness or darkness
depending on the amount
of myoglobin content in the
10. Chicken and turkey breasts are more white because
both these types of birds do almost no flying, and
their meat (muscles) in these areas thus contains
much less myoglobin. Wild birds such as ducks have
darker breast meat because they actually use the
muscles for flying.
12. Type refers to whether it is fresh, frozen, cooked,
sliced, canned, or dehydrated.
Style describes the degree to which it has been
cleaned or processed, that is, live, dressed,
ready-to-cook, or convenience categories.
Dressed birds are those
that have had only the
blood, feathers, and craw
removed. The craw or
crop is the pouch-like
gullet of a bird where food
is stored and softened. https://www.thehappychickencoop.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Chicken-Digestive-System.png
25. Preparation safety tips
Freezing will largely protect against bacterial
growth while the poultry is frozen, but
precautions should be taken during and after
thawing, when any bacteria that are present
may begin to grow.
26. The refrigerator is the best place to thaw frozen
birds, and its use requires planning ahead. It
takes about a day for a 3½-pound chicken and
1 to 5 days for a turkey to defrost, depending on
For food safety reasons, the USDA
recommends that stuffing be prepared and
Pre-stuffed frozen poultry should never be
thawed, but should be prepared, according to
package directions, directly from the frozen
28. The stuffing should be removed from leftover
cooked poultry before the bird is refrigerated or
30. The skin of any poultry, which is primarily fat,
can be removed before or after preparation, but
if it is left on, it does contribute to flavor and
Fat that naturally melts off the bird during
heating can be used to baste the poultry or to
31. Reheated poultry, especially turkey, has a
characteristic warmed-over flavor caused by the
breakdown of fat.
Microwave reheating results in less of this
warmed-over flavor than reheating using
32. Determining doneness
Poultry should always be heated until well done
to enhance flavor and to minimize the risk of
foodborne bacterial illnesses. Doneness may be
determined by internal temperature, color
changes, and/or touch and time/weight tables.
33. Internal Temperature
The best way to check poultry for doneness is
to use a meat thermometer. It should be
inserted into the thickest part of the breast,
although it can also be inserted into the inner
thigh. In either case it should not touch bone or
fat. Poultry is sufficiently cooked when the
internal temperature reaches a minimum of
165°F (74°C) for at least 15 seconds.
34. Color change
When the skin on oven-roasted chicken or
turkey reaches a golden brown color, it is time
to test for doneness. The juices coming out of
the bird should have turned from pink to clear,
and a bit of bone should be showing on the tip
of the legs.
35. When a turkey is roasted
breast side up, the breast
should be covered with
metal foil or a bit of
cooking oil to keep the
breast from over-browning
or burning. The foil should
be removed 45 minutes to
an hour before the end of
heating to allow for final
When pressed firmly with one or two fingers,
the well-done bird’s flesh will feel firm, not soft.
White meat may be firmer than dark meat, in
part because certain proteins have a higher gel-
forming ability in white muscle than they do in
the dark muscles.
38. Storage of poultry
Fresh poultry will keep in the refrigerator for up
to 3 days, while frozen poultry will keep in the
freezer for 6 to 12 months. All prepared foods
should be refrigerated in covered containers
and guarded against Salmonella.