The study is a chain of social and
It was carried out by Mayo and
3. • The study was a
collaboration between the
company and a group of
graduates from Harvard
Mayo was the chief
4. Hawthorne Effect
When people have awareness that
someone is observing their behavior, they
A kind of reactivity in which people under
observation alter their behavior.
5. Four Phases of Hawthorne Experiments
Sequence of Illumination
tests from 1924 to 1927
Experiments focused on
relay assembly department
Interveiw with the employees
Bank wiring test room
Two groups were selected:
i. Experimental group ii. The control group
The findings of these experiments showed no significant
difference in the productivity of both groups.
Increased productivity was caused from the consideration
received by the group, not by lighting conditions.
8. Phase 2: Relay Assembly Test Room
Second study was to explain the impact of varied job
Initially, six women were selected and they were placed
under the observation of researcher.
These women were treated differently from normal employees
consultations and agreements
freedom to talk to each other
As expected, rise in productivity was observed by researcher.
These women established an association and trust and
needed no supervision.
Increased productivity is somewhat linked to the cheerful,
open and friendly atmosphere for work.
Afterwards, hours of the work for the day and week were
shortened which gave similar outcomes.
Conversely, previous physical working environment brought
back by removing all advancements , the outcome surprisingly
remained the same.
Increased productivity wasn’t due to reduced fatigue, but it was due
to the increased opportunities for social and mental attitudes
This result was credited to the group dynamics.
12. Phase 3: The Interviewing Program
To determine the impacts of supervision, attitudes of the workers,
salaries, increments and insurance policies over 21,000 interviews
In the initial phase, direct questioning was employed which
generalized simple yes/ no answers where root of matter could not
As suggested by Mayo, interview method was then
modified to non-directive interviewing where interviewer
was asked to listen to instead of talking or advising.
The interview programme gave valuable insights about
the human behaviour in the company.
Similarly, performance of the workers had also been improved.
This was the purpose behind introducing supervision training to
assist the observers to be able of paying attention and
recognizing the issue of workers.
During the course of interviews, it was discovered that worker’s
behaviour was being influenced by group behavior.
15. Phase 4: The Bank-Wiring Observation
Fourth study was conducted to explore the central reasons which
limit the workers’ productivity in social groups.
To work in physical working conditions, a group of fourteen males
The observer was held responsible for the behavior and
communications of the employee only.
Researchers began to recognize that productivity of workers
was impacted by an informal group norm.
It was not permissible for these workers to perform greater
than the group norms. They would be treated badly and
detached by the group if they did more.
19. Implications of Hawthorne Studies
1.Theoretical Contribution of
The essential changes in organizational
behavior were introduced.
The results show that people work not to
get monetary reward only but also to
satisfy their social needs .
It means workers’ psychological and social
needs should be considered with careful
2.Contribution to the practical
The rates of organizational productivity
The managers must consider the study
conducted by Mayo to know human
The study introduced personnel
20. Conclusions of the Study
General Conclusions drawn from the Hawthorne effect studies:
Individuals and their aptitudes are not perfect to expect their job
performance, the production is highly impacted by social factors.
The way individuals carry out the commands is based on the relation
managers develop with their workers.
There are certain norms of work-group which effect productivity.
The organization and workplace is a social system, the Hawthorne studies viewed
workplace a social platform made up of interdependent individuals.
Moreover, it was proved that money is not a mere motivator for the workers, but
many other elements.
The quality of the productivity of workers is affected by the “human relations
between supervisor and employee”.
22. Manager’s Role in the light
of Hawthorne Studies
REVEALED THAT EMPLOYEES
WILL WORK MORE EFFICIENTLY
IF THEY ARE TREATED WITH
PROPERLY, AND THEIR
THINKING AND GROUP
DYNAMICS ARE RECOGNIZED.
23. Hence, managers are required to let the workers
have fun environment to create a “ win-win
situation” among the workers and managers both,
“A HAPPY WORKER IS A
PRODUCTIVE WORKER” .
Notas do Editor
2. The work related to the assembly of telephone relays. Each relay consisted of a number of parts which women assembled into finished products.
An observer was associated with girls to supervise their work. Before each change was introduced, the girls were consulted. They were given opportunity to express their viewpoints and concerns to the supervisor.
The men were engaged in the assembly of terminal banks for the use in telephone exchanges.
School heads must admire, reward and motivate their workers. their efforts should be recognised