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The earliest indications of the biological nature of viruses came from studies in 1892 by the Russian scientist Dmitry I. Ivanovsky and in 1898 by the Dutch scientist Martinus W. Beijerinck.
Beijerinck first surmised that the virus under study was a new kind of infectious agent, which he designated contagium vivum
fluidum, meaning that it was a live, reproducing organism that differed from other organisms.
Both of these investigators found that a disease of tobacco plants could be transmitted by an agent, later called tobacco mosaic virus, passing through a minute filter that would not allow the passage of bacteria. 

The earliest indications of the biological nature of viruses came from studies in 1892 by the Russian scientist Dmitry I. Ivanovsky and in 1898 by the Dutch scientist Martinus W. Beijerinck.
Beijerinck first surmised that the virus under study was a new kind of infectious agent, which he designated contagium vivum
fluidum, meaning that it was a live, reproducing organism that differed from other organisms.
Both of these investigators found that a disease of tobacco plants could be transmitted by an agent, later called tobacco mosaic virus, passing through a minute filter that would not allow the passage of bacteria. 

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Virus ..pptx

  1. 1. Virus Presented by :Jagruti Marathe
  2. 2. Morphology 01 • the size and shape of the virion, number of capsomers, symmetry of capsid and presence or absence of envelope Classification 02 Replication 03 Cultivation 04 • Incubation of virus into Animal • Incubation of virus into embryonated eggs • Tissue culture
  3. 3. Morphology of Viruses
  4. 4. virus, infectious agent of small size and simple composition that can multiply only in living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria. The name is from a Latin word meaning “slimy liquid” or “poison.” Structure of virus
  5. 5. • The earliest indications of the biological nature of viruses came from studies in 1892 by the Russian scientist Dmitry I. Ivanovsky and in 1898 by the Dutch scientist Martinus W. Beijerinck. • Beijerinck first surmised that the virus under study was a new kind of infectious agent, which he designated contagium vivum • fluidum, meaning that it was a live, reproducing organism that differed from other organisms. • Both of these investigators found that a disease of tobacco plants could be transmitted by an agent, later called tobacco mosaic virus, passing through a minute filter that would not allow the passage of bacteria.
  6. 6. • This virus and those subsequently isolated would not grow on an artificial medium and were not visible under the light microscope. • In independent studies in 1915 by the British investigator Frederick W. Twort and in 1917 by the French Canadian scientist Félix H. d’Hérelle, lesions in cultures of bacteria were discovered and attributed to an agent called bacteriophage (“eater of bacteria”), now known to be viruses that specifically infect bacteria.
  7. 7. Structure of virus Nucleic Acids: -DNA or RNA -single strand or double strand Capsid: proteins coat that enables infection of cell Viruses are quintessential parasites; they depend on the host cell for almost all of their life-sustaining functions.
  8. 8. Structure of virus Viruses are also energy parasites; unlike cells, they cannot generate or store energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) The invading virus uses the nucleotides and amino acids of the host cell to synthesize its nucleic acids and proteins, respectively. Some viruses use the lipids and sugar chains of the host cell to form their membranes and glycoproteins (proteins linked to short polymers consisting of several sugars). .
  9. 9. Structure of virus The virion capsid has three functions: (1) to protect the viral nucleic acid from digestion by certain enzymes (nucleases), (2) To furnish sites on its surface that recognize and attach (adsorb) the virion to receptors on the surface of the host cell, and, in some viruses, (3) To provide proteins that form part of a specialized component that enables the virion to penetrate through the cell surface membrane or, in special cases, to inject the infectious nucleic acid into the interior of the host cell.
  10. 10. • Viruses occupy a special taxonomic position: they are not plants, animals, or prokaryotic bacteria (single-cell organisms without defined nuclei), and they are generally placed in their own kingdom. • In fact, viruses should not even be considered organisms, in the strictest sense, because they are not free-living—i.e., they cannot reproduce and carry on metabolic processes without a host cell. Structure of virus
  11. 11. • All true viruses contain nucleic acid—either DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid)—and protein. • The nucleic acid encodes the genetic information unique for each virus. The infective, extracellular (outside the cell) form of a virus is called the virion. • It contains at least one unique protein synthesized by specific genes in the nucleic acid of that virus. • In virtually all viruses, at least one of these proteins forms a shell (called a capsid) around the nucleic acid. • Certain viruses also have other proteins internal to the capsid; some of these proteins act as enzymes, often during the synthesis of viral nucleic acids. Structure of virus
  12. 12. • Viroids (meaning “virus like”) are disease-causing organisms that contain only nucleic acid and have no structural proteins. • Other virus like particles called prions are composed primarily of a protein tightly complexed with a small nucleic acid molecule. • Prions are very resistant to inactivation and appear to cause degenerative brain disease in mammals, including humans. Structure of virus
  13. 13. Classification of Viruses
  14. 14. • Viruses can be classified primarily on their phenotypic characteristics, core content, chemical composition, capsid structure, size, shape, modes of replication and other viral genome structures: • The Baltimore classification is the most commonly used for studying the system of virus classification. • This system was developed by an American biologist David Baltimore in the 1970s, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize. • The below virus information describes the classification of viruses based on their different criteria.
  15. 15. Replication of Viruses
  16. 16. • Main steps of viral replication These include attachment, penetration, uncoating, replication, assembly, and virion release.
  17. 17. • Stages of virus replication Phase 1: Initiation • Attachment • Penetration • Uncoating Phase 2:Replication • Ensure replication of the genome • Package the genome into virus particles • Alter the metabolism of the infected cell so that viruses are produced. • Genome synthesis • RNA production • Protein synthesis Phase 3 Assembly, release, Maturation
  18. 18. Stages of virus replication Phase 1: Initiation 1. Attachment: Virus attaches to the cell surface. •Attachment is via ionic interactions. •Viral attachment proteins referred as ligands are present on the surface of viruses, which recognizes specific receptors on the cell surface. The ligands in viruses are usually the fibres and spikes in the virus structures. •The receptors on cells are protein or carbohydrate or lipid components of the cell surface. •The most common cellular receptors are glycoproteins. •Some of the important cell receptors for viruses are CD4, ICAM etc. Cells without the appropriate receptors are not susceptible to the virus. •Hence, a virus cannot produce infection in a host, which does not contain receptors for virus attachment. • The joining of ligand to receptor on cell is also facilitated by coreceptors (Eg. gp120 of HIV) •In some cases attachment leads to irreversible changes in the structure of the virion.
  19. 19. 2. Penetration: •It is a process by which a virus enters into the cell. •It is an energy dependant reaction and occurs quickly. •It occurs as fusion, endocytosis or translocation. •It is different for enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. Enveloped viruses –Two methods for enveloped viruses. (A)Entry by fusing with the plasma membrane – • Some enveloped viruses fuse directly with the plasma membrane. • Thus, the internal components of the virion are immediately delivered to the cytoplasm of the cell.
  20. 20. B) Entry via endosomes at the cell surface – Some enveloped viruses require an acid pH for fusion to occur & are unable to fuse directly with the plasma membrane. These viruses are taken up by invagination of clathrin coated pits into endosomes. As the endosomes become acidified, the fusion activity of the virus proteins becomes activated by the fall in pH and the virion membrane fuses with the endosome membrane. This results in delivery of the internal components of the virus to the cytoplasm of the cell. This endocytosis is also called viropexis. Non-enveloped viruses - Non-enveloped viruses may cross the plasma membrane directly or may be taken up via clathrin-coated pits into endosomes. They then cross the endosomal membrane
  21. 21. 3.Uncoating: This is the general term applied to events after penetration, which allow the virus to express its genome. •For successful viral infection, nucleic acid has to be sufficiently uncoated. •The lysosomal enzymes play a major role in uncoating.
  22. 22. Phase II:Replication of viral nucleic acid and protein synthesis Once uncoating has taken place, synthesis of viral NA starts. This occurs as three different stages with differences between different families of the viruses. Early transcription and translation: The proteins derived from this stage is mostly the enzymes required for virus replication. Replication of Nucleic acid: Late transcription and translation :The proteins produced during this stage are structural proteins.
  23. 23. Cultivation of Viruses
  24. 24. Incubation of virus into animal Incubation of virus into embryonated eggs Tissue culture
  25. 25. Incubation of virus into animal • Viruses which are not cultivated in embryonated egg and tissue culture are cultivated in laboratory animals such as mice , guinea pig, hamster and rabbits are used. • The selected animals should be healthy and free from any communicable diseases. • Mice(less than 48 hours old) are most commonly used. • Mice are susceptible to togavirus and coxsackie virus , which are inoculated by intracerebral and intranasal route . • After inoculation virus multiply in host and develops disease . • The animals are observed for symptoms of disease and death .
  26. 26. • Then the virus is isolated and purified from the tissue of these animals . • Live inoculation was first used on human volunteers for the study of yellow fever virus. • Laboratory animals play an essential role in studies of viral pathogenesis . • Mice are the most widely employed animals in virology .
  27. 27. Advantages of animal Inoculation Diagnosis , pathogenesis and clinical symptoms are determine and used for the study of immune responses, epidemiology and ontogenesis . Production of antibodies can be identified . Primary isolation of certain viruses Mice provide a reliable model for studying viral replication
  28. 28. Incubation of virus into embryonated eggs • Good pasture in 1931 first used the embryonated hen’s egg for the cultivation of virus. • The process of cultivation of viruses in embryonated eggs depends on the type of egg which is used. • Viruses are inoculated into chick embryo of 7-12 days old. The egg used for cultivation must be sterile and the shell should be intact and healthy. • For inoculation, eggs are first prepared for cultivation, the shell surface is first disinfected with iodine and penetrated with a small sterile drill. • After inoculation, the opening is sealed with gelatin or paraffin and incubated at 36°c for 2-3 days.
  29. 29. Incubation of virus into embryonated eggs • After incubation, the egg is broken and virus is isolated from tissue of egg. • Viral growth and multiplication in the egg embryo is indicated by the death of the embryo, by embryo cell damage, or by the formation of typical pocks or lesions on the egg membranes • Viruses can be cultivated in various parts of egg like chorioallantoic membrane, allantoic cavity, amniotic sac and yolk sac.
  30. 30. Incubation of virus into embryonated eggs Get a modern PowerPoint Presentation that is beautifully designed. I hope and I believe that this Template will your Time, Money and Reputation. Easy to change colors, photos. Contents Here Get a modern PowerPoint Presentation that is beautifully designed. I hope and I believe that this Template will your Time, Money and Reputation. Easy to change colors, photos. Contents Here Get a modern PowerPoint Presentation that is beautifully designed. I hope and I believe that this Template will your Time, Money and Reputation. Easy to change colors, photos. Contents Here Get a modern PowerPoint Presentation that is beautifully designed. I hope and I believe that this Template will your Time, Money and Reputation. Easy to change colors, photos. Contents Here
  31. 31. Incubation of virus into animal Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) Amniotic Cavity Yolk sac Allantoic Yolk sac 01 03 02 04 inoculation in embryonated eggs are: 1. Chorioallantoic membrane(CAM) 2. 2. Amniotic Cavity 3. 3. Allantoic Cavity 4. 4. Yolk sac
  32. 32. 1. Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM): Inoculation is mainly in 10-13 day Inoculation is mainly for growing poxvirus. After incubation and incubation, visible lesions called pocks are observed, which is grey white area in transparent CAM. Herpes simplex virus is also grown. Single virus gives single pocks This method is suitable for plaque studies. 2. Allantoic cavity: Inoculation is mainly in 9-11 day Inoculation is mainly done for production of vaccine of influenza virus, yellow fever, rabies. Most of avian viruses can be isolated using this method. 3. Amniotic sac: Inoculation is mainly in 10-12 day Inoculation is mainly done for primary isolation of influenza virus and the mumps virus. Growth and replication of virus in egg embryo can be detected by haemagglutination assay. 4. Yolk sac inoculation: Inoculation is mainly in 7 day It is also a simplest method for growth and multiplication of virus. It is inoculated for cultivation of some viruses and some bacteria (Chlamydia, Rickettsiae) Immune interference mechanism can be detected in most of avian viruses.
  33. 33. Advantages of Inoculation into embryonated egg 1. Widely used method for the isolation of virus and growth. 2. Ideal substrate for the viral growth and replication. 3. Isolation and cultivation of many avian and few mammalian viruses. 4. Cost effective and maintenance is much easier. 5. Less labor is needed. 6. The embryonated eggs are readily available. 7. Sterile and wide range of tissues and fluids 8. They are free from contaminating bacteria and many latent viruses. 9. Specific and non specific factors of defense are not involved in embryonated eggs. 10.Widely used method to grow virus for some vaccine production
  34. 34. Incubation of virus into Tissue culture • Tissue culture, a method of biological research in which fragments of tissue from an animal or plant are transferred to an artificial environment in which they can continue to survive and function. • The cultured tissue may consist of a single cell, a population of cells, or a whole or part of an organ.

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