Simple present tense is also called present
simple. We use the simple present tense to talk
about regular or habitual actions. It is the most
basic and common tense in English and it’s really
important to understand well.
S + V1 + object
1. Affirmative (Positive) Sentence
Subject Verb (Present
Rest of the
I work on my website
You learn English at home.
We like joyful music.
They play football every
He speaks English well.
She writes a letter.
It takes Time.
2. Negative Sentence
Rest of the
I do not work on my website
You do not learn English at home.
We do not like joyful music.
They do not play football every
He does not speak English well.
She does not write a letter.
It does not take Time.
1. Sleep deprivation
Caffeine combats drowsiness by tricking your brain
into feeling alert. It temporarily blocks adenosine, a
naturally sedating brain chemical, to prevent fatigue. “If
you don’t get a full night’s sleep, you’ll wake up with more
adenosine in your brain than your normally would,”
explains Timothy Roehrs of the Sleep Disorders and
Research Center at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. A hit of
caffeine neutralizes adenosine and helps you feel less
sleepy. If you’re a regular coffee guzzler, through, you may
need an extra boost to counter your late night. “As
tolerance develops, the brain makes more receptors for
adenosine,” says Roehrs. “So you need more caffeine to
block the added receptors.”
People who don’t use caffeine regularly
“usually become significantly more alert and
better able to perform cognitive and motor tasks
– like paying attention during boring or rote
routines such as typing – if they’re given the
proper caffeine does, “says Laura Juliano, a
professor of psychology at American University
in Washington, DC. (For people who do use
caffeine regularly, however, it offers few, if any,
“Caffeine can improve physical performance in
an endurance exercise like running, but the effect is
less for short bursts of movement such as lifting
weights or sprinting,” says Matthew Ganio, a
professor of kinesiology at the University of
Caffeine prompts the body to burn more fat
stores instead of the limited stores of carbohydrate
in our muscles. When the muscles run out of
carbohydrate, you get tired. The benefit may be
smaller in regular caffeine users.
4. Alzheimer’s disease
“In mice, caffeine not only defends against inevitable
memory impairment.” says Gary Arendash of the
University of South Florida, “but also substantially
decreases the amount of beta-amyloid, the bad protein
that many researchers believe is the root cause of the
disease.” The few human studies have been inconsistent.
In a Hawaiian study that tracked nearly 3,500 middle-aged
men for 25 years, those who had reported consuming at
least 400 mg of caffeine a day were 55 percent less likely
to have brain lesions death than those who said they
consumed less than 140 mg a day. However, they were no
less likely to be diagnosed with dementia during their
When the pain comes on, the blood vessels
in your brain widen: caffeine constricts them.
It’s also a mild pain reliever.
6. Parkinson’s disease
In a study of more than 300,000 U.S. men and
women, those who consumed at least 600 mg of
caffeine a day (an eight-ounce cup of coffee has
between 95 and 200 mg) were about 30 percent
less likely to be diagnosed with Parkinson’s over
the following ten years than those who consumed
the least caffeine (less than 20 mg a day).
Parkinson’s patients gradually lose the nerve cells
that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Caffeine protects those nerve cells.
The March of Dimes recommends that
women who are pregnant or trying to become
pregnant consume no more than 200 mg of
caffeine a day because the harmful effects of
more than that on fertility and fetal healthy
“cannot be ruled out.”
2. Disrupted sleep
“People don’t realize how much caffeine
affects their sleep,” says Juliano. “For those who
are slow metabolizers of caffeine, there’s still
enough in their system to disrupt sleep at night
even if they stop consuming it much earlier in
the day.” People who go off caffeine typically
say they sleep longer and sounder, both Roehrs
and Juliano report.
3. Heart rhythm
In a study that followed more than 130,000
men and women for 30 years, drinking coffee
(regular or decaf) didn’t increase the risk of
cardiac arrhythmias, even among those with
existing heart conditions.
Many companies add caffeine to weight-loss
pills because it speeds up the metabolic rate, at
least for a short period of time. Yet “there’s
little evidence that consuming caffeine leads to
significant weight loss or helps people keep
weight off,” says Ganio.
5. Blood pressure
While caffeine users experience a modest
increase in blood pressure, long-term studies
don’t show a clear like between coffee
consumption and the development of
hypertension, notes Rob van Dam of the
National University of Singapore.
1. Make a groups of four
2. Read the text that stick it on the board
3. Each student has 3 minutes for reading the text,
the students from one group will read the text on
4. Go back to your groups and share what each
student has read to your friends
5. Discuss about the text
6. Summarize by making a mind mapping
7. Present in front of class
1. Get a piece of card
2. Write down what you have learned and your
opinion from your group
3. Give it back to teacher
4. Let each student read their friends’ card in
front of class
1. Miss Jirapat Chomvilai 54010513010
2. Miss Thunyachon Ladawan 54010513020
3. Mr.Narunon Prathammasarn 54010513047
4EN, English major Faculty of Education
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