22. Main Topics of Unit 1
▪ Environment and its multidisciplinary nature
▪ Energy Resources
▪ Environment Conservation and Management
▪ Biodiversity and its conservation
▪ Atmospheric Chemistry and Ozone Depletion
▪ Greenhouse effect and its causes
▪ Climate Change: causes, effects, challenges and remedial measures
24. Environment – Definition
The word ‘Environment’ is derived from the
‘en’ – surrounding, encompassing
‘viron’ – circle, around
Environment refers to the surroundings or
conditions in which a person, animal, or plant
lives or operates.
25. Environment – Definition and Meaning
▪ Definition: Environment is sum of all external
conditions surrounding organisms plus
influences affecting organism.
Example: Consider a flower
✔ External conditions surrounding
▪ Temperature, sunlight, water, soil &
✔ Influences affecting flower
▪ Animals which eat plant of flower
26. Environmental Studies – Multidisciplinary Nature
▪ Environmental studies is a multidisciplinary
academic field which systematically studies
human interaction with the environment in
the interests of solving complex problems.
▪ Environmental studies brings together the
principles of the physical sciences,
commerce/economics and social sciences
so as to solve contemporary environmental
problems. It is a broad field of study that
includes the natural environment, the built
environment, and the sets of relationships
27. Environmental Studies – Multidisciplinary Nature
▪ The field encompasses study in basic
principles of ecology and
environmental science, as well as
associated subjects such as ethics,
geography, anthropology, policy, urban
planning, law, economics, philosophy,
sociology and social justice, planning,
pollution control and natural resource
29. Scope And Importance of Environmental Studies
The ‘Development’ to be in pace with environmental protection and
conservation, vast scope lies in all disciplines of science and
▪ Study and exploring the nature.
▪ Technological developments.
▪ Practical applications and implementations.
▪ Post implementation impacts and problems.
▪ Remedial measures and solution findings to the problems.
▪ Means to conserve the nature and environment.
35. Components of Environment – Atmosphere
✔ Lapse rate: Change of temperature with height
✔ Positive lapse rate: In this layer temperature decreases with
✔ Negative lapse rate: In this layer temperature increases with
36. 1. Troposphere
▪ 70% mass of atmosphere is contained in troposphere
▪ It is the lowest and thinnest layer : 16 km at equator, 8 km at poles
▪ Extends from the surface of the Earth to about 10-12 km
▪ Temperature decreases with height (positive lapse rate)
▪ Mixing of the air molecules due to their constant movement (winds)
keeps the composition of the gases more or less same throughout the
▪ Density of air decreases exponentially with increasing altitude.
▪ Where all the weather occurs
▪ Inherently unstable
Tropopause is at the top of the troposphere, which is a transition layer
between Troposphere and Stratosphere.
37. 2. Stratosphere
▪ Region above the tropopause.
▪ Extends up to 50 km above the ground.
▪ Negative lapse rate.
▪ Temperature increase up to 0 degree
▪ Ozone layer lies in the stratosphere
▪ Ozone serves as a shield to protect the
earth from solar U.V radiations.
▪ Stratopause: region immediately above
the stratosphere which is second
transitional layer between stratosphere
and mesosphere and relatively warm.
38. 3. Mesosphere
▪ Mesosphere: Coldest layer
✔ Extends up to 80 km above the
✔ Positive lapse rate – temperature
decreases with height
✔ Temp is Minus 80 degree at top
✔ Meso-pause: Top of the
mesosphere, which is a transition
layer between Mesosphere and
39. 4. Thermosphere
▪ Thermosphere: Hottest layer
✔ Fourth layer in the atmosphere, between
80km and 110 km above the Earth.
✔ Negative lapse rate – temperature rises
very rapidly with increasing altitude
✔ Region characterised by low pressure
and low density
✔ In this region atmospheric gases absorb
the solar radiations in the ultra violet
region and undergo ionisation
▪ Lithosphere: It comes from the ancient Greek “lithos” which means
stone and “sphaira” which means sphere. The lithosphere is the solid,
rocky crust covering entire planet.
▪ As a result of the geological processes occurring in nature, the rocks
disintegrate continuously and formulation of soil takes place gradually.
This crust is inorganic and is composed of minerals. It covers the entire
surface of the earth from the top of Mount Everest to the bottom of the
▪ In the Earth, the lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost
mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth.
✔ It includes all surface and ground water resources – oceans,
rivers, streams, lakes, reservoirs, glaciers, polar ice caps, ground
✔ Earth is known as Blue planet, Why ?
✔ Total area covered by water on Earth surface is 70.8 %
✔ Hydrosphere contains about 1360 million cubic km of water.
• It is the region of the earth where life exists.
• Collectively covers the portion of
atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere
which supports all the life forms
• Extends from about 10,000 m below sea-
level to 6000 m above sea-level
• Covers entire living organisms, their
interactions with each other and with
• Life sustaining resources like food, water &
oxygen present in the biosphere are being
withdrawn and waste products in increasing
quantities are being dumped.
45. ▪ Energy is fundamental to the quality of our lives.
▪ Nowadays, we are totally dependent on an abundant
and uninterrupted supply of energy for living and
▪ It is a key ingredient in all sectors of modern
46. Why do we need energy?
• Heating homes
• Power the machinery used for
• What else?
Major Input for the
47. ▪ The consumption of Energy is increasing at a fast pace
while available resources remain limited
▪ The global need for energy is increasing on an average
of about 1.5% every year
▪ Out of that total amount of primary energy,
around 80% comes from fossil fuels.
▪ Energy consumption has significantimpact on
▪ Climate change is caused by human activity, mostly related
to the use of energy.
Energy and Environment
48. History of Energy Usage
▪ Muscle power from animals
▪ Wind & water usage
▪ Steam engines powered by wood fires
▪ Steam engines powered by coal
▪ Now we use oil more because
it is easier to ship, store & burn
▪ Oil use peaked in 1979
▪ 1980’s began pursuing renewable energies but
then oil prices fell and we went back to oil.
• In 2000, OPEC decreased production
and prices went up to $30 per barrel. (Now
oil costs $90-$100 per barrel)
49. Types of Energy
1. Primary and Secondary Energy
2. Commercial and Non-commercial Energy
3. Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy
50. Primary Energy
• Extracted or captured directly from natural resources
Non-renewable (84%) (With Finite supply)
✔ Fossil Fuels:
• Crude oil and its products
• Natural gas
✔ Nuclear Fuel
✔ Water or Hydroelectric
The primary energy content of fuels: Toe (tonne of oil equivalent)
1 toe = 10 × 106 kCal = 11630 kWh = 41870 MJ
✔ Obtained from natural sources
✔ Can be harnessed without the
release of harmful pollutants
✔ Natural resources whichcan
not be produced, grown,
✔ Exist in a fixed amount
✔ Will deplete with time
53. Secondary Energy
energy is transformed in energy
more convenient forms of
electricity, steam etc. These forms of
energy are called secondary energy.
▪Examples: Coal, oil or gas converted into steam and electricity
Non energy use
✔ Coal or Natural Gas : as feedstock in Fertiliser plants
54. Electricity is not an energy source, converted from another
source (coal, hydro, nuclear, etc.).
56. Commercial Energy
• Energy that is available
in the market for a
Examples: Electricity, coal,
refined petroleum products,
natural gas etc.
• Used for commercial
• Any kind of energy which is
sourced within a community
and its surrounding area and
which is not normally traded in
Examples: Fuelssuch as
Firewood, cattle dung and
• Called traditional fuels
• Ignored in compiling a
57. Non-commercial energy
▪ Fire wood and agro waste in rural areas
▪ Solar energy for water heating, electricity generation and for
drying grains, fish and fruits
▪ Animal power for transport, threshing, lifting water for
irrigation, crushing sugarcane etc.
▪ Wind enrgy for lifting water and electricity generation
58. Energy Resources
▪ The world's energy resources can be divided into…
A fuel derived from biological material that became fossilized
millions of years ago
Fuel derived from radioactive materials that give off energy.
▪ The estimates for the amount of energy in these resources is
given in zettajoules (ZJ), which is 1021 joules.
59. Energy Resources
1 Fossil fuel
2 Nuclear fuel
1. Nuclear energy
2. Nuclear fusion
3 Renewable resources
1. Solar energy
2. Wind energy
3. Wave and tidal energy
4. Geothermal energy
60. Major Sources of Energy, Do we use?
Oil, coal and peat,
and natural gas are
sources of energy for
About three-quarters of the
energy comes from
nonrenewable fossil fuels
and the rest comes from
nonrenewable nuclear fuel
and renewable sources.
62. Worldwide Patterns of Energy Use
Global variation in total annual energy consumption and per capita energy
consumption. The 10 countries shown are among the largest and the smallest energy users
in the world.
1 EJ = 1 exajoule = 1018 joule
1GJ = 1 gigajoule = 109 joule
63. Energy scenario at India
▪ India is a seventh largest country and have a population of 1.2 billion
▪ India is the fourth-largest energy consumer in the world, trailing only
the United States, China, and Russia
▪ By ‘energy problem’ we mean the problem of providing fuels or energy
in its various forms at reasonable cost to those who need them,
wherever they are.
▪ At present, India faces an energy shortage of 10 per cent and a peak
load shortage of 13.4 per cent.
▪ In order to meet that demand, our power generation capacity would
have to increase more than six times by 2032.
65. Present Scenario of Environment
❖Excessive consumption of natural resources:
The latest WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) report on state of
world’s ecology says that “Humans are consuming 20% more natural
resources than the earth’s biological capacity to produce them”.
❖Higher resources demand:
According to the Living Planet report 2002, “Humanity has been
running an ecological deficit since the 1980s, and if the present trend
continues, by 2050, to sustain the humanity, we would be needing
resources equal to two earths.
66. Scenario - India
The important aspects of environmental scenario in India are
▪ Population Explosion-Very High Rate of Population Growth
▪ Water Pollution
• Discharge of Industrial Waste with high organic content in the
• Discharge of Hot Industrial Waste in the river water
▪ Air Pollution
▪ Land Pollution & Ground Water Contamination
67. Current Environmental Issues
2. Global Warming
3. Population Explosion
4. Natural Resources Depletion
5. Waste Disposal
6. Climate change
7. Loss of bio diversity
68. Why do we need to study the State of Environment?
⮚ The need for information that clarifies modern environmental
concepts such as
▪ the need to conserve biodiversity,
▪ the need to lead more sustainable lifestyles
▪ the need to use resources more equitably.
❖ Biodiversity: The part of nature
which includes the differences in
genes among the individuals of a
species, the variety and richness of
all the plant and animal species at
different scales in space
❖ i.e. Local, regional, country wise
and global, and various types of
ecosystems - both terrestrial and
aquatic-within a defined area.
70. Causes of Biodiversity Loss:
The major direct causes of human induced
biodiversity loss are:
1. land-use change (the fragmentation,
degradation or loss of habitats)
2. Pollution (air and water)
3. The over-exploitation of natural
4. The introduction of non-native (alien or
5. Climate change-induced biodiversity)
▪ To protect natural
resources and environment
in order to maintain an
▪ Sustainability is the
ability of a specified
system to survive and
function over a specified
78. Sustainability: Problems
▪ Depletion of finite resources
• fuels, soil, minerals, species
▪ Over-use of renewable resources
• forests, fish & wildlife, fertility, public funds
• air, water, soil
• economic, political, social, gender
▪ Species loss
• endangered species and spaces
79. Guideposts for Sustainability
▪ Activities are sustainable when they:
1.Use materials in continuous cycles.
2.Use continuously reliable sources of energy.
3. Minimize the use of non-renewable resources.
4.Maximize the use renewable resources
5.Encourage desirable human traits (equity; creativity;
communication; coordination; appreciation; intellectual and
80. Need for Public Awareness towards Environmental Protection
There is an urgent need to create awareness in every individual towards –
• Control of environmental pollution
• Natural resources conservation
• Land management
• Development of non-polluting sources of energy
• Environmental education
• Environmental laws
81. Objectives of Environmental Education – Six Objectives
To help social groups and individuals acquire awareness and sensitivity to
the total environmental and its allied problems.
To help social groups and individuals gain a variety of experiences in and
acquire a basic understanding of the environment and its associated
To help social groups and individuals acquire a set of values and feelings of
concern for the environment and motivation for actively participation in
environmental improvement and protection.
82. Objectives of Environmental Education – Six Objectives
To help social groups and individuals acquire skills for identifying and solving
5. Evaluation ability:
To help individuals and social groups to evaluate environmental measures and
education programs in terms of ecological, economic, social, aesthetic and
To provide social groups and individuals with the opportunities to be actively
involved at all levels in working towards the resolution of environmental
83. Environmental Education
Organization of Environmental Education System
FORMAL EDUCATION INFORMAL EDUCATION
1. The formal education is given in
teaching centers as schools,
colleges / institutions, universities
etc. However this number is very
less as most of the children and
youth drop out of schools in rural and
1. For a majority portion of the
population that still does not have
adequate access to the formal
education, environmental education
and awareness can be acquired by
programmes that fall outside the
formal education system.
84. Environmental Education
Organization of Environmental Education System
FORMAL EDUCATION INFORMAL EDUCATION
1. It is having a well defined & systematic
curriculum (syllabus) and specific
period of teaching and evaluation.
2. The formal education is provided at
different levels of studies as-
∙ Pre Primary and Primary School
∙ Secondary and Higher Secondary
∙ College (Graduation & Post
1. It includes organization of extra
curricular activities like eco
development camps, posters & essay
writing competitions, exhibitions,
seminars, nature camps, nature club
activities, audio-visual slides, mobile
2. It also include observing and
celebrating days like ‘World
Environment Day’ ‘Vehicle Free Day’
‘World Forest Day’, ‘Earth Day’ etc.