Q1-What is the Contingency approach of management?
Ans-The contingency approach in management is a technique to manage unique management
problems. This approach is taken up by the managers to determine the risks surrounding their
businesses and take ways to manage them.
Q2-Explain the contribution of Luther Gulick towards management function.
Ans_Among many other accomplishments in the field of public administration, Gulick is perhaps best
known for the functions of the chief executive represented in the acronym POSDCORB. Each letter
stands for Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Co-ordinating, Reporting and Budgeting.
Q3-Differentiate Unity of Command & Unity of Direction.
Ans-UNITY OF COMMAND-Unity of Command is a Principle of Management, given by Henry Fayol, which
states that each subordinate in a formal organization should get an order from and report to one
superior. As per this principle, dual subordination is completely ignored, i.e. an employee will be
responsible to one supervisor, who in turn report to the manager, and the chain continues. The person
to whom the employee should be responsible is directly above the employee’s position, called as
UNITY OF DIRECTION-Unity of Direction is another management principle laid down by the French
Mining Executive Henry Fayol, stating that there must exist only one superior and one plan for a range of
activities seeking the attainment of the same objective. On the basis of this principle, those tasks which
are aligned towards the same objective should be lead by one manager, using a single plan.
Q4-How gang plank is important for the organization?
Ans-GANG-PLANK is the term used in concern with the scalar chain. Scalar chain refers to the chain of
superiors ranging from the ultimate authority to the lowest level in the organisation. It should be short-
circuited and not carried to the extent it proves detrimental to the organization, this concept is known
as Gang-Plank. In this figure if T wants to communicate with Y, usually message will move from T to O via
S, R, Q and P and from O it will come down to Y through U, V, W and X. But if it is essential to
communicate immediately a Gang-Plank (dotted line) may be created between T and Y without
weakening the chain of command.
Q5-Write Hawthorne experiments conducted by Elton Mayo.
Ans-The Hawthorne Experiments began in 1924 and continued through the early 1930s. A variety of
researchers participated in the studies, including Clair Turner, Fritz J. Roethlisberger, and Elton Mayo,
whose respective books on the studies are perhaps the best known. One of the major conclusions of the
Hawthorne studies was that workers' attitudes are associated with productivity. Another was that the
workplace is a social system and informal group influence could exert a powerful effecton individual
behavior. A third was that the style of supervision is an important factor in increasing workers' job
satisfaction. The studies also found that organizations should take steps to assist employees in adjusting
to organizational life by fostering collaborative systems between labor and management. Such
conclusions sparked increasing interest in the human element at work; today, the Hawthorne studies
are generally credited as the impetus for the human relations school.
Q6-"Management is a Pseudo Science." Justify the statement.
Ans-Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that claim to be both scientific and
factual but are incompatible with the scientific method. Pseudoscience is often characterized by
contradictory, exaggerated or unfalsifiable claims; reliance on confirmation bias rather than rigorous
attempts at refutation; lack of openness to evaluation by other experts; absence of systematic practices
when developing hypotheses; and continued adherence long after the pseudoscientific hypotheses have
been experimentally discredited.
Q7-Differentiate Delphi & Brainstroming technique of decision making.
Ans-The difference between using brainstorming and the Delphi Technique for risk identification is
simple. The first risk management process is Risk Identification; the idea is that you want to figure out
every possible risk that might affect a firm or project. Applying technique in Risk Identification is called
Information Gathering and this is where brainstorming and the Delphi Technique comes in.Project Risk
Management states that, "Brainstorming refers to a technique to generate creative ideas. This may be
done as an individual or in a group setting. Brainstorming "sessions" are most effective where the
participants "defer judgment" about whether their responses to a problem statement are correct or
good. It is often suggested that participants aim for quantity of ideas, and off-the-wall, crazy sounding
ideas (i.e., lateral thinking) are encouraged.
Q8-Differentiate products & services.
Ans-People require different services and products to satisfy various needs and wants. In this regard, it
can be observed that the marketers play a pivotal role in marketing different products and services to
various targeted customers. However, some people often confuse the two terms and often use them
interchangeably to refer to one thing but a closer analysis between them shows that they are different.
The major difference between the two concepts is that a product is tangible while a service is intangible.
More details about the differences between a product and service are clearly outlined below.
Q2-Write short notes on -
A-Various schools of management thoughts
B-Types of planning
Ans A-.Everything you need to know about the schools of management thought. Many experts and
specialists from different disciplines have given various approaches of management, also called schools
of management thought.The various approaches to the study of management has propounded by
specialist from different disciplines have come to be called schools of management thought.All these
thoughts are ba-sically different point of views or guidelines regarding man-agement which enables the
managers to achieve their orga-nizational goals easily and effectively.The various approaches to the
study of management has propounded by specialist from different disciplines have come to be called
schools of management thought.Major schools are classified as under:
(1) The management process school
(2) The empirical school
(3) The human behaviour school
(4) The social system school
(5) The decision theory school
(6) The mathematical school
(7) The system management school
(8) The contingency school
(9) Bureaucracy school of Management
B-The most popular way to describe types of plans is by their breadth.
Business Plans can also be classified in terms of their time frame,
specificity, and frequency.
The various types of plans are as following:
1. Based on Breadth
2. Based on Time-frame
3. Based on Specificity
4. Based on Frequency
Based on Breadth
A. Strategic Plan
B. Tactical Plan
C. Operational Plan
Based on Time-frame
A. Long-term Plan
B. Short-term Plan
Based on Specificity
A. Directional Plan
B. Specific Plan
Based on Frequency
A. Standing Plan
B. Single-use Plan
Write short notes on -
B-14 principle of management
Ans A-The planning process is the steps a company takes to develop budgets to guide its future
activities. The documents developed may include:
Strategic plans (long-range, high-level company goals)
Tactical plans (shorter-term, specific plans to work toward goals in the strategic plan)
Operating plans (detailed plans for a specific department to implement)
Project plans (plans to implement projects such as launching new products or building a new plant)
Although the specific steps differ slightly from company to company and depend on which type of plan
you're developing, there are general steps that should be taken in order to ensure a good result. The
steps in the planning process are:
Develop tasks to meet those objectives
Determine resources needed to implement tasks
Create a timeline
Determine tracking and assessment method
Distribute to all involved in the process
Ans B-The fourteen principles of management created by Henri Fayol are explained below.
1. Division of Work-Henri believed that segregating work in the workforce amongst the worker will
enhance the quality of the product. Similarly, he also concluded that the division of work improves the
productivity, efficiency, accuracy and speed of the workers. This principle is appropriate for both the
managerial as well as a technical work level.
2. Authority and Responsibility-These are the two key aspects of management. Authority facilitates the
management to work efficiently, and responsibility makes them responsible for the work done under
their guidance or leadership.
3. Discipline-Without discipline, nothing can be accomplished. It is the core value for any project or any
management. Good performance and sensible interrelation make the management job easy and
comprehensive. Employees good behaviour also helps them smoothly build and progress in their
4. Unity of Command-This means an employee should have only one boss and follow his command. If an
employee has to follow more than one boss, there begins a conflict of interest and can create confusion.
5. Unity of Direction-Whoever is engaged in the same activity should have a unified goal. This means all
the person working in a company should have one goal and motive which will make the work easier and
achieve the set goal easily.
6. Subordination of Individual Interest-This indicates a company should work unitedly towards the
interest of a company rather than personal interest. Be subordinate to the purposes of an organization.
This refers to the whole chain of command in a company.
7. Remuneration-This plays an important role in motivating the workers of a company. Remuneration
can be monetary or non-monetary. However, it should be according to an individual’s efforts they have
8. Centralization-In any company, the management or any authority responsible for the decision-making
process should be neutral. However, this depends on the size of an organization. Henri Fayol stressed on
the point that there should be a balance between the hierarchy and division of power.
9. Scalar Chain-Fayol on this principle highlights that the hierarchy steps should be from the top to the
lowest. This is necessary so that every employee knows their immediate senior also they should be able
to contact any, if needed.
10. Order-A company should maintain a well-defined work order to have a favourable work culture. The
positive atmosphere in the workplace will boost more positive productivity.
11. Equity-All employees should be treated equally and respectfully. It’s the responsibility of a manager
that no employees face discrimination.
12. Stability-An employee delivers the best if they feel secure in their job. It is the duty of the
management to offer job security to their employees.
13. Initiative-The management should support and encourage the employees to take initiatives in an
organization. It will help them to increase their interest and make then worth.
14. Esprit de Corps-It is the responsibility of the management to motivate their employees and be
supportive of each other regularly. Developing trust and mutual understanding will lead to a positive
outcome and work environment.
This 14 principles of management are used to manage an organization and are beneficial for prediction,
planning, decision-making, organization and process management, control and coordination.
Q3-Write short notes on-
A-Decision Making Process
B-Basis of Departmentation
Ans A-Decision making is the process of making choices by identifying a decision, gathering information,
and assessing alternative resolutions.Using a step-by-step decision-making process can help you make
more deliberate, thoughtful decisions by organizing relevant information and defining alternatives. This
approach increases the chances that you will choose the most satisfying alternative possible.
Step 1: Identify the decision
You realize that you need to make a decision. Try to clearly define the nature of the decision you must
make. This first step is very important.
Step 2: Gather relevant information
Collect some pertinent information before you make your decision: what information is needed, the
best sources of information, and how to get it. This step involves both internal and external “work.”
Some information is internal: you’ll seek it through a process of self-assessment. Other information is
external: you’ll find it online, in books, from other people, and from other sources.
Step 3: Identify the alternatives
As you collect information, you will probably identify several possible paths of action, or alternatives.
You can also use your imagination and additional information to construct new alternatives. In this
step, you will list all possible and desirable alternatives.
Step 4: Weigh the evidence
Draw on your information and emotions to imagine what it would be like if you carried out each of
the alternatives to the end. Evaluate whether the need identified in Step 1 would be met or resolved
through the use of each alternative. As you go through this difficult internal process, you’ll begin to
favor certain alternatives: those that seem to have a higher potential for reaching your goal. Finally,
place the alternatives in a priority order, based upon your own value system.
Step 5: Choose among alternatives
Once you have weighed all the evidence, you are ready to select the alternative that seems to be best
one for you. You may even choose a combination of alternatives. Your choice in Step 5 may very likely
be the same or similar to the alternative you placed at the top of your list at the end of Step 4.
Step 6: Take action
You’re now ready to take some positive action by beginning to implement the alternative you chose in
Step 7: Review your decision & its consequences
In this final step, consider the results of your decision and evaluate whether or not it has resolved the
need you identified in Step 1. If the decision has not met the identified need, you may want to repeat
certain steps of the process to make a new decision. For example, you might want to gather more
detailed or somewhat different information or explore additional alternatives.
B-Bases of Departmentation – By Function, By Product, By Territory, By Process or Equipment, By
Customers and By Numbers or Time (With Advantages and Disadvantages)
There are several bases for departmentation which are as follows:
A. Departmentation by Function
B. Departmentation by Product
C. Departmentation by Territory
D. Departmentation by Process or Equipment
E. Departmentation by Customers
F. Departmentation by Numbers or Time.
A. Departmentation by Function (Functional Departmentation):
This is the most logical and simple form of departmentation. Functional departmentation is the
process of dividing the organization into units on the basis of the firm’s major functions. For example,
in a manufacturing company, the activities essential to the existence of the company are production,
marketing, and finance.Thus, it becomes Production Department, Marketing Department and Finance
Department. However, in non-manufacturing concerns these functions differ. In a transport company,
the key areas may be operations, sales and finance. Thus, public utility concerns like electricity,
transport, banking, insurance and hospitals have their own distinct key functional areas.
B. Departmentation by Product (Product Departmentation):
Organizations grow in size either by broadening its product line, or by expanding geographical. As the
size of the organization increases, it is rather forced to look for other models in- tune with the
requirements. In such situations, managements will opt for various other types of departments, to
overcome the limitations of functional structure. One such new model is product Departmentation.
C. Departmentation by Territory (Territorial Departmentation):
The process of creating departments along the geographical lines is termed territorial
departmentation. This method is adopted when an organization operates in different geographical
area, each with distinct needs. It makes it easier for the organization to cope with variations in laws,
local customs and customer needs.
D. Departmentation by Process or Equipment:
Under this method, activities are grouped on the basis of production process or equipments used.
Such type is used in textile industries, oil mills, printing press, etc.
E. Departmentation by Customers (Customer Departmentation):
Arranging the activities of a business on the basis of needs of customers is called departmentation by
customers. For example, educational institutions following full-time courses, part-time courses,
evening courses, correspondence courses, week-end courses, etc. to meet the requirements of
different types of students.
F. Departmentation by Numbers and Time:
In the case of departmentation by numbers, activities are grouped on the basis of the number of
persons required to perform an activity. For example, in the army, troops are divided on the basis of
numbers like battalion, regiments, etc. Under departmentation by time, activities are grouped on the
basis of time, i.e., working hours. The use of shift system under factory operations is an example of
departmentation by time.
Write short notes on-
A-VUCA paradigmwith importance in decision making
B-OODA Loop & MBO
Ans A-The term VUCA has become very common in business and it's probably never been as relevant
as it is right now. The VUCA acronym stands for volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity and
is used to describe situations that are difficult to understand, making it hard to predict the outcomes
of any actions takenSimply put, VUCA is a way of saying, "Things are hard to understand and predict
at the moment!" and while this sentiment is often true, VUCA can help provide some structure and
clarity around the problems that an organisation might face. One danger of VUCA however, is that
people use it as a way of avoiding planning and strategy by focusing on the idea that you can't plan for
a VUCA world.
VUCA importance in decision making
VUCA provides a model that helps people understand the reality of the challenges faced by businesses
and organisations that they may feel they have little control over. It helps them to understand that
the VUCA world is a common factor in both life and business, so learning to navigate them is crucial to
long term success.VUCA will always impact the decision making process for organisations and the
people within them. It will affect how they make plans, manage risks, adapt to change and solve
problems. We can't necessarily rely on the old methods of forecasting and planning and so need to
adapt our methods and approach these issues in new and creative ways. It helps us to devise plans
that are able to adapt to constant changes and flex where flex is needed. Ultimately, VUCA helps us to
realise that old ways of working cannot be relied upon and to succeed in a VUCA world means being
agile and having the ability to adapt to the changing winds. Our journey is not always going to be
linear and there has become a real need to live in the moment and change when needed.
Ans B-The OODA loop is a way of thinking about the decision-making process. Broken down, the
OODA loop stands for four distinct yet interrelated, smaller loops: observe, orient, decide, and act.
The OODA loop encourages decision-makers to think critically, anticipate threats, and neutralize them
before they become critical. In practice, organizations use the OODA loop to benchmark their ability
to react, with the attendant goal of continuously improving (shortening/quickening) their decision
cycles.In following the OODA loop, stakeholders observe developing scenarios, orient themselves to
assume a strategic footing, decide on the best course of action to take advantage of that strategic
footing, and act to assume command of the situation. While this process seems like a linear one, it
relies on constant feedback from a wealth of data points in order to update each step for the benefit
of subsequent steps.
The Four Steps of the OODA Loop:-
MBO-Management by objectives (MBO) is a strategic management model that aims to improve the
performance of an organization by clearly defining objectives that are agreed to by both management
and employees. According to the theory, having a say in goal setting and action plans encourages
participation and commitment among employees, as well as aligning objectives across the
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