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  1. 1. H.E. Nikolay Rishatovich Kudashev on Bilateral Ties between Russia and India Pg 8 Vladimir Putin Re-Elected as President of Russia Pg 14 Old Wine in a New Bottle Pg 18 “Disarmament is a sine qua non for Peace”: Mozambican President, pg. 03 Interview with Romualdo Johnam, Director-General of INATUR, pg. 10 Mozambique: India’s Gateway To Africa, pg.12
  2. 2. INTERNATIONAL COAL VENTURES (P) LTD Committed to sustainability and inclusive growth in Mozambique Operator of Integrated Mine, Rail & Port For the people
  3. 3. 3 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship Filipe Jacinto Nyusi, President of Mozambique "Disarmament is a sine qua non for Peace" - President The President of the Republic, Filipe Jacinto Nyusi, said today, in the framework of the celebrations of the 43 years of National Independence, thatthedisarmament,demobilization and reintegration of the armed men of Renamo are the sine qua non to a democratic, stable and peaceful country. "There is no alternative to disarmament, demobilization and reintegration. And it should start now, "he added. For the Head of State, peace is a common and indispensable asset for any dream or project to materialize. "The collective consciousness we have of this is that it makes us fight relentlessly so that peace is never compromised. It was on the basis of this assumption of peace that we put ourselves at the disposal of a format of direct dialogue with the Renamo leadership, "informed President Nyusi. According to the statesman, the initial results of this position were made visible by the cessation of military hostilities, and later with the partial approval of the revision of the Constitution of the Republic in the context of the decentralization dossier. "I want now and here to affirm that we will continue to dialogue and to cement the consensus that has already been reached regarding the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of the armed men of Renamo, a process expected with great expectation by our brothers in the ranks of Renamo, and especially by the people, "announced the President of the Republic. The statesman assured that he is working towards this objective, and that with the will of all, this objective will be reached, because with the late leader of Renamo, the lines of action had already been identified, the schedule of the implementation schedule and the convenient fulfillment of the organic result of consensus in the Defense and Security Forces. "This consensus was witnessed by officials from both sides, and by the representation of the contact group and with a consolidated and recorded synthesis. We have been defending the non inclusion of new elements that can be considered as details to be the subject of operational decision of the superior command in the Defense Armed Forces of Mozambique, "informed the President of the Republic. He added that it is understandable the needforsometimeforthenewRenamo leadership to be contextualized on the steps previously taken in the process of dialogue with the President of Renamo Afonso Dhlakama, but he called for the speed of Renamo's new leadership so that sooner achieve this noble desire, which is the definitive peace and effective reconciliation among Mozambicans. "We reiterate our unwavering commitment, together with the progress of the decentralization process, to continue the dialogue so that next October's elections take place in an atmosphere of peace and with our brothers, now on Renamo bases, unarmed, and with the reintegration into the society in progress as addressed in Namadjiua, Gorongosa during our last meeting (with the President of Renamo), "said President Nyusi. "Este consenso foi testemunhado por oficiais de ambas as partes, e pela representação do grupo de contacto e com uma síntese eleborada e registada." Maputo, June 25, 2018 Source : First published on the official website of the Govt. of Mozambique.
  4. 4. We are thankful to all the advertisers and contributors for their support in this initiative. Diplomacy and Beyond Plus congratulates the people of the Republic of Mozambique on 43 years of independence and progress.
  5. 5. Celebrating 43 years of independence of the Republic of Mozambique, I present to everyone this special edition on India–Mozambique ties: India’s African Ally. Mozambique and India have enjoyed a close relationship since the time of Mozambique’s independence in 1975. Their bilateral relation is an epitome of friendship with India being one of the first countries to set up an embassy in Mozambique. In 2015, Hon. Mozambican President Filipe Nyusi visited India amidst a celebration of 40 years of the country’s independence. His visit strengthenedthebondbetweenthetwocountriesinareasofgasreserves, coal deposits, and investments in agricultural and agri-business. Hon. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited Maputo as part of his four-nation African tour in 2016 to enhance ties in the areas of maritime security, trade and investment, agriculture, and food. It was the first such visit by an Indian Prime Minister since 1982, where he assured that India is Mozambique’s “trusted friend” and a “reliable partner”. This special report can serve as a guide to anyone interested in knowing more about the developments regarding strategic partnerships, cultural exchanges, progress that has been made by India in its ties with Mozambique in sectors like energy and maritime cooperation, and Mozambique’s tourism sector. We are deeply obliged to the General-Director of INATUR (National Tourism Institute, Mozambique) Mr. Romualdo Johnam for an exclusive interview where he shared his views on the growth strategy for Mozambique’s tourism sector and the vast possibilities for India and Mozambique to cooperate in the sector. In addition, on behalf of our entire team, I convey sincere gratitude to all the contributors for their valuable contributions to Diplomacy and Beyond Plus. Surya Prakash Publisher Publisher's Note
  6. 6. 10 08 10 14 22 30 14 18 20 24 28 MOZAMBIQUE: INDIA’S GATEWAY TO AFRICA Present-day bilateral relations began in 1975 when Mozambique achieved independence from the Portuguese. INTERVIEW WITH ROMUALDO JOHNAM, MOZAMBICAN DIRECTOR- GENERAL OF INATUR "The history behind these two countries is rich and can easily be noticed through our cultural expressions." INDIA–MOZAMBIQUE: CHARTING A NEW FUTURE THROUGH TRADE & ECONOMY India–Mozambique have a high degree of congruence in the areas of education, health, medical tourism, maritime security, energy convergence, and economy and trade. INDIA-MOZAMBIQUE RELATIONS: SURGING AHEAD India has constantly extended its support to Mozambique in her struggle against colonial rule. After the independence of Mozambique, diplomatic relations were established with the opening of the Indian Mission at Maputo. INDIA–MOZAMBIQUE: ENERGY CONVERGENCE There is a shared history of profitable and deep-rooted trade relations that has resulted in five-time increase of bilateral trade between the two countries in past five years. INDIA–MOZAMBIQUE: MARITIME SECURITY AND MILITARY COOPERATION Today, the Indian Ocean is home to 40 % of the world’s population, more than 50 % of the world’s oil, and 45 % of the world’s gas reserves. INDIA–MOZAMBIQUE: A VALUED BOND In 2001, when Mozambique established its mission in New Delhi, both India and Mozambique decided to work towards nurturing their economic, military, and cultural ties. CONTENT 14 18 2420 14 28 10 08
  7. 7. 32 38 INDIA AND MOZAMBIQUE: HISTORY WOVEN THROUGH DIASPORA DISPERSION The history of India’s active trade links with Mozambique dates back to more than five centuries. Today people of Indian descent form a significant part of the Mozambican population. MOZAMBIQUE: UNTOUCHED HAVEN ON EARTH The country shares borders with the Indian Ocean, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, and South Africa. The largest city in Mozambique and its capital is Maputo. Half of the 30.53 million population of Mozambique speaks Portuguese, second only to the Bantu language. Other common languages include Swahili, Sena, and Makhuwa. Published by Diplomacy & Beyond Plus in association with The Embassy of the Mozambique Federation, India CEO & Publisher Surya Prakash Associate Editors Chhavi Nagpal Shweta Chaudhary Sr. Manager Business Development Sachin Sharma diplomacy.bd@ssymedia.com Marketing Manager Mritunjay Ojha Corporate Communications Shekhar Kumar Marketing Team Ramdeo Kumar Hemant Gupta Gaurav Kumar Saurabh Singh Photographers Nitin Sharma Shubham Graphic Designers Jeetu Lodhi Roberto Andrew Webmaster Sandeep Kumar Legal Advisor Vandana Prakash DISCLAIMER: The views and opinions expressed in this magazine are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the editors or publisher. Although all efforts have been made to ensure the complete accuracy of text, neither the editors nor publisher will accept responsibility for consequences arisen from errors or omissions or any opinions or advice given. Corporate Office SSY Media Pvt. Ltd. First Floor No-30, Uttranchal Plaza, Sector-3, Vasundhara, GZB, UP NCR (201012), India Tel: +91-120-4209789 Email: diplomacy@ssymedia.com Website: www.diplomacybeyond.com www.ssymedia.com CONTRIBUTING WRITERS Jatswan Singh: Associate Professor at Department of International and Strategic Studies, University of Malaya Prerna Chahar: Ph.D Research Scholar, United States Studies Program, Jawaharlal Nehru University Neha Sinha: Research Associate, Vivekananda International Foundation Jaya Auplish: Department of Political Science, Miranda House, University of Delhi Abhishek Mishra: Research Assistant with Observer Research Foundation's Strategic Studies Program Alka Gurha: Independent Writer and Researcher Sujatha Warrier: Independent Researcher and Journalist 32 38
  8. 8. 8 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship Deposition of a wreath Plaza de los Heroes The Republic of Mozambique celebrated its 43rd National Day on the 25th of June. A glimpse:
  9. 9. 9 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship Celebrations of 43 years of National Independence PR directs celebrations of National Independence Day
  10. 10. 10 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship Mozambique and India enjoy a warm and traditional friendship. Please, express your thoughts on this historical bond. The history behind these two countries is rich and can easily be noticed through our cultural expressions. Mozambicans still preserve the traditions of the past that have been influenced by the Indian culture. I strongly believe that we have the right conditions to work together in joint initiatives to show the world the beauty of our traditions and culture. It is common to find in such families in Mozambique who have their roots in Goa Island. The Hindu community in Mozambique is extensive and are mostly engaged in commercial activities. Tourism is a highly lucrative sector as it contributes 2.3% to Mozambique’s GDP. What is the country’s strategy to strive for more growth in this sector? The government elected tourism as the fourth sector for the accelerated development of the country. Therefore, it defined 5 priority destinations for promotion. They are: Maputo for business; Vilankulo for leisure and beach experience; Gorongosa for adventure tourism and wildlife experience; Quirimbas for luxury tourism and culture experience; Niassa for ecotourism and wildlife experience. The government is removing the barriers by implementing the open skies policy, visa application at the point of entry, and has also created incentives for investment in tourism. With these policies, we hope to increase the number of visitors and jobs, and stimulate other sectors such as agriculture,servicesandindustry,therefore reducing the imports and increasing the exports. We believe that tourism is an economic activity that contributes directly to the improvement of quality of life of the communities, residing in the tourist destinations. You have been recently appointed by the Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho do Rosário as the new Director-General of the National Tourism Institute (INATUR). What are your future plans to make Mozambique the number one tourist destination worldwide? The marketing strategy [2017–2021] has straight guidelines to ensure the implementation of Five-Year Government Program. Therefore, we will continue to engage in the actions that have already been started, with our full focus in the five priority areas, giving special attention to training, grading and re-grading of hospitality establishments, and promotion of tourism and investment. We will continue to be more aggressive in online marketing for both domestic and international markets. We will continue to engage with the private sector to stimulate as well. In an Interview with Diplomacy And Beyond Plus Mozambican Director-General of INATUR ROMUALDO JOHNAM
  11. 11. 11 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship Mozambique is a nation with un-spoilt destinations. What are your views on sustainable tourism? The five priority areas are coincidently within some of the conservation areas and are also suitable for ecotourism. We are aware of the potential growth and the development of tourism in these areas. Thus, the government motivates partnerships with local communities to ensure that they are involved in all the projects and have equal share of benefits. The relocations of wildlife in parks and reserves and the policy of protection of wildlife and endangered species are highly supported by government. This will enhance the attractiveness of the sites, motivate more investments and will increase the quality of services. How can Mozambique and India extend their bilateral relations through tourism? Mozambique and India have strong relationships in sectors such as agriculture, science and technology, industry, health and commerce. In relation to tourism, Mozambique has a lot to learn from India, such as in destination marketing using the digital marketing tools, training in Photo : Casa do Ferro, The prefabricated building was imported from Belgium in 1892 to house the Governor-General of Mozambique. the hospitality sector, and conservation of tradition and culture. We believe that these areas would be considered in our bilateral agreements. Both countries have potential to be source markets in themselves. Indians will surely feel at home in Mozambique. What is your message to the readers of Diplomacy and Beyond Plus? Mozambiquehasmanyuniquesellingpoints:itsculture, cuisine and history are vibrant. Visit Mozambique and enjoy a fascinating destination. We offer ocean-front boutique resorts, fine hotels in our main cities, the most awe-inspiring of natural landscapes, mesmerizing marine life in the ocean, and abundant wildlife in our restocked and revitalized national parks. "We believe that tourism is an economic activity that contributes directly to the improvement of quality of life of the communities, residing in the tourist destinations."
  12. 12. 12 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship MOZAMBIQUE: INDIA’S GATEWAY TO AFRICA - Jatswan S. Sidhu Although modern-day India–Mozambique relations may be recent, they are, however, deeply rooted in almost half a millennia of history, when Indian traders from South India made their way to this part of the African continent in search of trading opportunities.
  13. 13. 13 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship In April 1982, President Samora Machel became Mozambique’s first Head of State to visit India and in August 1982, Indira Gandhi became India’s first Prime Minister to visit Mozambique. Further, in 1499, when the famous Portuguese explorer, Vasco Da Gama visited the country, he noted the presence of Indian traders in Mozambique. Present-day bilateral relations began in 1975 when Mozambique achieved independence from the Portuguese. In fact, India was one of the first few countries to accord official diplomatic recognition to Mozambique and open an embassy in Maputo, the country’s capital in the same year. Mozambique opened its embassy in New Delhi in 2001. Mozambique is currently not only one of the fastest growing economies in Africa’s Sub-Saharan region, but is also richly endowed with abundant natural resources, especially coal, oil, and natural gas. In terms of oil reserves, Mozambique has the seventh largest reserves in Africa. As far as natural gas is concerned, it has some 85 million cubic feet in the Rovuma basin. Under such circumstances, India’s interest in the country is not only related to its quest for energy security but even extends to the area of maritime security, mainly due to the country’s strategic location in the Indian Ocean. Over the years, cordial relations between India and Mozambique have been marked by many high-level visits from both sides. In April 1982, President Samora Machel became Mozambique’s first Head of State to visit India and in August 1982, Indira Gandhi became India’s first Prime Minister to visit Mozambique. In fact, all of Mozambique’s presidents have visited India, with the most recent visit made by President Filipe Nyusi in August 2015. Present Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited Mozambique in July 2016, thus, making it the first visit by an Indian Prime Minister since 1982. During the said visit, PM Modi was quoted as saying that India would be a “trusted friend” and “a reliable partner” for Mozambique. India’s current close relations are not merely based on trade, commerce, and investments alone but cover the area of maritime security as well. With a coastline of some 2,500 km coupled with an underdeveloped Navy and rampantproblemofpiracyoffitscoast, Mozambique is very much reliant on India for its maritime security. In fact, at least on two major occasions, the Indian Navy has provided maritime security for Mozambique. This was namely in 2003, when Maputo hosted the African Union Summit, and again in 2004 when the country became the host for the World Economic Forum meet. It is said that India has successfully projected itself as a reliable maritime security provider, facilitated by a 2006 Defence Cooperation Agreement and another inked in 2012 that allows the Indian Navy to patrol Mozambique’s territorial waters. It was also in 2012, that the Indian Navy began undertaking anti-piracy patrols in the Mozambique Channel. In addition to this and at the multilateral level, defence cooperation is also undertaken through the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) and the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS), of which both are members. Apart from cooperation on maritime security, in 2017, both countries decided to expand the scope of defence cooperation by resurrecting a dormant Joint Defence Working Group. On top of that, India also provides equipment and training for Mozambique’s intelligence services — the State Security and Intelligence Service (SISE). Prior to that, the Indian Army had also participated in the United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) between December 1992 and October 1994. As far as investments are concerned, India’s foreign direct investments to Mozambique are largely in the extractivesector,namelycoalandiron ore mining as well as oil exploration. In 2012, India was Mozambique’s eighth largest foreign investor, with cumulative investments between 2004 and 2014 valued at around USD 128 million. Further, in 2014 alone, India invested some USD 1.4 billion in Mozambique. In fact, of India’s total investment in Africa which stands at around USD 32 billion, some USD 8 billion have been invested in Mozambique alone, mainly in the
  14. 14. 14 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship energy sector. Some of the Indian companies that are heavily involved in Mozambique’s coal mining sector include Coal India Ltd., Tata Steel, JSW Steeland Essar Group, to name a few. In addition, Damodar Ferro is involved in iron ore mining, while Pure Diets, Rajarambapu Group, HK Jalan Group and Asian Tea are active in Mozambique’s agricultural sector. Similarly, in the oil sector, Indian companies that have invested in Mozambique include Bharat Petro Resources Ltd. (BPRL), Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Videsh Ltd. (OVL) and Oil India Ltd. (OIL). Meanwhile, India’s investments in Mozambique’s non-extractive sector in 2013 alone amounted to some USD 625 million. In short, Mozambique is the second largest recipient of Indian Foreign Direct Investment in Africa, after Mauritius. In the meantime, India is also keenly eying Mozambique’s natural gas sector where Indian state-owned enterprises have already invested some USD 6 billion in the Rovuma field, with an additional USD 6 billion to be invested in 2019. At least till the mid-2000s, trade between both remained rather insignificant. It was only after 2006 that trade between both began witnessing noteworthy growth, eventually reaching its pinnacle in 2014. In 2014-2015 alone, total trade between India and Mozambique stood at USD 2.4 billion, with the trade balance favoring India. Coal and dried legumes (pulses) make-up the bulk of Indian imports from Mozambique, totaling to some 87%. Between 2008 and 2015, India’s import of pulses from Mozambique witnessed a fifteen- fold increase while the import of coal from Mozambique has also increased dramatically since 2012. Apart from these, India also currently provides Mozambique with substantial amounts of development aid in the form of concessional Lines of Credit (LoC), thus making it the former’s third largest recipient of LoC. For example, between 2002 and 2013 alone, India provided Mozambique with a LoC amounting to some USD 649 billion. In fact, in 2014 alone, India dispensed some USD 216.4 million in LoC to Mozambique. This is in addition to the scholarships provided by the Indian government, through the Africa Scholarship Scheme of the Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR), to deserving students from Mozambique to undertake undergraduate and post-graduate studies at institutions of higher education in India. While India’s relations with Mozambique in the past may have been premised on the basis of enhancing cooperation and forging Afro-Asian unity, present- day relations, however, signify a convergence around three major areas namely food security, energy security, and maritime security. Taking into account recent developments and the extremely active relations between both, it is reasonable to argue that Mozambique is definitely poised to emerge as the focus point for Indian investments in Africa, as its major source for food and energy supplies, and its proximate military ally in the western part of the Indian Ocean. Trade between India and Mozambique stood at USD 2.4 billion, with the trade balance favoring India. Coal and dried legumes (pulses) make-up the bulk of Indian imports from Mozambique, totaling to some 87%.
  15. 15. 16 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship MOZAMBIQUE–INDIA: CHARTING A NEW FUTURE THROUGH TRADE & ECONOMY - Prerna Chahar India–Mozambique share a century-old trade partnership along with a history of friendly relations. The cordial and substantial ties that both countries share trace back to pre-colonial times. The long drawn historical principles of South–South Cooperation, common developmental challenges, and people-to-people interactions forge strong bilateral linkages between the two countries.
  16. 16. 17 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship The significance of India–Mozambique relations can be best described by the diplomatic relations that both countries have been sharing since Mozambique achieved independence in 1975. In contemporary times, their bilateral historical linkages have ambulated on varied developmental needs. India–Mozambique have a high degree of congruence in the areas of education, health, medical tourism, maritime security, energy convergence, economy and trade. These common grounds of colonial experiences, mutual cooperation and development aspirations characterize the newly envisioned India–Mozambique relations. In July 2016, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Mozambique charted a new path of mutual cooperation and development opportunities. Mozambique was the first destination of PM Modi’s four-nation African tour that ended successfully with the signing of number of key pacts with his Mozambique counterpart President Filipe Nyusi. The meeting regarded partnership in trade and energy as the major focus area for cooperation. During a media briefing PM Modi stated, “President and I have held detailed discussions on our shared vision for a stronger partnership in years ahead . . . Mozambique’s strengths are also the areas of India’s need. And, what Mozambique requires, is available in India. We complement each other.” The above statement indicates the importance of working together in sectors of mutual cooperation and raising the level of their bilateral relation to new unprecedented heights. Economic and Trade Relations India–Mozambique economic and trade relations range from cooperation in agricultural, forest, fisheries, food security to grants and business investments. The Mozambican economy constituting forestry, fisheries, and agriculture continues to play an important role in the development of the country. According to the National Statistics Institute (INE), in 2014, the sector alone contributed 23.4% to their GDP. Trade relations in these sectors provide ample opportunities for cooperation, investment and growth to both countries. During his visit, PM Modi also stated, “Mozambique has already been one of the gateways for Indian investments into Africa. About one-fourth of all Indian investments in Africa are in Mozambique.” He offered to share India’s expertise in agriculture infrastructure. President Nyusi too highlighted working together to boost agricultural development and productivity as the top priority for the administration. To strengthen the partnership in food security, India has signed a MoU that aims to promote the production of Toor (pigeon pea) and other pulses in Mozambique. Mozambique became the first country in South-East Africa in three decades to sign a long-term agreement with India for the import of pulses. In 2016–2017 Indian government cleared a proposal to enter into an agreement with Mozambique for five-financial years to import 100,000 tonnes of pulses with an option to scale it up to 200,000 tonnes by 2020-2021. The Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (AAPEDA) reports that in 2016-17, Mozambique was the top importing country for Sorghum cereal (66.66%) to India. The agreement
  17. 17. 18 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship will not only help India to meet its food security requirements, but will also facilitate investments in commercial farming and help achieve the target of doubling farmer’s income by 2022. Bilateral trade relations between India and Mozambique continue to grow steadily. Mozambique is destination to nearly 25% of Indian investments in Africa, totaling around $8 billion with trade between the countries, multiplying five-fold between 2010 and 2015, reaching $2.4 billion in 2015. According to Mozambique’s Investment Promotion Centre, Indian investment to Mozambique from 2004–2014 was $129.35 million. Mozambique is the third-largest recipient of concessional LoC from India amounting to $649 billion (2002-2013). India is among the five major trading partners and is the eighth-largest investor for Mozambique. India’s exports to Mozambique majorly consist of petroleum products, metals, cotton, iron and steel, machinery, cosmetics, machinery, and electronic goods. India’s imports to Mozambique majorly consist of coal, pulses, and metal ores, raw cashew, and scrap metals. Past few years, important business delegation meetings have been held regularly between Indian Industry Association and Mozambican Chamber of Industry. Mr. Dharmendra Pradhan, (Minister of State for Petroleum and Gas) with a 9 member CII delegation visited Mozambique in April 2015. Shri Anup Wadhawan, Director General of Foreign Trade, led an Indian delegation comprising of over 70 Indian businessmen for the fourth edition of ‘Namaskar Africa’ held in Maputo from 25–26 November, 2015. High-level delegations from Mozambique visited the annual CII-EXIM Bank Africa Conclaves in March in New Delhi, 2015. In August, 2015 President Filipie Nyusi led a high level delegation to India, his first destination in Asia after assuming office earlier that year. It was regarded as a “special visit” as both countries celebrated 40 years of diplomatic relations. According to DGCIS Kolkata figures, bilateral trade between India and Mozambique during April–October, 2015, was $846.34 million with Indian exports and imports constituting $693.55 million and$152.79millionrespectively.Moreover, India has been assisting Mozambique in
  18. 18. 19 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship various developmental projects through Line of Credit (LOC). With some projects still under progress, two LOC projects, Technology Development & Innovation Centre (TTDIC) in the Maluane S&T Park ($25 million) and solar photovoltaic panel assembly plant near Maputo, ($13 million) have been completed and handed over to the Mozambican Government. Thus, given the interrelated needs and wide areas of mutual cooperation on the economic front, relations hold significant potential for growth and development here. India’s Energy Requirements Energy has been one of the defining areas of India–Mozambique bilateral relations. In order to meet the growing domestic energy demands and drive growth further, India regards Mozambique as one of the proximate sources of coal and natural gas. There are various estimates on Mozambique’s natural gas resources. The US Energy Information Agency (EIA) suggests that the country contains 279 trillion cubic feet equivalent of potential gas reserves making it the fourth largest country to have gas reserves in the world after Russia, Iran and Qatar. India recognizes the fact that Mozambique is sitting over vast untapped mineral resources and gas deposits that require investments to put the infrastructure needed for the production of natural gas. It has been estimated that Mozambique will require investment of over $30 billion to build capacity to produce 20 million tonnes of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Indian companies like Bharat Petro Resources Ltd., ONGC Videsh Ltd., and Oil India Ltd. have showed great interest in investing in Mozambique’s mining sector. On his visit to India in November 2014, Mozambican Foreign Minister Oldemiro Baloi’s signed a MoU to enhance cooperation in the field of natural gas and oil. Moreover, in August 2015, President Nyusi signed an important MoU on cooperation in the field of renewable energy. He appreciated India’s investment in developing necessary infrastructure for the extraction of energy resources and acknowledged that there lies a huge potential for both countries to collaborate in the given sector. Though there are a wide range of areas of mutual cooperation and bilateral interests between both countries, there lie many more opportunities to strengthen the ties further and raise the relationship to a strategic partnership. Mozambican Foreign Minister Oldemiro Baloi’s signed a MoU to enhance cooperation in the field of natural gas and oil. Moreover, in August 2015, President Nyusi signed an important MoU on cooperation in the field of renewable energy.
  19. 19. 20 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship Mozambique-India Relations: Surging Ahead The Republic of Mozambique, with its capital city Maputo, is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest. - Neha Sinha In 1498, the country was discovered by Vasco Da Gama and further colonized by Portugal in 1505. Mozambique became independent in 1975, and soon after faced a destructive civil war from 1977 to 1992. Today, there are around 25,000 Indian Diaspora in Mozambique, and they form the sixth largest Indian Diaspora community in Africa, according to statistics given by India’s Ministry of Home Affairs. Indians migrated from pockets like Goa, Daman and Diu, and from some parts of the state of Gujarat. They migrated to Mozambique and some went on from Mozambique to Lisbon in Portugal; still more Indians settled in the rest of Portugal. All this happened during the Portuguese colonial period in the 19th century; provinces of India and the country of Mozambique shared same colonial experience under the Portuguese. This does not mean that there was no migration of Indians to this country before the colonial period. The migration just intensified during the colonial period.
  20. 20. 21 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship India–Mozambique Relations India has constantly extended its support to Mozambique in her struggle against colonial rule. After the independence of Mozambique, diplomatic relations were established with the opening of the Indian Mission at Maputo. Since then, the two countries have cooperated with each other bilaterally, as well as in the international realm on platforms such as the United Nations, the Non- Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Commonwealth of Nations. The leaders of the two countries, with shared experience in their freedom movements, have maintained close, cordial, and warm relationships. The relation shared is such that all four Presidents of Mozambique so far have paid visits to India. The first President, who visited India, was Samora Machel in 1982, and the second was President Joaquim Chissano in 1988, who visited India again in 2003. In the year 2010, President Armando Guebuza came to India. Lastly President Filipe Nyusi visited India in 2015. The visits didn’t stop here though. From India, Indira Gandhi visited Mozambique in the year 1982. In the year 2016, current Prime Minister Modi visited Mozambique, and both nations signed a number of MoU and agreements on different areas to enhance their partnership. Some of the areas taken into consideration were agriculture, rural development, scientific and technical research, protection of investments, avoidance of double taxation of each other’s nationals, small and medium enterprises, mineral resources, oil and natural gas, defence cooperation, etc. In the recent years, India has shown its support towards Mozambique in the country’s agenda for its development. Assistance has been provided from India’s end in the form of concessional Lines of Credit (LOC) which is executed through EXIM Bank of India. Support to Mozambique by the Indian government has also been provided in areas of drinking water, improving power generation and distribution, improving agricultural productivity, rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure, creation of an Information Technology park, construction of an assembly plant for solar cells, rehabilitation of road networks, construction of housing units, etc. Apart from this, scholarship programs and training opportunities are also a major step taken by the Indian government to amplify their relationship with Mozambique. There are many Mozambican students who come to India for educational opportunities and for medical facilities, further leading to a people-to-people kind of contact between both countries. There are several Indian companies currently operational in Mozambique, which have invested in a huge manner in the energy sector of the country. Some of the main investments have been made in the coal industry and in the natural gas sector. ONGC Videsh Ltd. and Oil India Ltd. completed the acquisition of a 20% stake in Area 1 of the huge Rovuma gas block of Mozambique, at a cost of over USD 5 billion. On the other hand in the year 2014, in the coal mining sector – the International Coal Ventures Private Ltd, a consortium of five Indian PSUs purchased a 65% stake in the coal assets sold by the R. Tinto. There are other Indian companies with a presence in the coal mining sector like JSPL, JSW, Coal India, etc. Apart from this, Indians have made investments inthesectorofcommercialagriculture under the name of companies like Pure Diets, Rajarambapu Group, HK Jalan Group, and Asian Tea Company. Indian companies have also heavily invested in the fields of healthcare, education, information technology, pharmaceuticals, etc. in Mozambique. Conclusion Thus, Mozambique is a very significant country for India in the African continent. It has also emerged as one of the important sources of energy imports for India and is now among the largest hubs of Indian investment in Africa. Moreover, Mozambique is now considered as one of India’s closest military allies in the Western Indian Ocean. It is important for both nations to have strong, warm, and cordial relations with each other.
  21. 21. 22 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship MOZAMBICANPRIMEMINISTERVISITSINDIA
  22. 22. 23 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship Prime Minister of Mozambique, HE Carlos Agostinho do Rosário recently called on Prime Minister of India, HE Narendra Modi, in New Delhi.
  23. 23. 24 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship MOZAMBIQUE–INDIA: ENERGY CONVERGENCE There is a shared history of profitable and deep-rooted trade relations that has resulted in a five-time increase of bilateral trade between the two countries in the past five years. - Jaya Auplish Bilateral relations with Mozambique are a key pillar of India’s Foreign Policy in Africa. They are structured upon historical links dating back to the ancient period. The Indian Ocean then, was viewed not as a barrier but a ‘route for travel and cooperation’. Traders and merchants from the Indian subcontinent came to Mozambique centuries ago, even before Vasco da Gama himself set sail for Africa and Asia. India had been one of the first countries to open its embassy in Mozambique after its independence in 1975. Mozambique has been one of the most important gateways of Indian investments in Africa. Indian investment in Mozambique alone accounts for $8 billion, out of the $32 billion total Indian investments in the African continent. During his visit to Mozambique in 2016, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said, “Mozambique’s strengths are also the areas of India’s needs. And what Mozambique requires, is available in India. We complement each other.” There is a shared history of profitable and deep-rooted trade relations that has resulted in five-time increase of bilateral trade between the two countries in the past five years. History of Trade Ties There has been a real convergence between the two countries along issues of agricultural infrastructure, productivity, food security, and health. Where major Indian exports to Mozambique include drugs and pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, petroleum products, and textile; imports from Mozambique consist of gold, cashew, timber, minerals, spices and coal. However, the most significant aspect of this bilateral trade relationship is actually their convergence in the domain of energy. Both nations have found constructive ways to engage in this sector. Major Indian companies like Tata Steel, Jindal Steel and Power, the Essar group, Coal India and Damodar Ferro have invested in Mozambique for coal, iron ore, and other minerals. In context of energy, it is widely argued that India and Mozambique’s partnership is driven by the convergence of capacities and interests. On one hand, Mozambique is a mineral-rich region with abundant resources and large energy reserves and is also amongst the fastest growing economies in Africa. On the other hand, India is an energy deficit nation, whose energy requirement has increased profoundly in the era of liberalization. Further, the growing threat of climate change has swelled India’s need for renewable energy. In this sense, energy in the form of gas has become an important factor for Indian investors, where coal had been the dominating need for the past decade. LNG, Refined Petroleum and Coal The major suppliers of LNG to India are Qatar (62%), Nigeria (12%), and Australia (5.3%). The Strait, located at the mouth
  24. 24. 25 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship of the Persian Gulf, has been one of the most important choke points in the world due to the volume of energy cargoes that pass through the narrow waterway, and the volatile nature of the region in which it is located. The diplomatic crisis in the Gulf further aggravated the fragile status of order in that area. Moreover, the announcement of plans by Australia to restrict future gas exports in order to address domestic issues highlights the need for India to diversify its sources of LNG. India has been one of the major exporters of refined petroleum oils to Mozambique. In 2008, geologists confirmed the Moatize coal steam in Tete province in Mozambique is the world’s largest untapped coal deposit. It is rich in coking coal, used for manufacturing steel, and thermal coal, and for power generation. In early 2010, major natural gas reserves were discovered in Mozambique. According to the estimates by the U.S. Energy Information Agency, the country contains 279 trillion cubic feet of potential gas reserves. This also suggests that Mozambique has the fourth largest reserves of gas in the world, after Russia, Iran, and Qatar. India offered credit-assistance to Mozambique on coal imports. The assistancegrewdramatically2012onwards,
  25. 25. 26 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship and by 2015, the share of India’s imports was about 60%. In 2014, UK-based Rio Tinto sold its Mozambique coal assets to India’s state- run International Coal Ventures Pvt. Ltd. (ICVL). The ICVL is a joint venture of SAIL, CIL, RINL, NMDC and NTPC. It was hoped that the coal reserve would become a long- term source of critical raw material for steel-making. Mozambique’s geographical proximity to India was an added advantage. Mr. C S Verma, Chairman of ICVL and SAIL, described the acquisition by ICVL as a “significant and historic development to boost long-term coking coal security.” Coal mine and assets acquired by ICVL, mainly include Benga (65%) and the Zambezi (100%) and Tete East Greenfield coal assets. ONGC Videsh Ltd. and Oil India Ltd. acquired a 20% participating stake in Area 1 of the Rovuma gas block at USD 5.07 billion; in addition to the 10% already held by Bharat Petro Resources Ltd. since 2008. Rovuma Gas Discovery In 2014, during Mozambican Foreign Minister Baloi’s visit, besides the USD 216.4 million Line Of Credit (LoC) agreement, Mozambique and India signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to enhance cooperation in the field of natural gas and oil. This was followed by According to estimates by the U.S. Energy Information Agen- cy, the country contains 279 trillion cubic feet of potential gas reserves. This also suggests that Mozambique has the fourth largest reserve of gas in the world, after Russia, Iran, and Qatar.
  26. 26. 27 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship a MoU signed for cooperation in each solar, wind, biofuel, and geothermal sectors during Mozambique President Nyusi’s visit in 2015. On 17th October, 2017, Indian Oil Minister Dharmendra Pradhan announced an agreement with Mozambican Energy Minister Letícia da Silva Klemens to expedite development of the giant Rovuma gas discovery. There has already been a USD 6.5 billion Indian investment in the Rovuma gas field project delivered through the state-controlled companies: Oil and Natural Gas Corporation of India, Bharat Petro Resources and Oil India. ONGC Videsh Ltd. holds 16% stake in Rovuma Area- 1, while Oil Ltd. and Bharat Petroleum Corp Ltd. hold stakes of 4% and 10% respectively.Thearea-1coversroughly 10,000 square km, and is located in the northernmost part of Rovuma Basin. Area-1 represents one of the largest gas discoveries in offshore East Africa and has the potential to become one of the world’s largest LNG producing hubs. It consists of 2.1 trillion cubic meters of accessible gas. An additional investment of USD 7.8 billion is expected to flow into the project by 2019. The Rovuma development would provide India with an alternative source of LNG, which would take seven days to sail from Mozambique to Northern India ports. Energy Security For developing countries such as India and Mozambique, the issue of energy security goes beyond macro concerns. It includes the ability to put in place networks for energy distribution, ensure supplies, and provide adequately priced energy to larger sections of the population—those who live outside the clean energy consumption network. According to the Integrated Energy Policy, “We are energy secure when we can supply lifeline energy to all our citizens irrespective of their ability to pay for it as well as meet their effective demand for safe and convenient energy to satisfy their various needs at competitive prices, at all times with a prescribed confidence level considering shocks and disruptions that can be reasonably expected.” India has considerable expertise in green economies, including bio-energy—a form of energy made from biological sources and solar photovoltaic. India has been actively involved in providing energy access programs through renewable energy technologies in Mozambique. It has extended concessional credit lines worth USD 639.4 million to Mozambique, in order to facilitate the setting up of the Technology Development & Innovation Centre (TDIC) in the Maluane Science and Technology Park, and a Solar Photovoltaic panel assembly plant near Maputo, which is also the first solar module plant in Mozambique. Moreover, at the COP-21 Summit in Paris, India led a major effort to promote solar energy as a source of renewable energy, and formed the International Solar Alliance to counter climate change with the support of over 120 countries including Mozambique. Renewable energy is the mainstay of India’s massive clean energy program, under which it aims to achieve 175,000 MW of installed capacity of renewable power by 2022. Indian investment in Mozambique is expected to reach about USD 13 billion by 2028. Moreover, India would soon be investing in infrastructure to import natural gas. Observers view this energy convergence between the two nations as fostering growth and diversifying partnerships. Indian investment in Mozambique is expected to reach about USD 13 billion by 2028.
  27. 27. 28 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship Mozambique has progressed economically in a significant way over the past decades. However, it has experienced a moderate impact on poverty reduction; hence its geographical distribution of poverty has largely remained unchanged. Mozambique has been ranked at 181st out of 188 countries and territories in the 2016 Human Development Index. The Government’s firm commitment in achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (MDGs) is affirmatively addressed in its national action plan. It aimed at pursuing inclusive economic growth and reducing poverty and vulnerability. It focussed on the three general objectives of human and social development, employment creation and production and productivity in the agricultural and fisheries sectors. Many institutions and NGOs are actively involved and contributing significantly to the government’s initiatives and programmatic objectives. It is in line with this goal that, Rizwan Adatia Foundation (RAF) was established to compliment government efforts in its endeavour to improve quality of life in Mozambique. The Foundation was established in 2015, as an initiative of Mr. Rizwan Adatia-Chairman of COGEF Group. The then, Health Minister, H.E. Dra. Nazira Vali Abdula expressed her appreciation and satisfaction at the concluding event of the first hearing aid campaign activity in Maputo Mozambique. Since then, RAF has undertaken projects in areas including health, education, livelihoods, relief, social and cultural development. The Foundation has strived to work with various ministries and other development partners in its different interventions. Currently, the Foundation has supported more than 2000 young people with life skills through its vocational training Institute in Matola City, namely Machava Training Centre (MTC). The Foundation has distributed more than 10 000 school kits to the students in various provinces of Mozambique for the past years targeting ECD, primary and secondary level students. Over and above that, RAF has participated in different commemorations like International Children’s Day, Menstrual Hygiene day among others. To serve its agenda of providing access to education for all, the Foundation has established network of schools for vulnerable children. Three such schools were constructed in the provinces of Gaza and Sofala. H.E. Minister of Education, Dr. Jorge Ferrao remarked at the inauguration of the school, ”This is the best school I have ever inaugurated. It can be upgraded to secondary school”. H.E. Governor of Gaza Province, Stella da Graca Zeca graced the inaugural event.  The impact of the Foundation has been also felt in the WASH program, where it has impacted the life of more than 49,450 inhabitants through borehole rehabilitation program in the Southern Provinces of Gaza and Inhambane in Mozambique. The organization has been able to build the capacity of the community to monitor the use of sanitation facilities, the operation and maintenance of water points and the adoption of hygiene practices, strengthening community ownership for sustainability. This support through community capacity strengthening has resulted in communities being able to utilise effectively and maintain the WASH infrastructure thus contributing to the sustainability of the boreholes. In a short span of time, RAF has initiated various development activities to benefit over than 500,000 individuals in Mozambique, Democratic Republic of Congo, South Africa, Swaziland, Kenya, Bangladesh and India. The Foundation aspires to reach out to one million people, essentially in need by 2020. It is spreading its wings in this direction and will consolidate its development initiatives for those, who dream to progress and change their lives more than anyone else. Advertorial Social And Infrastructure Development: A Roadmap To Nurturing Prosperous Communities The social development in any country depends upon harnessing its human capital. It puts people at the centre of development and creates social cohesion amongst various groups.
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  29. 29. 30 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship MOZAMBIQUE–INDIA: MARITIME SECURITY AND MILITARY COOPERATION - Abhishek Mishra Africa’s centrality in Indian Foreign Policy initiatives has consolidated over the years, primarily driven by economic interests and quest for international recognition. A ‘rising’ Africa with its abundant natural resources has caught the attention of major global players, including India.
  30. 30. 31 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship African countries are emerging as one of the most sought after destinations for fostering bilateral cooperation and investment partnerships. Today, the Indian Ocean is home to 40 % of the world’s population, more than 50 % of the world’s oil, 45 % of the world’s gas reserves, and significant seabed mineral resources. The ocean has an active maze of sea lanes which carry half of the world’s container shipments and two-thirds of the world’s oil shipments. However, the economic, energy and, strategic arteries in the Indian Ocean are facing threats from piracy, maritime terrorism and trafficking. This is why conversations on maritime security are increasingly focusing on regional and sub-regional responses. India’s primary maritime interest is to assure national security. A secure maritime environment is a prerequisite for achieving sustained national development. This is not restricted to just guarding the coastlines or territories, but also extends to safeguarding interests in the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) as well as protecting trade. Through naval diplomacy and opening of listening ports, India is aiming to strengthen its ambit of security cooperation with East African states in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR), an area which India considers to be a part of its extended regional neighborhood. India’s security cooperation with Africa, for a long time, was limited to joint patrolling of seas and deployment of Indian forces to the UN Peacekeeping Missions in Africa. However, changes in global security environment and geo-strategic considerations have brought Indo-African security cooperation to the forefront in recent years. India–Mozambique Bilateral Ties Besides having large landmass, both India and Africa have long coastlines and a large number of island territories. Ocean water is essential for the livelihood of people from both regions. In this respect, New Delhi and Maputo have emerged as two close and vital partners, working together to maintain peace and security in the Indian Ocean. Situated on the South-Eastern coast of Africa, Mozambique is often referred to as the ‘Pearl’ of the Indian Ocean. It borders on Tanzania to north, Zambia, Malawi and Zimbabwe to west, and South Africa and Swaziland to south. Its coastline extends along 2,600 km from Tanzania to South Africa. Some of Mozambique’s major ports are Matola, Maputo, Beira, Inhambane, Nacala, Belo, Quilemane, Pemba, and Chinde. India and Mozambique’s maritime links date several centuries back. Both countries share convergences on strategic interests and on a number of global issues. Following Mozambique’s independence in 1975, India was among the first countries to open its embassy. Subsequently, the High Commission of Mozambique in New Delhi
  31. 31. 32 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship was established in 2001. Presently, there are around 20,000 Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) in Mozambique. The bilateral trade in goods and Indian investments has also increased over the years, although, there is scope for improvement. High Level Bilateral Visits India and Mozambique have always maintained cordial bilateral relations marked by a number of high-level visits. History records that all four Mozambican Presidents have visited India. From Indian side, Prime Ministerial level visits have taken place twice in 1982 by Smt. Indira Gandhi, and Shri Narendra Modi in July 2016 as a part of his four-nation (Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Kenya) tour. The most recent visit was by Minister of State for External Affairs Gen (Dr.) V.K. Singh on February 12 this year. Apart from high level visits, the Indian Navy has undertaken regular joint patrolling of seas and anti-piracy operations. The Indian Navy provided security for the African Union Summit, held in Maputo 2003 and World Economic Forum meet in 2004 by patrolling the Mozambique Channel. The ship visits include: INS Ranjit and INS Suvarna in June-July 2003 INS Sujata and INS Savitri in May-June 2004 INS Mumbai and INS Karmuk in May 2008 Four Indian Navy Ships from the Western Fleet in September 2010 INS Darshak in March-April 2012 INS Delhi and INS Deepak in November 2012 INS Teg in November 2014 INS Trikand in September 2016 The increasing frequency of port visits by Indian Naval ships underlines the growing defence cooperation between New Delhi and Maputo. Apart from regular shipping visits, efforts have also been made to share best practices and build capacities through training of naval officers, transfer of naval hardware, intelligence sharing, and providing logistical support. Anti-piracy operations between Indian Navy and Mozambican Navy are a vital component of maritime cooperation between the two sides. The Indian Navy helped capture 61 pirates, and rescued 13 crew members from the Mozambican fishing vessel, Vega 5 in March 2011. Military Cooperation India has also trained various military personnel from African countries at some of the best Indian institutes such as Indian Military Academy, Defence Staff College, and National Defence College. India’s high standards of educational training and infrastructural facilities have resulted in a number of African officers undergoing training courses here. Inadditiontotrainingmilitaryofficers, of late, India has started to explore its potential as a manufacturer of defence equipment. India could well be a destination for defence production. The ambitious ‘Make in India’ project in defence production seeks to make India self-reliant and this is one area Today, the Indian Ocean is home to 40 % of the world’s population, more than 50% of the world’s oil, 45 % of the world’s gas reserves, and significant seabed mineral resources. Country 2016-2017 % share 2017-2018 (April-February) % share Mozambique 1,009.97 0.3661 790.05 India’s Total Exports 275,851.71 270,715.74 Source: Department of Commerce, Government of India, Export Import Data Bank Values in US$ million
  32. 32. 33 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship Association (IORA). Together, they can utilize such regional forums to discuss ways to address common security challenges in the Indian Ocean and consolidate their bilateral ties. Looking Forward Military and Defence ties between India and African countries are neither well entrenched nor very definitive. The ties are in the making. A considerable progress has been achieved because this is a new area of cooperation between the two regions. While the imperative of maritime where opportunities for trade in small arms with several African countries, including Mozambique, may become a reality. A MoU in defence cooperation was signed in 2006 between then President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and Defence Minister of Republic of Mozambique Tobias Joaquim Dai. It covered cooperation in the fields of military technical cooperation, logistic support and training. Under the MoU, a Joint Defence Working Group (JDWG) was set up. However, till date the JDWG has met only twice in 2008 and 2010. Given Mozambique’s geo-strategic location along east African coast, and Indian aspirations to play a crucial role in Indian Ocean, especially the Western Region, both sides have showcased willingness to reactivate the JDWG by meeting more frequently. A Reinvigorated Thrust Two high level visits underline New Delhi and Maputo’s re-engagement in maritime and military cooperation. In July 2017, Indian Chief of Naval Staff (CNS) Sunil Lanba visited Mozambique to explore new avenues for defence cooperation. The two sides have reiterated cooperation through training of military officers, hydrography, and now participate in each other’s defence events. Minister of State for External Affairs Gen (Dr.) V.K. Singh’s visit on February 12 this year, further emphasized the growing synergy in Indo–Mozambique maritime cooperation. India has agreed to increase the training of Mozambique Armed Force personnel in India and assist the country in upgrading its equipment and infrastructure for the Mozambique Defence Armed Forces (FADM), which includes upgradation of military medical facilities, English training for FADM personnel, and undertaking of hydrographic surveys. Both India and Mozambique are also members of Indian Ocean Rim cooperation draws immediate attention, the question of military ties require slow building. Moreover, it is only in recent years that India has started focusing on a potential role as a defence manufacturer and exporter. However, other aspects of cooperation in this sector including anti-piracy operations, intelligence sharing, and above all military training for military personnel of African countries, are progressing well. In this regard, Mozambique is emerging as a vital partner for India in the African continent and Indian Ocean. Situated on the South-Eastern coast of Africa, Mozambique is often referred to as the ‘Pearl’ of the Indian Ocean. It borders on Tanzania to the north, Zambia, Malawi and Zimbabwe to the west, and South Africa and Swaziland to the south.
  33. 33. 34 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship A Valued Bond - Alka Gurha Mozambique is quickly emerging as India’s leading partner when it comes to convergence of interests that define the new Indo-African relationship. Situated on the South Eastern coast of Africa, Mozambique is strategically ideal for trade, energy, and maritime security partnership. Mozambique–India:
  34. 34. 35 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship The growing bonds of friendship between India and Mozambique are underlined by the fact that in 2016, Indian Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi began his four-nation African tour with Mozambique. A Bond Forged by Colonial Past The historical bond shared by India and Mozambique dates back to the pre- colonial era. In 1498, the voyage of Vasco de Gama marked the arrival of Portuguese who gradually colonised Mozambique. Simultaneously, that year the Portuguese came to India for the first time and around 1510, colonised India and held pockets of it for nearly three centuries. Thus, India and Mozambique have a shared experience of colonisation. After the Portuguese colonised Mozambique, India played a supportive role in Mozambique’s freedom struggle. Mozambique achieved independence in 1975, and India ensured that diplomatic relations were established in the same year. It is interesting to note that the momentous event of Mozambican flag going up was witnessed by the Indian Ambassador in 1975. In 1982, the first Mozambican President Samora Machel paid an official visit to India, which was later reciprocated by the then Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Development of Strong Cultural Ties In 2001, when Mozambique established its mission in New Delhi, both India and Mozambique decided to work towards nurturing their economic, military and In 2001, when Mozambique established its mission in New Delhi, both India and Mozambique decided to work towards nurturing their economic, military and cultural ties. It is acknowledged globally that any pragmatic relationship between the two countries relies heavily on the cultural bond shared by the two nations.
  35. 35. 36 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship cultural ties. It is acknowledged globally that any pragmatic relationship between the two countries relies heavily on the cultural bond shared by the two nations. As a result, almost all successive Indian governments have encouraged cultural and traditional ties with Maputo. Mozambique has a large number of Indians from Goa, Daman and Diu, who are engaged in wholesale and retail trade. Many Gujaratis also migrated to Mozambique from South Africa in the latter part of the 19th century. Likewise, many Mozambican citizens come to India for higher studies. Over the years, the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR)has sponsored flutist Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia, violinist M S Gopalakrishnan, classical dancers Raja & Radha Reddy and Bharatnatyam dance troupes to Mozambique. Cultural Diffusion It is interesting to know that the Ilha de Mozambique, the erstwhile capital of the colonial era, has a temple of Lord Shiva along with a church and a mosque. The Southern province of Maputo has another temple of Lord Rama, which is almost a hundred years old. Another temple of Lord Krishna is situated in the capital city of Maputo. However, the most recent temple of Lord Vishwambar in Maputo has come up as a symbol of cultural and religious festivities. If you are an Indian in Maputo, you can celebrate festivals like Navaratri, Diwali and Durga Puja and connect with several generations of families living far away from India. Many Indians in Maputo migrated from Goa which was also a Portuguese colony till 1961. Other than Goans, many Gujaratis, settled in Mozambique, celebrate Navratras with much enthusiasm. Generations of citizens celebrate festivals by meeting and relishing Indian sweets and savouries. The Indian community in Mozambique also organizes cultural events and screens popular Indian
  36. 36. 37 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship movies in the theaters of Maputo. The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) has played an instrumental role in taking India to Mozambique and bringing Mozambique to India. It organizes cultural festivals in India and Indian festivals abroad, and also holds cultural exhibitions and seminars to further cultural bonds. Over the years, the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) has sponsored flutist Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia, violinist M S Gopalakrishnan, classical dancers Raja & Radha Reddy and Bharatnatyam dance troupes to Mozambique. Several Indian films are screened in the cinema halls of Maputo. Likewise, artists from Mozambique have visited India to give us a glimpse of their music and dance. Education and Sports The cultural ties between the two have only been further strengthened by expansions to educational and sporting ties. The ITECP (Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Program) has been training enthusiasts from Mozambique under various disciplines. The Africa Scholarship Scheme of the Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR) and the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) offer various scholarships for graduate and post- graduate studies. The CV Raman Fellowship and short-term training programs by India can also be availed by the citizens of Mozambique. Such programs are rewarding because the Indian government bears the cost of visa, tickets, education, boarding and lodging. Not only students, but police personnel from Mozambique have also received training in Maharashtra. During the historic visit of Prime Minister Modi in 2016, India and Mozambique signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for cooperation in the field of Youth Affairs and Sports. Being members of the Commonwealth of Nations, athletes of both countries meet and compete in the Commonwealth games. Given the growing bond between India and Mozambique based on trade, energy imports, and military ties, a cultural bond too is bound to flourish under Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s leadership.
  37. 37. 38 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship Mozambique and India: History Woven Through Diaspora Dispersion -Sujatha Warrier Every country has an interesting history. A history of people leaving behind their past in search of a new future, of wars fought, lives lost and power gained, of evolving identities, and so forth. The history of Mozambique can be traced back to the Bantu-speaking people who migrated from the far north and the west between first and the fifth century AD. They crossed the Zambezi River and gradually spread across the country to the coastal areas. Their main occupation was agriculture and cattle herding, while they were also skilled in smelting and smithing iron. Arab, Persian, and Somali traders are known to have landed in Mozambique during the early 11th century. Similarly, the history of India’s active trade links with Mozambique dates back to more than five centuries. Today, people of Indian descent form a significant part of the Mozambican population. Indian Footprints on Mozambican Soil Muslim traders from the Malabar Region of South India frequented the Eastern Coast of Africa, crossing the Indian Ocean, to sell their wares. It is believed that when Vasco da Gama, during his historical voyage, landed in Mozambique in 1498, Hindu traders were already there. Vasco da Gama landed on the Indiancoastin1498aswellandthenwiththe Portuguese establishing power in Malabar, Goa, and Cambay, there were more and more Indians coming to the Eastern Coast of Africa. Goans, referred to as Canarins by the Portuguese, came as administrators, traders, soldiers or ecclesiastics. Many of them were Catholics. Hindus, who came to the African Coast from the Northern part of India, were called Baniyas and were engaged in commerce. The book A History of Mozambique by Malyn Newitt throws light on some of the fields of work Indians were involved in at different points of time in Mozambique. There were Indian traders in Manica in 1560s. Indian soldiers were known to have fought in the wars in Zambesia in the 1640s. There are references to Canarin doctors being present in Zambesia in the 1680s. The book mentions about Indian traders being active at the gold fairs during the latter half of the century. Interestingly, Indian traders escaping from Karanga land founded the first settlement at Zumbo in the 1960s, and Canarins trading in the rivers helped raise troops to defend the Portuguese River settlements at Monomotapa’s court. It is known that Hindu traders from Diu and Muslim traders from Kutch were active in Mozambique in the 1800s, during which ivory and cashew nuts were the major trade items. Towards the latter half of the 19th century, Gujaratis relocated to Mozambique from South Africa. Among them were small traders as well as employees of large, established Indian
  38. 38. 39 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship trading firms, and Hindus from Diu and Muslims from Daman who were mainly working as masons and manual laborers at construction sites. In the early 1900s, due to the increasing antagonism towards the Indian population in South Africa, Gujaratis–who otherwise would have headed to South Africa–started looking at Mozambique as a more appropriate place to settle down in. They settled mostly in Maputo Bay, which was then known as Delagoa Bay. The Great Depression and Indian Expats During the Great Depression of 1929-34, when trade was severely affected in all sectors, the price of cashew nuts remained It is known that Hindu traders from Diu and Muslim traders from Kutch were active in Mozambique in the 1800s, during which ivory and cashew nuts were the major trade items. Towards the latter half of the 19th century, Gujaratis relocated to Mozambique from South Africa.
  39. 39. 40 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship steady and trade in this sector continued to prosper. However, post-World War I, restrictions were placed by the Portuguese government on further inflow of Indian migrants. This resulted in the settlers, who had migrated to Mozambique for the sole purpose of trade, bringing their families from back home to the country, and thus, sinking their roots deeper into the Mozambican soil. Post 1950, cashew nut prices rose after a period of drop, following which Indian businesses picked up again and continued to flourish. Indian Diaspora & Cultural Influx in Mozambique The population in Mozambique is made up of Christians and Catholics and those belonging to the Baha’i and Islamic faiths. Mozambique also has a Hindu community, the ancestors of whom had migrated to Mozambique even before Vasco da Gama made his maiden visit to the shores of the country. However, Hindus in Mozambique are a minority. After the decolonization of Mozambique in the 1970s a.k.a Mozambique’s independence from Portugal in 1975, the civil war broke out. It set off mass emigrations of Indians, including Hindus, from the country. The 1990s brought about political and social reforms, and with them came back the Hindu communities in Mozambique. Until 1961, there were a lot of migrants from
  40. 40. 41 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship Goa, and most of the earlier Hindus in Mozambique were from there. The country has many Hindu temples near Hindu residential areas. There is a Hindu community centre in Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. The Hindus here are mainly into trade. The Mozambican Hindu community enjoys socio-cultural association with Indian communities in Kerala, Goa, Maharashtra, and West Bengal. Indians in Mozambique form the sixth largest Indian Diaspora in the African continent today, as per the records of Indian Ministry of External Affairs. Around 70,000 people of Indian descent reside in Mozambique today, apart from 870 Indian expatriates. Through centuries of living together, both cultures have rubbed off onto each other in many ways. The areas, where cultural influences have become obvious, are the dressing style and the cuisine. India’s influence on Mozambique can be seen in its cuisine through the use of curries and spices. It can also be seen in the different varieties of the rice preparation, much similar to the Indian variety — pulao. A capulana is a type of a sarong worn by women in Mozambique. The capulanas were introduced to the natives of Mozambique by the Portuguese colonizers who bought the attire from Indian traders. Moving on to the current times, there are theaters in the capital city of Maputo, where the latest and all-time popular Indian movies are screened regularly. In addition to the cultural events organized by the local Indian community, there are several well-known artists from India, who are sponsored by the Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR), to perform in Mozambique. Groups of Mozambican artists are invited to perform in the various cross- cultural events in India by ICCR. The intercultural influences continue, finding new spaces of expression, and evolving into new identities. The Mozambican Hindu community enjoys socio- cultural association with Indian communities in Kerala, Goa, Maharashtra, and West Bengal. Indians in Mozambique form the sixth largest Indian Diaspora in the African continent today, as per the records of Indian Ministry of External Affairs. Around 70,000 people of Indian descent reside in Mozambique today, apart from 870 Indian expatriates.
  41. 41. 42 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship
  42. 42. 43 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship
  43. 43. 44 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship The country shares borders with the Indian Ocean, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, and South Africa. The largest city in Mozambique and its capital, is Maputo. Half of the 30.53 million population of Mozambique speaks Portuguese, second only to the Bantu language. Other common languages include Swahili, Sena, and Makhuwa. MOZAMBIQUE: Untouched Haven on Earth - D&B Bureau Bathed in the Indian Ocean, untampered with, and inhabited by people who will welcome you with hearts full of kindness is how one can describe the Republic of Mozambique. The country shares borders with the Indian Ocean, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, and South Africa. The largest city in Mozambique and its capital is Maputo. Half of the 30.53 million population of Mozambique speaks Portuguese, second only to the Bantu language. Other common languages include Swahili, Sena, and Makhuwa. Mozambique is endowed with rich and extensive natural resources. The country’s economy is largely dependent on agriculture, but growth has been observed across other industries including food and beverages, chemical manufacturing and aluminium, and petroleum production. The tourism sector is also expanding. Among Mozambique’s main trading and economic partners are Belgium, Brazil, Portugal and Spain, apart from South Africa which is the country’s biggest hub for foreign investment. Tourism used to be a very profitable industry in the pre-independence period. Gorongosa National Park, halfway between Zimbabwe and Beira, was especially a huge tourist attraction. After independence from Portugal in 1975, the Mozambican Civil War between 1977 and 1992 decimated the tourism industry, and attempts at wildlife conservation faced a severe decline. Organized tourism in the country had
  44. 44. 45 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship
  45. 45. 46 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship absolutely ceased by 1978. Despite its tourism assets, Mozambique has the lowest tourist numbers in comparison to all its neighbors, except maybe Malawi. However, tourist operators resuscitated their confidence by the end of civil conflict in Mozambique, and the country is now working towards revamping and further developing its tourism industry. By the end of the 1990s, tourism became the fastest growing sector in Mozambique’s economy. The first Minister for Tourism was appointed in 1999. In 2003 tourism contributed about 1.2% to the country’s GDP, far below the Sub-Saharan average of 6.9%. However, 2005 saw the tourism industry grow by 37%, the fastest growth rate in the world in this industry. Currently, the tourism sector contributes only 5.6% to the GDP of Mozambique, but has a lot of untapped potential. As an example of unspoilt destinations that would attract tourists, the country has several national parks and clean beaches. The capital Maputo too boasts of architecture from the colonial era and provides an exhibit of attractive natural setting with the deep-water harbor of Maputo Bay. The city is also the cultural and commercial hub of the country. Mozambique has preserved its African cultural heritage through food, music, and art, and has given the environment the respect that it deserves. The top 11 exotic tourist locations in the country include: 1. Bazaruto Archipelago: This is a beautiful island resort and underwater marine park with organized diving activity to cater to high-end tourism. In 2003 tourism contributed about 1.2% to the country's GDP, far below the Sub-Saharan average of 6.9%.
  46. 46. 47 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special ReportIndia - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship 2. Cahora Bassa: This is a hydro- electric dam on the Zambezi River and is the second largest man-made lake in Africa. 3. Gorongosa National Park: It runs across 4,000 square kilometers and is located at the Southern end of the Great East African Rift Valley. It includes the valley floor and parts of surrounding plateaus. 4. Quirimbas Archipelago and National Park: The cluster of islands is known for its diving sites, some measuring up to 400 meters. The National Park spans an area of 7,500 square kilometers and the 11 most Southernly islands are partly surrounded by mangroves. The park was established in 2002. 5. Ilha De Mozambique: This is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and was once the capital of Mozambique under the Portuguese rule. 6. Ponta d’Ouro:A great dive spot that is easily accessible from South Africa as well as Maputo. 7. Tofo Beach: A backpacker’s haven on the coastline East of Inhambane. 8. Vamizi Island: A tropical island with beautiful private villas; amazing place for world-class fishing and deep sea diving. 9. Vilanculos: The gateway to the Bazaruto Archipelago, this forms the largest Sea Park in Africa with excellent scuba diving and snorkeling provisions. It is also well-known for its deep sea fishing. 10. Niassa Reserve: This reserve running across Cabo Delgado Province and Niassa Province covers an area of over 42,000 square kilometers. It is the largest protected area in Mozambique. The reserve is part of the Trans-Frontier Conservation Area. Mozambique has preserved its African cultural heritage through food, music, and art, and has given the environment the respect that it deserves.
  47. 47. 48 D&B Special Report India - Russia Bilateral RelationshipD&B Special Report India - Mozambique Bilateral Relationship Mozambique hosts a plethora of activities for the adventurous travellers including sunset cruises, snorkeling, horse-riding, dolphin tours, and scuba diving. According to popular tourist guide websites, Mozambique makes for a perfect holiday destination for the following reasons: Affordable travelling costs and amenities since being a war-ravaged country, Mozambique is in a constant effort to re-build its international image. Mozambique has the largest protected marine area in Africa which makes its marine reserves a much craved-for destination. Bewitching beaches and secluded islands dense with frangipani, baobab, and tropical birds. A display of true African culture with establishments like the Nucleo de Art a.k.a Art Nucleus, which is an overflowing hub of creativity. More than a hundred sculptors, painters, and artists are hosted there, with many depicting political history in their art. Off-the-beaten track safaris that let you explore nature in its raw form. The official tourism website for Mozambique is a perfect display of the warmth and hospitality one can expect to experience while there. Apart from making all the popular destinations and expansive information about them available, the tourism ministry of the country has also striven to provide clear instructions on how to obtain visa, how to find your way around the country, the modes of transportation, phenomena to look out for, and of course, the food and festivals that are an absolute must for the sake of a unique experience. Tourists traveling to Mozambique, unless their country has been included in the visa-exemption list, can obtain visa on arrival in the country, making the land extremely accessible. Countries that are on Mozambique’s exemption list include: Angola, Botswana, Malawi, Mauritius, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. People from these countries can travel to Mozambique without visa for up to three months. The currency in Mozambique is called the New Metical, meticais in plural, and is divided by 100 centavos.
  48. 48. Regd Office : 104-107 Hemkunt Tower, 1st Floor, 98 Nehru Place, New Delhi 110019, India Tel: +91.11.26413873-75 Email: communications@angelique-india.com | Web: www.angelique-india.com AFRICA: Angola | Benin | Burkina Faso | Burundi | Cameron | Central African Republic Mauritania | Chad | Cote d’lvoire | Democratic Republic of Congo | Equatoial Guinea | Ethiopia | Ghana | Guinea | Kenya | Mali | Mauritania | Mozambique | Niger | Rwanda | Senegal | Sierra Leone | Swaziland | Tanzania | Togo | | Zimbabwe Montserrat Yemen Papua New Guinea (PNG) Afghanistan |Zambia LATIN AMERICA & CARIBBEAN: MIDDLE EAST: PACIFIC REGION : SAARC: Bangladesh|SriLanka LaoPDRSOUTHEASTASIA: Corporate Office: Plot No. 12, Sector 125, Noida 201301, India Tel: +91.120.4193000, Fax: +91.120.4193272 & 74

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