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Drug abuse and drug addiction

  1. Drug abuse and Drug addiction Presenter Jene Shrestha Santosh Pahari Master of Public Health Pokhara University 7/30/2019 1
  2. What are Drugs? • Drugs are defined as a chemical substance other than food that affects the normal function of the body and mind when being taken in or applied to the body. • A drug is something that affects your body. • Drugs pass through the body and interferes with brain’s neurotransmitters. 7/30/2019 2
  3. Classification Of Drugs • Pharmaceutical drugs e.g. Aspirin, Paracetamol, Brofin etc. • Recreational drugs e.g. Alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine etc. 7/30/2019 3
  4. Definition Drug Abuse: • Drug abuse is the non permissive consumption of certain substance that may lead to physical and psychological dependence. Drug Addiction • Drug Addiction is a psychological and physical inability to stop consuming a chemical, drug, activity, or substance, even though it is causing psychological and physical harm 7/30/2019 4
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  6. Commonly Abused Drugs • Marijuana • Cocaine • Heroine • Alcohol • Prescription drugs • Inhalant and solvents “Sometimes sedatives, coffee, can all be used to harmful excess.” 7/30/2019 6
  7. Statement of the Problem • More than a quarter of a billion people use drugs globally • It is estimated that in 2016 some 275 million people worldwide had used drugs at least once in the previous year (range: 204 million to 346 million). • In 2016 13.8 million young people (mostly students) aged 15–16 years used cannabis at least once over the previous 12 months, equivalent to 5.6 per cent of the population in this age range. 7/30/2019 7
  8. Statement of the Problem According to WHO factsheet 2018, Nepal • Tobacco kills 27137 people each year.(14.9% of all death). • Tobacco control is essential for preventing and controlling deaths and disability caused by Cardio Vascular Diseases(CVDs). • 6 Millions current tobacco users and a substantial number of people exposed to second hand smoke are at increased risk of CVDs. 7/30/2019 8
  9. Statement of the Problem • Among Nepalese youth aged 13-15 years, the prevalence of current tobacco use is 20.4% and the prevalence of current cigarette use is 3.1%.(GYTS 2011) • Overall 4.1% (male- 54%, female - 2.5%) students out of 6000 approx were found to have ever used marijuana one or more times during their life • Overall 81.7% (male-81.1%, female-81.0%)out of 495 students were found to have used drugs before age 14 years. 7/30/2019 9
  10. 5 C’s of Addiction 1. Chronic 2. Loss of Control 3. Compulsion 4. Use despite negative consequences 5. cravings 7/30/2019 10 Video clip
  11. Why Adolescent Abuse Drugs? • Curiosity • Low Self-Esteem • Peer Pressure • Adult Modeling • Boredom • Feeling of Alienation • Relief of Discomfort • Depression • Family Disruption or Dysfunction 7/30/2019 11
  12. Why Adolescent Abuse Drugs? Curiosity- • The desire to know about something. In this case, knowing how do drugs affect one’s self. 7/30/2019 12
  13. Why Adolescent Abuse Drugs? • Peer pressure- Since values are not just taught but are also caught, the socialization process is also a factor in drug abuse. 7/30/2019 13
  14. Why Adolescent Abuse Drugs? • Adult modeling: Adults, especially parents are the children’s role model whether it is for good or not. 7/30/2019 14
  15. Why Adolescent Abuse Drugs? • Low self-esteem- – A person gets courage and confidence from a particular drug that he or she is taking. 7/30/2019 15
  16. Why Adolescent Abuse Drugs? • Boredom- • Always remember, the devil’s playground is an empty mind. 7/30/2019 16
  17. Why Adolescent Abuse Drugs? • Feeling of Alienation • Sometimes, people especially teenagers or even young adults feel that they are casted out of a group. So they will find a way for them to be “in 7/30/2019 17
  18. Why Adolescent Abuse Drugs? Relief of Discomfort • Discomfort may be in a form of problems and burdens in workplace, school and family 7/30/2019 18
  19. Why Adolescent Abuse Drugs? • Depression- state of mind of where a person cannot enjoy because his situation is so difficult or unpleasant. 7/30/2019 19
  20. Why Adolescent Abuse Drugs? • Disruption of Family: Broken or dysfunctional family and families with migrants may lead to drug abuse. 7/30/2019 20
  21. Signs of Drug Abuse Physical Warning • Bloodshot eyes • Pupils larger or smaller than usual • Changes in appetite or sleep patterns • Sudden weight loss or weight gain • Deterioration of physical appearance • Unusual smells on breath • Impaired coordination 7/30/2019 21
  22. Signs of Drug Abuse Behavioral Warnings • Poor work • Decline in performance • Financial problems • Secretive behaviors • Sudden change in friends and associates • Accident or trouble prone • Lack of motivation and withdrawn • Unexplained anxiety 7/30/2019 22
  23. Effects of Drug Abuse A. To one’s self • Changes in physical and psychological aspects Drug abuse leads to: • Loss of coordination • Poor judgment • Slowed reflexes • Distorted vision • Memory loss • Death 7/30/2019 23
  24. Effects Of Drug Abuse: B. To Family • Dysfunction of The Family • Disregarding Family’s Needs • Feelings of Abandonment • Anxiety • Fear • Anger • Embarrassment or Guilt • Family May Wish To Ignore or Cut Ties With The Person Abusing Substances 7/30/2019 24
  25. Effects Of Drug Abuse: C. To the Community • Higher Crime rate • Economic consequences • More public service demand • loss of fame/reputation 7/30/2019 25
  26. Effects Of Drug Abuse:  Health Complications • Drug and alcohol use impacts nearly every part of body from heart to bowels. • Substance abuse can lead to abnormal heart rates and heart attacks, and injecting drugs can result in collapsed veins and infections in heart valves. • Some drugs can also stop bones from growing properly, while others result in severe muscle cramping and general weakness. • Using drugs over a long period of time will also eventually damage kidneys and liver. 7/30/2019 26
  27. Effects of Drug Abuse: Infections • Having unprotected sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol increases chances of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. • Sharing the needles used to inject certain drugs result in diseases like hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and HIV. 7/30/2019 27
  28. Effects of Drug Abuse: Legal Consequences • Drug and alcohol abuse not only has negative effects on health but can also have legal consequences. • Use of illegal drugs • Theft and robbery result in legal consequences 7/30/2019 28
  29. Effects of Drug Abuse: Financial Problems • Drugs and alcohol are expensive, especially when you’re using a lot and constantly. • Substance abuse also impacts on productivity and success at work and in academic sector. 7/30/2019 29
  30. Prevention and Control 7/30/2019 30
  31. Prevention and Control  Avoid undue Peer Pressure • A child should not be pressed unduly to do beyond his/ her capacities, be it studies, sports etc.  Education and counseling Organizing Youth Centers • Drug addiction may be caused due to the feelings of isolation, loneliness, anxiety etc. Hence, social service organizations, and NGOs should establish youth centers to overcome such feelings. 7/30/2019 31
  32. Prevention and Control  Seeking help from parents and peers: • Whenever, there is any problem, one should seek help and a guidance from parents and peers. Help should be taken from close and trusted friends. This would help young to share their feelings of anxiety and wrong doings.  Be bold and say no  Alternate activity- joining sports or social activity, it not only increases your social circle but also improves your social esteem  Avoid the situation where you know people will be using drugs 7/30/2019 32
  33. Prevention of Drug Abuse 1. Have a positive self esteem. 2. Be involved in worthwhile activities. 3. Have friends who do not abuse drugs. 4. Have a sense of accomplishment. 5. Have clearly defined goals. 6. Have healthy competition. 7. Be committed to follow rules and law. 8. Be reared in a loving and functional family. 7/30/2019 33
  34. Conclusion • Drug abuse is a serious psychosocial problem often difficult to be cured. The best way to avoid these tragedies is to never start taking drugs. 7/30/2019 34
  35. Thank you !!! 7/30/2019 35

Notas do Editor

  1. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/essay/essay-on-the-prevention-and-control-to-drug-addiction/1457
  2. http://addictionofdrug.blogspot.com/2010/04/drug-abuse-is-serious-psycho.html
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