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Clusters 'what and why'

Clustering has long been recognized as a key tool for fostering regional growth and economic development. However, like ‘innovation’ clustering has become a somehow blurry concept that many talks about and use in various connections. In this presentation, Jakob will take you through an essential ‘clusters what and why session’ discussing some of the key questions, which are crucial for all being involved in with cluster development: What are clusters more exactly, how do they occur, what are the dynamics and key factors driving strong clusters, can we create clusters, and what are the differences between ‘clusters’ and ‘cluster initiatives’? Most importantly, Jakob will also discuss if clusters and clustering really matters: Do clusters actually forge economic and regional development and why should we aim for cluster development at all?

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Clusters 'what and why'

  1. 1. Does clustering really matter? A presentation on ‘Clusters - What & Why’ By Jakob Stoumann, CEO of Oxford Research
  2. 2. Cluster Initiatives are mushrooming in all parts of Europe!
  3. 3. Need money? Say cluster initiative…
  4. 4. Even heard that they are crazy about ‘klasters’ in Krakow…
  5. 5. But why all this fuzz about clusters?
  6. 6. The key questions I will try to answer: • What are clusters more exactly? • How do they occur? • What are the dynamics and key factors driving strong clusters? • Can we create clusters? • And does clustering actually matters?
  7. 7. YES! Clusters do matter – a lot…. ▪ Companies in strong clusters are more innovative than other companies! ▪ Regions with strong clusters attract more venture capital than areas without strong clusters ▪ Strong clusters creates a higher level of entrepreneurship ▪ Clusters are magnets for skilled labour ▪ Clusters result in higher wage levels as well as added value growth
  8. 8. YES! Clusters do matter – a lot…. ▪ 38% of European jobs are based in clusters (regional sectoral strongholds) ▪ There are about 2000 statistical observable clusters in Europe, of which 150 are considered to be world-class in terms of employment, size, focus and specialization ▪ According to the European Cluster Excellence Scoreboard, for a number of selected emerging industries and regions in the period 2010-2013, 33.3 % of firms in clusters showed employment growth superior to 10%, as opposed to only 18.2% of firms outside clusters. Source: European Cluster Observatory
  9. 9. Companies in strong clusters are more innovative than other companies! In his study of the Silicon Valley case, Chong‐Moon Lee, former Stanford professor, clearly shows the close connection between processes of clustering and innovation. Due to the very high density of specialized companies and prevalence of networking and knowledge sharing, Silicon Valley became one of the most collaborative and innovative business and research environments in the US and the world. Proove: HP, Oracle, Cisco Systems, NetScape, EBay, Sun, Apple, Google and many others were founded in the valley YES! Clusters do matter – a lot….
  10. 10. Why did we start focusing on clusters? Michael Porter introduced the modern cluster theory: • “Clusters are the cornerstone of innovative economies” • He focused on how clusters contributed to developing internationally competitive companies and industries • One reason why cluster policy has become so popular might be that the concept was introduced in a period where more selective trade policy was removed due to international legislation. • Clustering was a new lens that made possible moving the focus from subsidizing specific industries and firms to more soft industry policies and indirect support measures in order to enhance innovation and competitiveness within sectors and across value chains.
  11. 11. What are clusters? Porter defines clusters as “Geographic concentrations of interconnected companies and institutions in a particular field” Source: Clusters and the New Economy of Competition, Michael E. Porter in Harvard Business Review, Nov/Dec98, Vol. 76 Issue 6,
  12. 12. What are clusters? Leading companies Related companies R&D Labour market Infra- structure Finance etc. Support functions A geographical concentration of specialized companies and related companies, research & development institutions, education, finance institutions, public actors, and with relations and cooperation between these actors
  13. 13. Clustering - the cross field of agglomeration and networking Agglomerations The physical placement within a region of (many) companies and organsiations within the same sector, economic or technical field Networks The network and social and economic relations and cooperation between related companies and organisations Clusters Agglomeration of related companies and organisations with strong networks and culture of collaboration
  14. 14. Some world famous clusters
  15. 15. Some world famous clusters
  16. 16. Some world famous clusters
  17. 17. Some world famous clusters
  18. 18. Some world famous clusters
  19. 19. Upgrading mechanisms - The dynamics that makes clusters strong and the cluster companies grow Complementarity Joint pool of qualified labour, specialised local suppliers and supporting firms Innovation pressure Company rivalry, strong local buyers Knowledge development and dissemination Local buzz, network, getting fast access to the newest knowledge and ideas, spin-offs Collective action Pre-competitive joint projects and alliances: R&D, education, internationalisation, etc. Global pipelines Strategic partners located outside the cluster, link to global innovation and production networks Innovation and competitiveness
  20. 20. Cluster lifecycles - clusters are not born big they emerge, grow, mature and change From a regional policy point of view, potential and emerging clusters attract particular attention as new sources of regional growth that through the right initiatives and public support can grow into strong, mature clusters. This leads to the next subject – cluster initiatives...
  21. 21. A cluster initiative is … … an organised collaboration with • firms • government • and academia within a concentrated geographical area • Cooperating towards common goals • Establishing close linkages and working alliances … to improve the cluster’s and the companies’ competitiveness
  22. 22. Clusters vs. cluster initiatives • Clusters evolve and exist naturally without any public intervention • The development of clusters can be stimulated by a cluster initiative • Important: ‘We’ cannot start or run a cluster - but a cluster initiative 22 A cluster initiative is not a cluster itself but an organisation that supports and facilitates the development and success of an actual cluster. In this way, cluster initiatives can be said to be part of a cluster’s supporting institutions or soft infrastructure.
  23. 23. Different understandings of the cluster concept • The concepts of clusters and innovation systems are used in different situations: • As theoretical perspectives to describe mechanisms that create economic growth • As a tool to analyse and describe complex systems • As a process tool to organize regional development • As a policy framework for innovation and value creation • Remember: The final goal of a cluster initiative will not always be the fully fledged mature cluster. Clustering and cluster initiatives should basically be seen as tools to enhance innovation and competitiveness within a region or a specific group of companies.
  24. 24. Cluster development is a centre stage strategy rather than ”another project” Cluster development is a comprehensive framework or a platform for a range of economic development agendas, including: • RDI interventions • Skills, training, workforce development • SME development; New business start-ups • Investment attraction; attracting experts • Export development, internationalisation Clustering
  25. 25. 1. Cluster development is long term • Don’t over promise, no quick fix • Requires long term action • And patience And its not a quick fix….
  26. 26. What characterises successful cluster initiatives? Important steps and focal points in the process of establishing cluster initiatives: ▪ When there is a ”natural cluster” existing with proven strengths and growth potentials to build on ▪ When the cluster initiative focuses on the shared needs and challenges of the companies ▪ When there is a clear and common understanding of what cluster development is among the key stakeholders: ▪ That by standing together in joint actions we can improve the regional framework conditions and hereby create advantages for the individual companies ▪ When there is a shared vision and clear strategy for the cluster initiative. ▪ When there has been build trust between the stakeholders in the cluster and show engagement and ownership to the initiative and the activities
  27. 27. Oxford Research’s cluster work Oxford Research is currently among the leading knowledge providers and practitioners in clustering in Scandinavia and Europe and we have undertaken a wide range of regional, national and international cluster actors such as the EU Commission, the European Cluster Observatory, Cluster Excellence Denmark, Copenhagen Capacity, ministries, regions, municipalities, and directly with cluster organizations and cluster initiatives. References include: • International cluster management training since 2006 • International cluster study trips to Denmark for international clients since 2009 • Strategy development, cluster interventions and advisory services for cluster initiatives E.g. ERECI Egyptian Renewable Energy Cluster, Logistics in Wallonia, Copenhagen Fintech Innovation & Research, Merit – Helsinki Maritime Cluster • EU Cluster Policy Mapping for the European Cluster Observatory • Baseline study for the Norwegian Centre of Expertise programme • Monitoring and evaluation of Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster Oxford Research has worked intensively with clusters, cluster development, and cluster policies since 1995. Oxford Research's founder and Chairman, Kim Møller, was involved at the inception of cluster research in the 1980s, working along with Harvard professor Michael E. Porter's research team on the famous 'Ten Nation Study' that laid the foundation for the modern cluster concept. Oxford Research is a member of the global cluster development forum TCI - The Competitiveness Institute and Associated Partner of the national Danish cluster support function Cluster Excellence Denmark.
  28. 28. Our cluster services Oxford Research is able to offer a wide range of consulting services related to clusters, cluster development, and cluster policies: • Inventories and analyzes of clusters and value chains: Oxford Research specializes in identifying potential as well as mature clusters, mapping the various clusters actors and value chains to assess their strengths, opportunities, and challenges. • Monitoring and evaluation of clusters and cluster initiatives: In order to keep a cluster initiative on track and get the maximum return on investment, ongoing monitoring and evaluation is important. Oxford Research has implemented baseline measurements, monitoring systems, and evaluations for many of the largest clusters and cluster programs in Scandinavia. • Development of strategy and action plans for cluster organizations and business policy makers: creating sustainable and successful cluster initiatives is not easy and requires a clear strategy that is both rooted in the real actors and based on sound analysis. • Cluster Training and Cluster Management Courses: Since 2006, Oxford Research has offered workshops and courses in cluster development for facilitators and professionals working with clusters. Through interactive and practice-based learning, participants will be equipped with knowledge and tools they can use in their daily work to build innovative and sustainable clusters and cluster initiatives.
  29. 29. Contact Oxford Research has more than 50 specialized consultants placed in Copenhagen, Stockholm, Oslo, Helsinki, Tallinn, Poznan, Brussels and New York. Head office is in Copenhagen - Denmark. For cluster projects and enquiries please contact: Jakob Stoumann Managing Director Head of Clustering, innovation and Regional Development Oxford Research A/S Falkoner Allé 20, 4. sal 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark Switchboard: +45 3369 1369 Mobile/direct: +45 2447 5927 Email: jas@oxfordresearch.dk www.oxfordresearch.dk
  30. 30. 30 Thank you for the attention! …and please remember: Success tends to cluster