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Antenna Inventor.pptx

  1. Master of Wireless communication Inventor of Antenna PHYSICIST HEINRICHHERTZ Miss Jaweriyah SuBHaNi The first antenna was devised by the German physicist Heinrich Hertz
  2. Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) Born in Hamburg, Germany on 22February 1857 He have sharp IQ-level and had a strong grip on languages like Latin, Greek Arabic and Sanskrit. In 1875, hertz spent an year in construction department (Frankfort) In 1876 he joined military and spent 1 year as an active duty In 1877 he changed his domain and enter in the physics world From the motivation of mentors he studied famous scientist Like Isaac Newton, Joseph Langrage, Perris-Simon Laplace. For Higher studies he moved to Berlin in laboratory of Hermann and Helmholtz an won noble award. In 1879 he awarded the faculty Nobel prize and Gold Medal 1880 Hertz completed his PH.D(at the age of 23) in Helmholtz lab. 1883 he accepted the post of lecturer of theoretical physics at university of KIEL. 1885 He become a permanent professor at University of Karlsruhe where he discover EMT Heinrich Hertz was a German physicist who made important contributions to the study of electromagnetism and is considered one of the pioneers of wireless communication. Hertz was died in 1894 at the age of 36, but in a short time, he made significant contributions to the field of physics.
  3. SOMETHING Interesting about Heinrich Hertz
  4. 7 Major Contributions Of Heinrich Hertz in Wireless Communication 1. Proving the existence of electromagnetic waves: Hertz was the first to prove the existence of electromagnetic waves, which laid the foundation for the study of radio waves and the development of wireless communication. 2. Developing the first practical system for wireless communication: Hertz developed the first practical system for wireless communication using simple wire antennas and demonstrated the feasibility of using electromagnetic waves for communication. 3. Establishing the principles of radio waves: Hertz established the basic principles of radio waves, including the relationship between wavelength, frequency, and velocity. 4. Making advances in antenna design: Hertz's experiments with antennas laid the foundation for the development of new and more sophisticated antennas. 5. Establishing the equivalence of electromagnetic and light waves: Hertz demonstrated that electromagnetic waves possessed many of the properties of light and other electromagnetic radiation. 6. Introducing the concept of resonant circuits: Hertz introduced the concept of resonant circuits, which are used in many applications including radio and television broadcasting. 7. Establishing the foundation for the study of electromagnetism: Hertz's work laid the foundation for the study of electromagnetism and paved the way for future
  5. Hertz Experimentation in Other fields #1 HE PROVED THAT ELECTRIC CURRENT HAS NEGLIGIBLE MASS In 1878, at the age of 21, Heinrich Hertz enrolled at the University of Berlin. Here he worked in the laboratories of physicist Hermann von Helmholtz. At this time, Helmholtz was involved in a fierce debate with another scientist Wilhelm Weber over the question: does electricity move with inertia? Helmholtz asked Hertz to work on the problem. After a year of hard work, Hertz demonstrated through a series of experiments that if electric current has any mass it must be incredibly small. It must be kept in mind that at that time the electron had not been yet discovered by J.J. Thompson. For his efforts, Hertz won the gold medal offered by the Berlin University in August 1879.
  6. Hertz Experimentation in Other fields #2 HE WAS THE FIRST TO DISCOVER PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT In 1887, during his work on electromagnetism, Hertz reported another important phenomenon which was later called photoelectric effect. He shone ultraviolet light on electrically charged metal, observing that UV light caused the metal to lose its charge faster than otherwise. Hertz published his findings in the journal Annalen der Physik. He did not further investigate this effect. In 1899, J. J. Thomson established that UV light actually ejected electrons from metal. This led Albert Einstein to rethink the theory of light and, in 1905, he correctly proposed that light came in distinct packets of energy called photons. Einstein’s explanation of photoelectric effect led to the rise of quantum mechanics, a field in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles The photoelectric effect refers to the emission of electrons from a material when it is exposed to light or other electromagnetic radiation. The main idea behind the photoelectric effect is that photons of light can transfer their energy to electrons in a material, causing the electrons to be emitted and leading to a flow of electric current.
  7. #3 HEINRICH HERTZ DISCOVERED RADIO WAVES(LOW FREQUENCY LIGHT WAVES) Hertz was 7 years old when James Clerk Maxwell wrote the famous equations of electromagnetic theory. No one was able to generate electromagnetic waves until Hertz in 1887. Hertz was 30 years old at the time. Experiment: ONCe Hertz was demonstrating electrical sparks to his students in 1886. He noticed during the lecture that sparks produced a regular electrical vibration within the electric wires. Hertz thought that this vibration was caused by accelerating and decelerating electrical charges. If Maxwell was right, this would radiate electromagnetic waves through air. Then he performed an experiment In 1886, Hertz decided to take up the challenge of proving Maxwell’s theory by experiment. He devised an oscillator made of two polished brass knobs separated by a tiny gap. He applied high voltage a.c. electricity across the central spark-gap, creating sparks. Hertz reasoned that, if Maxwell was right, these sparks would generate electromagnetic waves. To test this, he made a simple receiver of looped wire. At the ends of the loop were small knobs separated by a tiny gap. When Hertz turned on the oscillator, sparks in the transmitter produced sparks in the receiver. This was the first controlled transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves. Heinrich Hertz thus discovered radio waves, a type of electromagnetic waves. They were in fact initially known as “Hertzian waves” Radio waves are  type of electromagnetic radiation  frequency 3 kHz to 300 GHz  speed of radio waves in a vacuum is 299,792,458 (m/s)
  8. Experimental Setup by Henrich Hertz
  9. HowHertz Produce Radio Waves or Hertzain wave 3. A circular detector will catch the little spark to see the wave. Hertz often change the size of a gap to check the strength of the wave 1. It covert the DC battery into very high alternating voltage and large spark. 2. He have a two wires at the spark generator and metal bobs at the end to create the wave
  10. Heinrich Hertz was only 36 years old when he died of complications in surgery to fix his constant migraines. In just 15 years of his scientific career Hertz made pioneering contributions to various fields of physics.  From Maxwell to Einstein, Hertz is the famous experimenter whose observations either confirmed a previous theory or laid groundwork for a new theory. Hertz is among the few scientists in whose honor an SI unit is named.