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10 barriers to change and how to overcome them


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10 barriers to change and how to overcome them

This presentation covers the types of change in businesses and the challenges they face in incorporating change into the culture. A lack of needed change can kill a business by creating negative risks. Continuous improvement, change processes, and risk management should be integrated to increase success.

This presentation covers the types of change in businesses and the challenges they face in incorporating change into the culture. A lack of needed change can kill a business by creating negative risks. Continuous improvement, change processes, and risk management should be integrated to increase success.


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10 barriers to change and how to overcome them

  1. 1. By James Bullock
  2. 2. Change is always going on
  3. 3. The world is continuously evolving. Some factors driving evolution include: Enhanced technology: Cell phones, software, computers, the web, automobiles…etc. The demand for a higher quality of life through access to better healthcare, transportation, medicines, medical equipment, safety, and security The need for higher quality water, food, housing, education, and alternative sources of energy The ability to adapt and survive in a changing economy Changing laws and regulations Environmental changes and challenges Changes in society and politics
  4. 4. Everything in the world is evolving and evolution doesn’t happen without change. Evolution doesn’t stop. To ensure our survival, we must adapt to what is changing around us. To achieve a higher quality of living, it is essential to progress and continuously improve to meet and exceed living standards. An example of this is when medicines must change in order to adapt to harmful mutating viruses, diseases, and organisms. Another example is when there is demand for particular skills in the job market. If we don’t adapt and continuously improve, then progress stops which can threaten our survival. Continuous improvement and innovation requires change. Without change, things remain the same and there is no progression. So why change?
  5. 5. Types of Change
  6. 6. The types of change management in an organization • Organizational change management – People (Change Agents) that have the responsibility to drive and guide an organization towards success through the transition and re- direction of resources in modification of its strategy. • Project Management and process oriented change management – The process of controlling changes through a change control system. It is managing and controlling change requests as defined in organizational documents (procedures, project plans, etc.)
  7. 7. What types of changes impact an organization? Internal changes External changes Technological Regulatory and compliance Competition Customer needs Organizational – Structure, levels, job responsibilities, etc. Processes, procedures, and policies Culture Strategy
  8. 8. Change and Risks
  9. 9. How Changes relate to Risk Changes In order to make improvements you have to have change A change does not necessarily mean you have an improvement Changes in processes and procedures are controlled Before changes are approved or rejected, they need to be evaluated for risk Risk A lack of improvement can increase negative risks A change can create positive or negative risks If there is no control, negative risks can increase due to variance If changes are not evaluated, risks are not identified and prioritized
  10. 10. The Consequences of Not Changing Not making needed changes increase the risk of being out of compliance and not being up to date with current regulations.
  11. 11. The consequences of not changing Customers will go to the competition for a better quality product and service at a competitive price. Higher quality can enhance a product or service by lowering costs, reducing errors/defects, increasing safety, and increasing efficiency.
  12. 12. The consequences of not changing There is a lack of innovation and creativity to solve complex problems which create a stagnant state. Problems still exist and continue to occur because they are not resolved. The consequences of not changing
  13. 13. The consequences of not changing Changes In Alignment Lead to Progress Lack of needed changes Lead to misalignment And Regression If there are external changes and no internal changes which align, then this can create negative risks due to misalignment with regulations and customer needs. Therefore, continuous improvement is necessary. If the process no longer meets quality demands, then it becomes necessary to make changes which align to meet those demands.
  14. 14. The consequences of not changing It is also important to monitor and control how one change can impact other processes and systems. It may be necessary to improve and update other systems and processes to support the highest priority change. If not completed, one change could create failures in other processes.
  15. 15. Change/Risks/Continuous Improvement
  16. 16. Enhancement and making the right changes Improvement Progression Plan – Define the problem and create a plan for change Do – Execute the plan and test the change Check/Study – Measure, collect, and analyze the results to see if standards are met. Learn from the information. Act – Take action based from what was learned. If unsuccessful, then restart. If successful, look for ways to implement changes broadly. Plan improvements and start cycle over. The PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) or Shewhart cycle/PDSA (Plan, Do, Study, Act) or Deming cycle
  17. 17. Change Control 1. ID Changes 2. Submit formal change request 3. Change is evaluated by CCB 4. Testing (Impact study) 5. Accept/reject (CCB) 6. Implementation 7. Monitor and control 1. Changes are identified by anyone 2. Changes are defined, documented, and submitted through a change control process and the change control board (CCB) 3. Change requests are prioritized and evaluated based on risks. If data is needed to make the change, then test plans may be required as approved. 4. Testing is performed and data is collected if testing is required to accept the change. More testing may be required after review. 5. The change is accepted or rejected by the CCB with rational justification. If rejected, additional testing may be performed. If accepted, the change is implemented. Regardless of the outcome, the change is documented in the change log with rational justification provided for either decision. 6. The changes are correctly implemented into processes and procedures as approved, defined, and documented. 7. Changes are continuously monitored and controlled to meet standards. If additional changes are discovered, then the process starts over with ID changes
  18. 18. ID Risks Change control + Risk Management + Continuous Improvement ID changes Submit change plan and request Evaluate/approve change plan Testing Accept/reject Implement Monitor/Control Plan Do Check/Study Act Change control, risk management, and continuous improvement work together to produce optimal results. Risk based thinking takes care of problems proactively instead of reactively. Risks are identified and monitored throughout projects and processes.
  19. 19. Comfort - People naturally resist change to feel comfort. Getting out of the comfort zone is naturally challenging due to increased stress about the unknowns. Also, there can be influence from decision makers that resist change. Management must buy-in to change. In order to change and improve, we must step out of our comfort zone and work together to make win-win solutions as the primary goal. Why do people resist change?
  20. 20. Why do people resist change? • It is natural for people to resist change when something seems uncomfortable to them. This can be due to a lack of familiarity as well as attachment, increased stress, and anxiety. • Sudden changes may become resisted due to many unknowns. If changes are detailed, rational, aligned with the strategy, visual, and transparent, then they allow for trust to build with decision makers. Also, changes need to be effective which takes everyone’s cooperation. • We are wired to take in information around us to process and make decisions. Unknown information can cause people to become more cautious where they are not as willing to accept and trust the unknowns. More information is needed to trust the decision. To survive, it becomes necessary to change and adapt. • With change there are risks. Risks can be positive or negative. A positive risk can be an opportunity to start a business where there is valid demand. A negative risk can pose a threat to an organization or business. People can resist change due to risks. Managing risks effectively can minimize negative risks and increase opportunities. • When there is a lack of motivation to change, it’s likely that human needs are not being met and the culture lacks to promote and sustain a motivating environment.
  21. 21. Why do people resist change? • Conflict can cause resistance to change. • Overcoming conflict requires utilizing resolution techniques. • The types of conflict resolution are: – Collaboration – (I win, you win) Everyone gets what they want. We all win. – Compromise – (Neither wins or loses) We all must give up something to meet in the middle and nobody gets what they want. – Competing – (I win, you lose) I get what I want but you don’t. – Accommodating – (I lose, you win) I give up something to give you what you want. – Avoiding – (I lose, you lose) All parties cannot meet to work things out, therefore we all lose. Competing Collaboration Avoiding Accommodating Compromise Assertive Cooperative Thomas-Kilmann
  22. 22. Overcoming resistance
  23. 23. Overcoming resistance 1. Assumptions and opinions – “We’ve done this the same way for years, we don’t need to change, what we have now is working.” The reality is that processes and systems can become outdated due to internal and external changes. Continuous improvement enhances the processes and systems to adapt to current conditions. Is effective monitoring/control and risk management being used? Is objective information being used for evaluation? Is the information being interpreted accurately? Testing the system to uncover its limitations can release valuable information about what’s unknown. This validation can be done before it is released for actual use. Just because it works for a few or it works with limited testing doesn’t mean it will be consistent and work for everyone. Continuous improvement requires change. This includes constant learning and application of tools and methods to solve new and old problems. There may be the perception that we have already obtained the knowledge we need through experience. In reality, there is always something to learn and grow from despite the amount of experience, previous education, and accomplishments. Education, feedback, and lessons learned are essential to improve.
  24. 24. Processes and procedures should not be viewed as being owned by an individual but rather by a team and organization. The processes and procedures serve a team and its users. It is important to get procedures correct through team collaboration, testing, and having well defined instructions. This reduces errors and biased decisions. Procedures should be tested prior to release in operations. This ensures that they work for all types of users. They produce the same results regardless of how many times they are executed or who executes them. Failures should be evaluated where human error should not be the primary focus of root causes. Identify true root causes that create human errors. Overcoming resistance 2. Egos – “I don’t need to change any of my policies or procedures because they are fine.”
  25. 25. Overcoming resistance 3. Improper justification for rejection – “This change will not be of any benefit.” A lack of valid information for rejecting a change can create negative risks by delaying needed improvements. Listening to thoughts and concerns, utilizing objective information, and following collaborative methods can guide better decision making by minimizing narrow thinking and errors. Identify root causes using collaborative tools and methods. Uncover all possible causes and evaluate for risk. Show links from the change to the strategy. Use collaborative processes and tools for identifying and evaluating rejections. A rejection having a lack of logical support holds less merit. What is the true reason for rejection? Innovation and creativity must not be limited. It is necessary to experiment and learn in order to overcome challenges, grow, and become better.
  26. 26. Overcoming resistance 4. Lack of understanding the overall strategy – “I am only interested in changes that benefit my department.” Leadership should understand the purpose of the change and how it links to the overall organizational strategy. It may be a high priority to the company but not necessarily within a certain department. Processes should be implemented to choose projects that are aligned with the organizational strategy. The link to the strategy should be transparent and communicated well enough to reduce uncertainty. Effective project management can bring projects home which show alignment with the strategy.
  27. 27. Overcoming resistance 5. Resources/Time – “We don’t have the time or resources to make changes.” Decision makers should understand that training and education provide foundations which are essential for achieving success therefore approval of necessary resources are crucial. A lack of knowledge can increase the risk for failure. Resources and requirements need to be communicated well and in detail. Conflicts can be worked out through a collaborative negotiation. Rejecting needed changes can potentially cost more money and time in the long run because the issues still persist. Encourage proactive behavior (Risk based thinking) and focus on building quality into designs, plans, and procedures instead of reacting to issues. Use project management, quality, and six sigma education to support continuous improvement. Thoughtful planning and quality improvements can increase efficiency, lower cost, reduce defects, and increase safety which in turn increase customer satisfaction and profits.
  28. 28. Overcoming resistance 6. Job status - You’re not someone with a high status “title” so your proposed changes are invalid Anyone should be empowered to propose a change regardless of their job title or status. Workers that use the process and perform the work should be able to request changes because they are closest to the process and understand current issues. Feedback is essential towards improvement. Quality is everyone’s job.
  29. 29. Overcoming resistance 7. Uncertainty and confusion – More information is needed so the change stalls or is rejected. Define the problem, scope, and assumptions in specific detail. Apply SMART goals with collaboration. Close the gap between what is uncertain and what is certain through education, training, and supplying objective information. Identify root causes and potential variances. Determine solutions to issues through collaborative problem solving. Perform testing if needed to collect additional information.
  30. 30. Overcoming resistance 8. Unclear or incomplete requirements – There is no agreement to approve the change by multiple decision makers Validate and verify scope early and as needed so it is known specifically what is expected from each decision maker. Use collaborative tools to collect requirements from each stakeholder and evaluate their impact. A single change can impact another process. Identify negative risks and manage them. Clarify and find out what the real requirements are early, how they will be measured, and what defines acceptance and rejection. Always look for discrepancies and issues and resolve them collaboratively. Confirm interpretation of the requirements and document them. Allow for corrections.
  31. 31. Overcoming resistance 9. Experience – “You’re not someone with much experience therefore you lack the knowledge and your proposed changes lack merit.” People can have experience in different industries with related skills that add value to other industries. Diverse perspectives can help fill in those needed gaps. A person should be judged more on their performance rather than their years of experience. Although experience is important, it does not necessarily justify someone’s performance, what they’ve learned and applied, and their potential. Everyone has different backgrounds, skills, and rates of learning. A superior system should recognize and reward positive performance consistently and objectively resulting in job security, however this is not always the outcome. Experience and performance can be perceived and evaluated inaccurately due to biased opinions and misleading information. Misleading information and assumptions result in poor decisions.
  32. 32. Overcoming resistance 10. Opposing ideas – Each side has ideas that oppose or conflict with each other. Out of each idea, what are the elements that cause conflict? What objective information supports the idea or view? Are the ideas aligned with the strategy and goals? Distinguish between the important elements. What elements are most important and how can they be combined to create a universal solution? Shoot for win-win solutions as this strengthens buy in.
  33. 33. The Culture • Conflict is unavoidable. The key to achieving the best outcomes is being able to work together with diverse people to come to solutions in alignment with business and individual goals. Outcomes with win-win solutions are optimal and can minimize conflict but can require more effort. Exhausting collaborative methods before using other methods increases the likelihood of achieving better outcomes. Despite how effective collaborative outcomes can be, it may be necessary to use other resolution methods given the situation. It may be tempting to take the easier path, however the results produced rely on the work being put in. • Collaboration is working together cooperatively with respect and inclusion to create win-win solutions. • Quality should be embedded into the culture. If you have to convince the value of having quality, then there is a problem.
  34. 34. The Culture Learn the culture and its barriers in preventing change from lessons learned, interviews, and surveys. Once the barriers are known, create a strategy to overcome these barriers using facts, data, tools, and logical rationale to guide change. Get to know the decision makers and their points of view. • Is there a cooperative or uncooperative culture and what is contributing in each case? • Does the culture support collaboration and respect for everyone? • Are there fair policies and procedures which support a positive environment? Uncooperative Cooperative
  35. 35. • Ask questions to understand the reason behind objections. • Is there rationale and reasoning to support the rejection? Do they have another idea? If not, then are they resisting just to resist? • Is everyone willing to collaborate and problem-solve as a team? Is there an effort and willingness to use different collaborative methods? Is respect shown from all sides? • Are there fair rules, processes, and disciplinary actions in place to support constructive behavior which are applied consistently to everyone? If not, then this is a formula for disaster and failure. The Culture
  36. 36. Summary Reduce uncertainty •If there is less uncertainty, then people are more likely to accept change. •Find the real requirements, confirm the details and establish SMART goals to obtain acceptance. Document the requirements. •Find root causes and show the gaps of processes and procedures in need of the changes. How will they impact the business and customers internally and externally? Visibility and transparency •Information should be objective, highly visible, and transparent to answer questions about the unknowns. Changes vs no changes •Show the risks and impact of making needed changes versus not making them. Including information from others creates greater buy-in.
  37. 37. Advocate continuous improvement • Utilize Plan, Do, Check/Study, Act and other tools to educate and show the value of employing continuous improvement initiatives to problem solve issues. Change to improve • It is important to continuously improve in order to meet and exceed the current state to reach higher standards. Without improvement, the same approaches are used where the same results can be expected. Change to adapt • Survival depends on the ability to adapt to demands. Learning and applying quality and in-depth project management can: • Reduce costs by cutting waste, defects, errors, and cycle times • Increase efficiency and safety • Reduce negative risks and maximize opportunities • Drive successful completion of needed changes within alignment of the strategy • Prioritize and manage top changes for creating success Summary
  38. 38. Stakeholder management • Identify and monitor stakeholders that may oppose the change and execute a plan to get their buy-in. Listen and collaborate with them to come to win-win solutions. Stakeholder communication • Communicate needs and status with affected stakeholders to maintain buy-in and address their needs and concerns. Summary
  39. 39. Rejection without justification • Show the consequences of rejecting change requests without legit justification. Incorrect decisions could result in failures and negative risks emerging. Use collaboration • Guide the team to evaluate the risks of not making the change and use collaborative tools to shoot for win-win decisions with inclusion of all team members. It’s important to consider all team members and encourage their involvement to devise and apply strategies using their input to get diverse perspectives which fill in gaps of knowledge. Enhance ideas • Encourage building and enhancing the ideas of others instead of rejecting them. Sometimes it takes a lot of answers that don’t work to get to the right one. The idea may work in other situations. Summary
  40. 40. Link changes with the strategy • Show the links between the change and the organizational goals, strategy, and vision. Change Goals Strategy Vision Summary
  41. 41. Define the current state and forward direction • What is the current state and how will we get to our goals? Everyone should be on the same page. Prioritize and test • After prioritizing changes, test and implement to ensure they are robust. Worst case scenarios should be captured to show limitations. Ensure the changes work as intended. Use continuous improvement tools • Use Project Management, Lean Six Sigma, etc. to drive continuous improvement by strengthening weaknesses and increasing worker interactions at all levels. Summary
  42. 42. Leadership • Remove barriers to collaborate with employees by teaching and showing respect, open communication, listening, problem-solving, and involvement. Remove physical barriers and advocate communication between management and first level workers. Opinions and feedback should be allowed without retaliation or negative consequences. Inclusion • All ideas and information should be considered to make better decisions. Someone may have vital information which has not been taken into consideration that can add significant quality into making the correct decision. Risk Management • The more risks that are identified, the less opportunity for surprises. Additionally, logical correct decision making is a must. Advocate a risk based thinking mindset and culture to take care of the top issues proactively before they happen. Summary
  43. 43. Use collaboration to overcome objections • Find the source of objections and seek rational justification. Find the key common interests for seeking a universal solution to the issues. Shoot for win-win solutions first to get buy-in from everyone. This creates less conflict in the future. Decisions have more weight when there is logical reasoning to support them. • Policies, procedures, and processes must support collaboration. Additionally, they should be created collaboratively. • The environment and its leaders must support collaboration for it to work. Motivation gives us the drive to overcome and change. Motivation is created by meeting human needs. Summary
  44. 44. Use Lessons learned and history • Use lessons learned and history to show the risks of not making changes and the results of making effective changes. Document and archive • History can repeat itself if the issues are not corrected to prevent them from happening in the future. It is important to document what is happening with great detail in lessons learned and other logs to revisit and learn from. Changes can be implemented to prevent, reduce, and avoid problems. Risk Based Thinking • Use risk management to be proactive in minimizing negative risks. Everyone’s voice should be included in identifying risks. Summary
  45. 45. Customer focus • Focus on meeting customer needs inside and outside of the company or organization. Without customers, there is no business. Without a team, the work will not get done. Once everyone knows clearly what the goals are and there is a willingness to work together to achieve them, it becomes easier to reach them. • Focusing on improvement instead of blaming others is key for achieving team success. Improvement requires self made changes and the ability to objectively criticize oneself. The quality of our work can have impact on others. • Collaboration and team building can build trust which can make accepting change easier. Summary
  46. 46. Working together can bring change