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Regionalism in the
Middle East:
A Barrier to Peace
by Jim Gilbertsen
Regionalism
“devotion to the interests of one’s
own region.”
The “Middle East”
The World
Factbook 2007
A Large Area!
Turkey—Somalia
Egypt—Iran
Iraq and Vicinity
Iraq has 6 neighbors:
Kuwait, Saudi Arabia,
Jordan, Syria, Turkey, Iran
SAUDI ARABIA
TURKEY
IRAN
JORDAN
...
Why Iraq?
Because of the ongoing conflict
And to use GIS to see for ourselves
some of the Regional problems we
hear about ...
Why GIS?
Why will GIS work for something like
this?
A sample of a project of wide-extent
that worked…
…Red State/Blue State
from ESRI.com2004 Presidential election results
Why is there
Regionalism in Iraq?
“Lines Drawn in the Sand”
in Saharan Africa
in the Middle East Iraq
Saharan Africa
“Kurdistan”
At 22 million, the
largest non-
autonomous
population in the
world without
self-rule
* Spans Turkey, Armenia,
...
Data Search:
1) Create a base map in ArcGIS
2) Show “regionalism” in the area
3) Data about Iraq’s neighbors
ESRI data
“GIS for Everyone”
publ 2003 by ESRI
* incl a CD with 500MB of ESRI data
ESRI Layers Used
ESRI “World data” files:
• Cities (point vector data)
• Rivers (line vector data)
• Lakes (polygon vector...
Spatial Reference of ESRI data
Geographic Coordinate System: GCS WGS 1984
(Horizontal Datum: D_WGS_1984)
ArcCatalog
Attributed Shapefiles
ArcCatalog
The Base Map
ArcMAP
Internet Search
The ESRI data did NOT contain any
data pertaining to “Groups” or
unofficial “Regions.”
Turned to the inter...
Some of the Maps I found
* Sunni Triangle
(WikiMedia Commons)
* Ethno-Religions Groups
(Iraq, a Country Profile 2003)
Midd...
MiddleEast_Geodatabase
ArcCatalog
Iraqi ethnic and religious groups
“Distribution of Ethnoreligious Groups and Major Tribes”
Iraq Country Profile 2003 (UT)
...
Attribute table of digitized polygon
layer with 3 added Fields
ArcGIS
Two Ethnic Regions
Arabic
Kurdish
ArcMAPUsing “EthnicGroup” field
7 categories
Two Religious Regions
Sunni
Shia
ArcMAPUsing “Religion” field
7 categories
Three Distinct Regions
Regional Divisions
Kurdish
Sunni
Shia
(Using “EthnoReligious” field)
“Sunni Triangle”
Kurdish
Sunni
Shia
ArcMAP
Iraqi Oil fields
“Oil Infrastructure”
Iraq Country Profile 2003 (UT)
(81 oil fields)
(2 categories)
Georeferenced Map
Oil: an Incentive for Division
ArcMAPOil Overlaid on 3 Regions
Statistics by Country
“The World
Factbook 2007”
publ by CIA
* Statistics on Individual Countries
Tabular Data Created in
MS Access
(data from “The World Factbook 2007”)
Table for IRAQ and Neighboring Countries
MS Access...
‘Neighborhood’ – %Religions
* created from CIA data “related”
to ESRI ‘country’ data
Pie Charts
‘Neighborhood’ – %Ethnic
Pie Charts * created from CIA data “related”
to ESRI ‘country’ data
Oil Exports and Reserves
as a % of World Total
Stacked Charts * created from CIA data “related”
to ESRI ‘country’ data
Importance of Studying
this Region
Help Find a Solution to an Ongoing
Conflict
Increased World Competition for
Energy
Ideas for Future Work
1) More Statistics
• % Iraq oil in Sunni
Triangle
• Bar graphs of oil/per
person in ethnic areas
wit...
Sources
1) ESRI (2002) data: shapefiles, layers,
attributed, spatially referenced, metadata
2) University of Texas Online:...
The End
(Additional Slides Follow)
Population Density
Map No. 503930 1978 (UT)
ArcMAP
Digitizing “Kurdistan”
Digitized from georeferenced map
“Sunni Triangle”
Kurdish
Sunni
Shia
Oil Field Locations
from “Oil Infrastructure 2003”
Table Attributes in the GDB
ArcCatalog
How I did my project/GIS layers
How I did my project:
• I had a book with a CD with ESRI data in it. I downloaded the CD d...
Ideas for Future Work
1) Statistics
• % Iraq oil in Sunni Triangle
• Country/Admin population statistics
• Bar graphs of o...
Regionalism in the Middle East - PortfolioCopy
Regionalism in the Middle East - PortfolioCopy
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Regionalism in the Middle East - PortfolioCopy

  1. 1. Regionalism in the Middle East: A Barrier to Peace by Jim Gilbertsen
  2. 2. Regionalism “devotion to the interests of one’s own region.”
  3. 3. The “Middle East” The World Factbook 2007 A Large Area! Turkey—Somalia Egypt—Iran
  4. 4. Iraq and Vicinity Iraq has 6 neighbors: Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Turkey, Iran SAUDI ARABIA TURKEY IRAN JORDAN SYRIA
  5. 5. Why Iraq? Because of the ongoing conflict And to use GIS to see for ourselves some of the Regional problems we hear about in the news
  6. 6. Why GIS? Why will GIS work for something like this? A sample of a project of wide-extent that worked…
  7. 7. …Red State/Blue State from ESRI.com2004 Presidential election results
  8. 8. Why is there Regionalism in Iraq?
  9. 9. “Lines Drawn in the Sand” in Saharan Africa in the Middle East Iraq Saharan Africa
  10. 10. “Kurdistan” At 22 million, the largest non- autonomous population in the world without self-rule * Spans Turkey, Armenia, Syria, Iraq and Iran
  11. 11. Data Search: 1) Create a base map in ArcGIS 2) Show “regionalism” in the area 3) Data about Iraq’s neighbors
  12. 12. ESRI data “GIS for Everyone” publ 2003 by ESRI * incl a CD with 500MB of ESRI data
  13. 13. ESRI Layers Used ESRI “World data” files: • Cities (point vector data) • Rivers (line vector data) • Lakes (polygon vector data) • Countries_2002 (poly) • Lat_Long_Grid (line) • Tectonic_Plates (poly)
  14. 14. Spatial Reference of ESRI data Geographic Coordinate System: GCS WGS 1984 (Horizontal Datum: D_WGS_1984) ArcCatalog
  15. 15. Attributed Shapefiles ArcCatalog
  16. 16. The Base Map ArcMAP
  17. 17. Internet Search The ESRI data did NOT contain any data pertaining to “Groups” or unofficial “Regions.” Turned to the internet – found no usable GIS data But found on-line Maps (and Statistical data)
  18. 18. Some of the Maps I found * Sunni Triangle (WikiMedia Commons) * Ethno-Religions Groups (Iraq, a Country Profile 2003) Middle East Reference Map (World Factbook 2007) * Oil Infrastructure (Iraq, a Country Profile 2003) ** Population Density (UT Map No. 503930 1978) ** Kurdish Area (Iraq, a Map Folio 1992) ** Ethno-Religious (Regional) (Univ-Tx)
  19. 19. MiddleEast_Geodatabase ArcCatalog
  20. 20. Iraqi ethnic and religious groups “Distribution of Ethnoreligious Groups and Major Tribes” Iraq Country Profile 2003 (UT) (42 polygons !) (7 categories) ArcMAP Georeferenced Map
  21. 21. Attribute table of digitized polygon layer with 3 added Fields ArcGIS
  22. 22. Two Ethnic Regions Arabic Kurdish ArcMAPUsing “EthnicGroup” field 7 categories
  23. 23. Two Religious Regions Sunni Shia ArcMAPUsing “Religion” field 7 categories
  24. 24. Three Distinct Regions Regional Divisions Kurdish Sunni Shia (Using “EthnoReligious” field)
  25. 25. “Sunni Triangle” Kurdish Sunni Shia ArcMAP
  26. 26. Iraqi Oil fields “Oil Infrastructure” Iraq Country Profile 2003 (UT) (81 oil fields) (2 categories) Georeferenced Map
  27. 27. Oil: an Incentive for Division ArcMAPOil Overlaid on 3 Regions
  28. 28. Statistics by Country “The World Factbook 2007” publ by CIA * Statistics on Individual Countries
  29. 29. Tabular Data Created in MS Access (data from “The World Factbook 2007”) Table for IRAQ and Neighboring Countries MS Access table Imported into GDB then ‘added table’ to project in ArcMAP
  30. 30. ‘Neighborhood’ – %Religions * created from CIA data “related” to ESRI ‘country’ data Pie Charts
  31. 31. ‘Neighborhood’ – %Ethnic Pie Charts * created from CIA data “related” to ESRI ‘country’ data
  32. 32. Oil Exports and Reserves as a % of World Total Stacked Charts * created from CIA data “related” to ESRI ‘country’ data
  33. 33. Importance of Studying this Region Help Find a Solution to an Ongoing Conflict Increased World Competition for Energy
  34. 34. Ideas for Future Work 1) More Statistics • % Iraq oil in Sunni Triangle • Bar graphs of oil/per person in ethnic areas within Iraq 2) Other digitized data – eg: Population Density within group- areas in Iraq 3) Other Regions: Israel and Palestine – complicated! ArcMAP
  35. 35. Sources 1) ESRI (2002) data: shapefiles, layers, attributed, spatially referenced, metadata 2) University of Texas Online: Perry Casteneda [Map Library]: Scanned maps, (from various sources and projects) 3) CIA: The World Factbook 2007, country statistics and reference map 4) WikiMedia Commons: images of maps, general purpose reference only
  36. 36. The End
  37. 37. (Additional Slides Follow)
  38. 38. Population Density Map No. 503930 1978 (UT) ArcMAP
  39. 39. Digitizing “Kurdistan” Digitized from georeferenced map
  40. 40. “Sunni Triangle” Kurdish Sunni Shia
  41. 41. Oil Field Locations from “Oil Infrastructure 2003”
  42. 42. Table Attributes in the GDB ArcCatalog
  43. 43. How I did my project/GIS layers How I did my project: • I had a book with a CD with ESRI data in it. I downloaded the CD data and opened them up in ArcGIS. • Found data layers (shapefiles dated 2002) to make my base map. Didn’t find any statistical data of use. • I searched the Internet and found no relevant GIS data layers. • So I searched for any data. I found scanned maps, AND statistics in raw form. • Made a Personal Geodatabase to put all this new, and the old, data • I created GIS layers by georeferenceing ALL the maps. • Later, I selected the area features, and digitized them. • I created a table and entered the statistical data, then imported the table into ArcGIS. Later, applying the stats (by country) to make charts/graphs. GIS layers. • Layer 1; source, format, coordinate system, necessary processing. • Layer 2; etc…
  44. 44. Ideas for Future Work 1) Statistics • % Iraq oil in Sunni Triangle • Country/Admin population statistics • Bar graphs of oil/per person in ethnic areas within Iraq 2) Other digitized data – eg: Population Density within group-areas in Iraq 3) Israel and Palestine – complicated

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