Mais conteúdo relacionado


Peplau’s interpersonal relations theory

  1. Peplau’s Interpersonal Relations Theory By, Jannet maria elias 1st year msc nursing Mosc college of nursing kolenchery
  2. Hildegard E. Peplau’s Interpersonal Relations in Nursing peplau's inter personal theory 202/14/17
  3. • As Peplau entered nursing school. she made the conscious decision that if she was going to be a nurse. then she should be a good one. • Peplau served as college head nurse and later as executive of health service at Bennington College, Vermont. • Prior to it, psychiatric nurses were viewed only as companion to patients but her goal was to prepare nurse psychotherapists. • Peplau require of her students examining their own verbal and nonverbal communications. peplau's inter personal theory 302/14/17
  4. • Born in Reading. Pennsylvania (1909), USA. Diploma program in Pottstown, Pennsylvania in 1931. • She is the only person who has been the executive director and president of ANA. • Peplau was adviser to WHO, member of their first advisory committee. • BA in interpersonal psychology from Bennington College in I943. peplau's inter personal theory 402/14/17
  5. • MA in psychiatric nursing from Columbia University New York in 1947. • Started first post baccalaureate program in nursing. • Published Interpersonal Relations in Nursing in 1952. • 1968 : Interpersonal techniques-the crux of psychiatric nursing. • In 1974, Peplau retired from Rutgers, this allowed her more time to devote to larger profession of nursing. • Worked as executive director and president of ANA. • Worked with WHO, NIMH and Nurse Corps. • Died in 1999. peplau's inter personal theory 502/14/17
  6. Interpersonal Relations in Nursing Theory • Stresses the importance of nurses’ ability to understand their own behaviors to help others identify perceived difficulties. • Emphasizes the focus on the interpersonal processes and therapeutic relationship that develops between the nurse and client. • Four phases of the nurse-patient relationship are identified • Six primary roles of the nurse • Six secondary roles of the nurse peplau's inter personal theory 602/14/17
  7. PEPLAU’S THEORY AND NURSING’S METAPARADIGM Person • According to Peplau, it is defined as an organism that “strives in its own way to reduce tension generated by needs“. Health •It is defined as 'a word symbol that implies forward movement of personality and other ongoing human processes in the “ direction of creative,constructive, productive, personal, and community living.” Environment •Peplau defined“ it in terms 0f existing forces outside the organism and in the context of culture from where customs and beliefs are acquired”.peplau's inter personal theory 702/14/17
  8.  Nursing •“It is a significant, therapeutic, interpersonal  process”.  •She defines it as a “human relationship between  an individual who is sick or in need of health  services, and a nurse especially educated to  recognize and to respond to the need for help.”  peplau's inter personal theory 802/14/17
  9. MAJOR CONCEPTS OF PEPLAU’S THEORY •Nurses should apply principles of human  relations to the problems that arise at all levels of  experience. •Peplau’s theory explains the phases of  interpersonal process, roles in nursing situations  and methods for studying nursing as an  interpersonal process. •Nursing is therapeutic in that it is a healing art,  assisting an individual who is sick or in need of  healthcare. peplau's inter personal theory 902/14/17
  10. • Nursing is an interpersonal process because it involves  interaction between two or more individuals with a  common goal. • The attainment of goal is achieved through the use of a  series of steps following a series of pattern. • The nurse and patient work together so that both  become mature and knowledgeable in the process. peplau's inter personal theory 1002/14/17
  11. Roles of Nurses Primary Stranger Teacher Resource person Counselor Surrogate Leader Secondary Technical expert Mediator Safety agent Researcher Tutor Manager of  environment peplau's inter personal theory 1102/14/17
  12. Different nursing roles assumed during the various phases of nurse -patient relationship •Stranger: Receives the client in the same way one meets a stranger  in other life situations. provides an accepting climate that builds  trust. •Teacher: Who imparts knowledge in reference to a need or interest. •Resource person: One who provides a specific needed information  that aids in the understanding of a problem or new situation. peplau's inter personal theory 1202/14/17
  13. • Counselors: Help to understand and integrate the  meaning of current life circumstances. provide  guidance and encouragement to make changes. • Surrogate: Helps to clarify domains of dependence,  interdependence and independence and acts on clients  behalf as an advocate. • Leader: Helps client assume maximum responsibility  for meeting treatment goals in a mutually satisfying  way. peplau's inter personal theory 1302/14/17
  14. ELEMENTS INVOLVED IN NURSE-PATIENT RELATIONSHIP Contract •The time, place and purpose of meetings as well  as conditions for termination are established  between the nurse and the client.  Boundaries •Roles of participants are clearly defined, the  nurse is defined as a professional helper, the  client’s needs and problems focus of the  interaction. peplau's inter personal theory 1402/14/17
  15. Confidentiality •The nurse should share information only with professional staff who need to know. The nurse should obtain client’s written permission to share information with others outside the treatment team. Therapeutic Nurse Behaviors •Self-awareness •Genuineness . •Warmth and respectfulness . •Empathy •Cultural sensitivity •Responsibility . •Ethical practice. peplau's inter personal theory 1502/14/17
  16. 4 Phases of nurse-patient relationship  Orientation-client seeking assistance, meeting of nurse-patient, identifying the problem and services needed ( interview process), and guidance.  Identification- identifying who is best to support needs, patient addresses personal feelings about the experience and is encouraged to participate in care to promote personal acceptance and satisfaction. peplau's inter personal theory 1602/14/17
  17. Phases cont. Exploitation- patient attempts to explore, understand and deal with the problem, and gains independence on achieving the goal  Resolution- termination of the therapeutic relationship to encourage emotional balance for nurse and patient ( difficult for both patient and nurse as psychological dependence persists) peplau's inter personal theory 1702/14/17
  18. PEPLAU‘S WORK AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A THEORY Interrelation of concepts . •Four phases inter-relate the different components of each phase Applicability •The nurse-patient interaction can apply to the concepts of human being, health, environment and nursing peplau's inter personal theory 1802/14/17
  19. Theories must be logic in nature •This theory provides a logical systematic way of viewing nursing situations . •Key concepts such as anxiety, tension, goals and frustration are indicated with explicit relationships among them and progressive phases. Generalizability • This theory provides simplicity in regard to the natural progression of the NP relationship peplau's inter personal theory 1902/14/17
  20. Theories can be the bases for hypothesis that can be tested •Peplau’s theory has generated testable hypotheses. Theories can be utilized by practitioners to guide and improve their practice • Peplau's anxiety continuum is still used in anxiety patients. Theories must be consistent with other validated theories , laws and principles but will leave open unanswered questions that need to be investigated •Peplau s theory 15 consistent with various theories. peplau's inter personal theory 2002/14/17
  21. LIMITATIONS •personal space considerations and community social service resources are considered less •health promotion and maintenance were less emphasized •Cannot be used in a patient who does not have a felt need eg.withdrawn patients, unconscious patients •some areas are not specific enough to generate hypothesis. peplau's inter personal theory 2102/14/17
  22. Application of Interpersonal Theory in Nursing Practice • An article in Current Nursing evaluated using the theory in nursing practice – Assessment= Orientation phase – Nursing diagnosis – Planning=Identification phase – Implementing=Exploitation phase – Evaluation=Resolution phase (the theory allowed client’s needs to be assessed. Application of the theory helped provide comprehensive care to the client) peplau's inter personal theory 2202/14/17
  23. Assessment Orientation • Data collection and analysis(continuous) • May not be a felt need Nursing diagnosis Planning • Mutually set goals Implementation • Plans initiated toward achievement of mutually set goals • May be accomplished by patient , nurse or family. Evaluation • Based on mutually expected behaviours. • May lead to termination and initiation of new plans • Non- continuous data collection • Felt need • Define needs Identification • Interdependent goal setting Exploitation • Patient actively seeking and drawing help • Patient initiated Resolution • Occurs after other phases are completed successfully • Leads to termination. INTERPERSONAL THEORY AND NURSING PROCESS peplau's inter personal theory 2302/14/17
  24. Education •The theory urged the nurses to use nursing situations as a source of observations from which unique concepts could be derived. •By applying this theory in clinical areas, nurse acts as a participant observer and thus upgrades her previously acquired theoretical knowledge. •Interpersonal Relations in Nursing-used as a manual of instructions to nursing students. •Foundation of psychiatric nursing education. peplau's inter personal theory 2402/14/17
  25. Research • Urology Nursing used the theory to educate newly diagnosed bladder cancer patients with the need for a urinary diversion, and ensure understanding. Outcome shows that the scope of a patient’s needs requires a competent nurse to assume the changing roles in the four phases of the theory, expressing the importance of involving the patient in establishing goals and reviewing the goals frequently. peplau's inter personal theory 2502/14/17
  26. Research • British Journal of Nursing had an article researching the credibility of Peplau’s theory, in mental health care, due to the expansion of nursing knowledge and the dynamics of a multidisciplinary team currently used in today’s practice. • Public Health Nursing did a study, in homecare visits, (testing the use of Peplau’s theory) to work with multi- problem families, to identify interventions, individualized for the members, to see if relationship progression was increased within the family system resulting in optimized care of the patient. peplau's inter personal theory 2602/14/17