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  1. 1. Chapter 20 Objective: To emphasize the client’s most attractive facial features while minimizing those features that are less attractive
  2. 2. Objective  Varies from client to client  Based on face shape analysis and client’s individual needs  Consider face structure, eye color, skin and hair, client’s wants and the results you can realistically achieve
  3. 3. Foundations  Foundation  evens skin tone and color  conceals minor imperfections of the skin  protects the skin from climate, dirt and debris  Available in liquid, stick, cream-to-powder, and tinted moisturizer.
  4. 4. Chemistry  Cream  predominantly water, mineral oil, stearic acid, cetyl alcohol, propylene glycol, triethanolamine, lanolin derivatives, borax and insoluble pigments  Generally suited for dry to normal skin and give medium to full coverage
  5. 5. Chemistry  Liquid  Suspensions of organic and inorganic pigments in alcohol and water-based solutions  Generally suited for clients with oily to normal skin conditions and sheer to medium coverage.
  6. 6. Chemistry  Powder  Consist of a powder base mixed with a coloring agent and perfume  Effective for oily skin
  7. 7. Chemistry  Cream - to - powder  Moist on application but dries to a powdery finish
  8. 8. Using Foundation  Skin tone determines the selection of foundation color  warm : yellow, orange, or red-orange  cool : blue, blue-green (olive), or blue-red (pink)  neutral : equal amounts of warm and cool tones
  9. 9. Selection  Match as closely to actual skin tone  If too light, it will have a chalky or gray appearance  If too dark, it will look dirty or muddy.  Determine correct foundation color  applying a stripe of color to clean skin on the jaw line  blend slightly  color that “disappears” on the skin is the correct tone
  10. 10. Concealers  Used to cover blemishes and discoloration. Available in pots, pencils, wands and tubes/sticks.  chemistry: composition is similar to cream foundations  using concealer : removed from container w/a spatula and applied w/a concealer brush or sponge. Match color to skin as closely as possible
  11. 11. Face Powder  Fine cosmetic powder, used to add a matte or dull finish to the face  Improves attractiveness of the skin by enhancing the skin’s natural color, helping to conceal minor blemishes and discoloration's  Toning down excessive color and shine  Also used to set the foundation
  12. 12. Face Powder  Chemistry  loose powder & pressed powder have the same basic composition  pressed powders are compressed & held together w/ binders  ingredients include talc, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, kaolin, chalk, zinc stearate, & magnesium sterate
  13. 13. Face Powder  Using Face Powder  available in a variety of tints, shades & different weights  light & medium weights are best for dry to normal skin  heavier weight is effective on normal to oily skin  should match natural skin tone & work well w/foundation
  14. 14. Cheek Color  Also called blush, blusher or rouge  cream or powder cosmetic used to color the cheeks & skin beneath the cheekbones  creates more attractive facial contours
  15. 15. Cheek Color  Chemistry  is compact or pressed powder w/ coloring added  Oil based cream cheek color  combinations of pigments in an oil or fat base  blends of waxes and oily liquids create a water- resistant product
  16. 16. Cheek Color  Using cheek color  liquid - blends well & suitable for all skin types  apply w/ a facial sponge  Cream or gel  resemble cream foundation & preferred for dry & normal skin  applied w/ a facial sponge
  17. 17. Cheek Color  dry ( pressed )  imparts a matte finish & is the most widely used  applied w/ a brush or cotton puff  loose  variety of shades & tints  used to add color to contour the cheeks  applied w/ a facial puff
  18. 18. Cheek Color  General rules for application  apply cheek color where natural color would normally appear in cheeks  do not apply the color in toward the nose beyond the center of the eye  keep color above the horizontal line at the tip of the nose
  19. 19. Cheek Color  do not extend color above the outer corner of the eye  do not apply color in a bright, round circle  blend the color so that it fades softly into the foundation
  20. 20. Lip Color  Also called lipstick or gloss  A cosmetic in paste form, available in a variety of colors  Used to enhance or correct the shape of the lips  Some contain sunscreen, others contain moisturizers
  21. 21. Lip Color  Chemistry  available in variety of forms  cream, glosses, pencils, gels & sticks  all are formulas of oils, waxes & dyes  castor oil is the primary ingredient  others use olive, mineral, sesame, cocoa butter, petroleum lecithin & hydrogenated vegetable oils
  22. 22. Lip Color  Using Lip Color  consider client’s preferences, eye color, skin tone & lip shape  do not apply directly from container, unless it belongs to the client  use a spatula to remove the lip color from the container & take it from the spatula w/ a disposable lip brush
  23. 23. Lip Liner  Used to outline the lips  Also helps keep lip color from feathering  Coordinate lip liner w/ chosen lip color  Sharpen the lip liner & sanitize the sharpener before every use
  24. 24. Eye Shadow  Applied on the eyelids to accentuate or contour them  Available in almost every color & in a variety of finishes  metallic, matte, frost, shimmer or dewy
  25. 25. Eye Shadow  Chemistry  cream shadows  water based w/ oil, petrolatum, thickener, wax, perfume, preservatives & color added  powder shadow  composed much the same as pressed face powder & powdered cheek color
  26. 26. Eye Shadow  Using eye shadow  makes eyes appear brighter & more expressive  darker shade eye color makes the natural color of the iris appear lighter  lighter shade makes the iris appear deeper  make-up colors should enhance the client’s eyes
  27. 27. Eye Shadow  Forms  stick, cream, pressed & dry powder form  Colors  highlight color  lighter that client’s skin tone & may have any finish  highlight a specific area such as brow bone  lighter color will make an area appear larger
  28. 28. Eye Shadow  Base color  medium tone that is close to client’s skin tone  used to even skin tone on the eye  applied all over lid & brow bone before other colors are applied  Contour color  deeper & darker than client’s skin tone  applied to minimize specific area, to create contour in crease or define eyelash line
  29. 29. Eyeliner  Used to outline & emphasize eye  available in pencil, liquid, pressed (cake ) or felt tip pen  make eyes appear larger & lashes fuller  Chemistry  consist of wax ( paraffin ) or hardened oil base ( petrolatum ) w/ variety of additives to create color
  30. 30. Eyeliner CAUTION: According to the American Medical Association, eye pencils should not be used to color the inner rim of the eyes, because this can lead to infection of the tear duct, causing tearing, blurring of vision & permanent pigmentation of the mucous membrane lining the inside of the eye
  31. 31. Eyeliner  Using eyeliner  be cautious when applying  have steady hand  sharpen eyeliner & sanitize the sharpener before each use
  32. 32. Eyebrow Color  Eyebrow pencils or shadows used to add color & shape to the eyebrows  Can darken the eyebrows  fill in sparse areas  correct misshapen brows
  33. 33. Eyebrow Color  Using eyebrow color  sharpen pencil & sanitize sharpener before each use
  34. 34. Mascara  Used to darken, define & thicken eyelashes  Available in liquid, cake & cream form  Enhances natural lashes, making them appear thicker & longer  Lashes should be darker than the eyebrows
  35. 35. Mascara  Chemistry  polymer products that include water, wax, thickeners, film-formers & preservatives in their formulation  pigments are carbon black, carmine, ultramarine, chromium oxide, & iron oxides  some contain rayon or nylon fibers to lengthen& thicken hair fibers
  36. 36. Mascara  Using mascara  may be use on all lashes from the inner to outer corners  dispose of the wand  never double-dip
  37. 37. Other Cosmetics  Eye makeup removers  oil-based or water based used to remove make- up  Grease paint  heavy makeup used for theatrical purposes
  38. 38. Other Cosmetics  Cake or pancake makeup  shaped, solid mass applied to face w/ moistened cosmetic sponge  good coverage  covers scars & pigmentation defects
  39. 39. Make-up Brushes & Tools Powder brush Blush brush Concealer brush Lip brush Eye shadow brushes Eyeliner brush Angle brush Lash and brow brush Tweezers Eyelash curler Sponges Powder or cotton puffs Mascara wands Spatulas Disposable lip brushes Sponge-tipped shadow applicators Cotton swabs Cotton pads or puffs Pencil sharpener
  40. 40. Summary  Makeup has a magical quality that speaks to both the cosmetologist and the client  When applying makeup, you must take into consideration the structure of the face; the color of the eyes, skin & hair; how the client wants to look;& the results you can realistically achieve