Good communication skills are essential to allow others and yourself to understand information more accurately and quickly. In contrast, poor communication skills lead to frequent misunderstandings and frustration
2. 1. Understanding the concept of communication
2. Grasping stages of the communication process
3. Understanding the types of communication
4. Identifying the barriers that disrupt the communication process as well
as appropriate steps to overcome these barriers
5. Learning about communication at the workplace and its challenges
3. 1.1 BASICS OF COMMUNICATION
Definition and explanation:
Without communication, social interaction may not be possible because human interaction is essentially
communicative interaction. It pervades the entire range of social and professional relationships, and plays a key
role in our life. It is the reciprocal stimulation and response between individuals, and makes social as well as
professional interaction possible.
Now, let us try to understand what the term ‘communication’ means. As it comes from the Latin word
communicare, meaning ‘to share, to impart, or to commune’, its literal meaning is ‘giving or sharing information’.
Communication is an exchange of meaning and understanding. Meaning is central to communication, and
transmission of meaning is the central objective of communication. Communication begins with the sender sending
out message cues, which are perceived by the receiver who assigns meaning to them and responds to them
accordingly. Communication is not complete unless the message is decoded and understood by the receiver.
4. 1.1 BASICS OF COMMUNICATION (continued.)
Moreover, communication can be considered effective only when the receiver’s response is congruent with the
meaning the sender wants to convey. Communication is the process involving the transmission and reception of
symbols eliciting meaning in the minds of the participants by making common their life experiences.
To conclude, we can define communication as a multidimensional interactive process of sharing common sets of
signs, symbols, and language from one person to another person so that a suitable response results.
6. 1.3 TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
1.3.1 VERBAL (ORAL AND WRITTEN), AND NON-VERBAL
1.3.2 VERTICAL, HORIZONTAL, DIAGONAL, GRAPEVINE
7. VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL
Verbal communication is interpersonal communication that includes oral communication, written
communication, and sign language. Verbal communication relies on words to convey meaning between
two or more people. Nonverbal communication encompasses a whole host of physicalized nonverbal cues
that convey emotional states and complement verbal messages. Nonverbal human communication
involves many different parts of the body and can be either conscious or subconscious on the part of the
communicator. There are many different types of nonverbal communication, including kinesics (body
movement), proxemics (closeness and personal space), body posture, haptics (touch), and paralanguage,
which includes facial expression, speaking volume, and tone of voice. These nonverbal cues all contribute
to how verbal communication is understood, either clarifying a message or leading to misinterpretation.
8. VERTICAL, HORIZONTAL, DIAGONAL, GRAPEVINE
VERTICAL COMMUNICATION are of two types: Upward Communication and Downward Communication
Upward communication is one which moves upward, i.e. from bottom to top levels in the hierarchy. The process of
communication to be complete and effective should encompass all hierarchy levels and tiers. Any communication that
moves from workers to supervisors, supervisors to managers, managers to executives, regional manager to
director/CEO maybe categorized as upward communication. Downward communication moves from top to the bottom,
i.e. from the CEO to downwards.
HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION: It proceeds in a horizontal manner and takes place among equals and at peer
level. It may also be described as peer-level communication. Any communication that takes place, orally or in writing,
from one branch head to the other, from one division head to the other, from one group head to the other, maybe
described as horizontal communication.
9. VERTICAL, HORIZONTAL, DIAGONAL, GRAPEVINE (contd.)
DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION: Diagonal communication takes place between two or more persons of various
departments of an organization. Diagonal communication allows the communicator to communicate the message
exactly to the person to whom it is meant. For example, the field supervisor sends the message to the publication
unit of an organization in order to publish report of the organization. It is diagonal communication.
GRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION: Grapevine is a kind of informal communication that prevails in organizations and
businesses. The source of such communication may not be clear. It spreads by way of gossip and rumors. It travels
through informal networks and quite often travels faster than the formal messages. Sometimes, it gets more
powerful and becomes more receptive than formal communication..
10. As communication is a complex process, it is desirable to take care of communication interference and the barriers in
communication that may hamper the smooth flow of effective communication. These barriers may emanate from
either the sender/receiver or the circumstances of communication. However, we need to avoid them to become
effective communicators. In real communicative situations, any interference or noise, as it is commonly referred to,
may complicate the communication process and interfere with our message.
Communication barriers arise during the communication process and may confuse the listener or reader, create
misunderstanding and confusion, and may sometimes lead to communication breakdown.
A careful analysis of communication barriers reveal that they are generally created by:
● Improper encoding
● Frame of reference
● Physical distractions
● Psychological and emotional interference
● Cultural differences
1.4 BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
11. ● SPEAKING: Everything from your words, body language, tone and pitch can impact your speech. For example, when you’re
speaking to your coworkers, you must adopt a polite and friendly tone. Speaking is not just throwing out sentences. You have to
be careful when you’re adding intonation and stressors. For example, you will use different tones to ask questions and to
emphasize something. Learning how to speak effectively will help you convey your meaning and intention without leaving any
room for doubt.
● WRITING: At work, you may have to write on a daily basis. This could include reports, minutes of a meeting or memos for your
coworkers. At the workplace, it’s hard to go through pages and pages of writing. It’s better to incorporate key ideas right at the
beginning of any communication. Developing your writing skills will help you write concisely, without having to provide too many
explanations. Not only will this save time, but will also explain your purpose right away.
● LISTENING: Listening may seem like an easy skill to acquire, but it’s one of the most difficult. Communication is a two-way
street; it’s a dialogue between two or more parties. To be a good communicator, you need to give others the time and space to
communicate their thoughts. If they have something to talk about, listen to them carefully and process what they have said.
Don’t just listen to hear, but listen with intent. If you have questions, feel free to ask. It will show that you were really listening.
● READING: You don’t have to be an avid reader and finish thick volumes in one night. But you should be able to read complex
business reports and important work-related documents. It’s not just about skimming words but also reading between the lines
and pinpointing the author’s intent. If you have too much to read at work, developing a healthy reading habit will help you stay on
top of things.
1.5 4 BASIC COMMUNICATION SKILLS
● There are several stages to clarity.
● Firstly, it’s important to be clear about the purpose of the message you’re delivering. The recipient
should be made aware of why they are receiving the message and what you’re trying to achieve by
delivering it. If there are multiple goals, each should be laid out separately.
● Secondly, it’s essential that the content of the communication is itself clear. You should avoid jargon, use
simple language, use simple structures and focus on the core points of your message.
● It’s essential that both the factual information and the language and grammar you use are correct. If your
audience spots errors in either, they will be distracted and your credibility will be greatly reduced. This
will reduce the effectiveness of your communication.
1.6 7 C’S OF COMMUNICATION
13. 7 C’S OF COMMUNICATION(contd.)
● When creating a message, it’s important to give the recipient all of the information they need to follow
your line of reasoning and to reach the same conclusions you have. This level of detail will be different in
different situations, and you should adjust your communications accordingly.
● In addition, you should make things as easy as possible for the recipient. For example, if you are issuing a
“call to action”, provide explicit guidance on that action. Increasingly it’s common to include things like
hyperlinks in written communications or to attach FAQs, both of which help audiences access a
complete set of information while also ensuring that core communications focus on core messages.
● When shaping your communication you must ensure that you are specific and that the logic and
messages that you’re using fit together, build on each other and support each other. Your arguments
should be based on solid facts and opinions from credible sources and you should share irrefutable data
to support your argument.
● It may be important to help bring the solid nature of what you’ve created to life for your audience
through examples that show the relevance of your messages for them as individuals.
14. 7 C’S OF COMMUNICATION
● When communicating messages of this nature it’s important to stick to the point and keep your messages
short and simple. Don’t use 10 words if you can use five. Don’t repeat your messages.
● The more you say, the more risk there is of confusion. Avoid that risk by focusing solely on the key points you
need to deliver.
● You can increase the effectiveness of your communications by being polite and showing your audience that
you respect them. Your messages should be friendly, professional, considerate, respectful, open and honest.
● To help ensure you are courteous, you should always use some empathy and consider your messages from the
point of view of the audience.
● To help make sure your communications are considered and coherent you should have a logical flow and your
style, tone and language should be consistent throughout.
● In addition to making sure that each communication you issue is coherent within itself, you should also ensure
consistency of message when delivering multiple communications.
7 C’S OF COMMUNICATION(contd.)
15. 1. Different backgrounds of employees: Given the multicultural and global nature of organisations
these days, employees come from varied backgrounds in terms of nationality, location, ethnicity,
religion, economic status, etc. Therefore, communication styles need to be altered when dealing with
2. Different accents: An offshoot of different backgrounds is different languages, accents and fl uency.
When dealing with people with different accents and fluency or language competence, one should make
an effort to go slow or modify the communication style to ensure the message is being understood
by the other party.
3. Different organisation culture: Some organisations have an open door policy where the seniors
can be approached any time, while some have a policy of following the hierarchy before reaching
the top. Therefore, any new employee needs to adapt himself/herself to the culture prevalent in the
organisation and modify his/her communication style.
1.7 COMMUNICATION CHALLENGES AT THE WORKPLACE
16. 4. Closed groups: When an organisation has a lot of old employees, sometimes new hires are seen as
a threat and are not accepted within the closed groups that may have been formed over a period of
time. This hinders communication and can be very daunting for the new employee.
5. Direct versus indirect feedback: Some organisations appreciate direct feedback however negative it
may be. On the other hand, some organisations may not take in the right spirit. Therefore, an employee
needs to be aware of the culture and tweak his/her communication accordingly.
6. Personality traits: No matter how much homogeneity a group of employees have in an organisation,
there will still be some communication challenges because each individual is different. Personality
of one person can never be the same as that of the other. Therefore, one needs to tweak one’s
communication style keeping the receiver in mind.
7. Differences in experience: Many a times, technical jargon or terms or organisation-specific
abbreviations may be alien to freshers or a person who may be new to an organisation. Therefore, while
communicating, one should do an audience analysis in terms of their background and experience.
1.7 COMMUNICATION CHALLENGES AT THE WORKPLACE
17. Technical communication is a central factor in the emerging knowledge society, where
technocrats and professionals in different areas face new communication challenges.
In order to be an effective technical communicator, one needs to understand the
process of technical communication. We may define technical communication as a
transmission of scientific and technical information from one individual or group to
another. This exchange of professional information may include simple definitions of
tools, complex descriptions of machines and processes, or sophisticated explanation
and interpretation of scientific principles. Effective technical communication is a
dynamic interchange that may involve a systematic understanding of scientific and technical
The three important requirements of effective technical communication are:
Subject competence || Linguistic competence || Organisational competence
1.8 ASPECTS OF TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION AT THE WORKPLACE
18. ● Subject Competence: Ideation in the technical communication process, which depends on the sender’s subject
competence, i.e., his or her professional knowledge, experiences, and abilities. Subject competence is the first
requirement of technical communication. It is the possession of appropriate knowledge of a particular technical subject-
matter as well as the possession of highly sophisticated technical or professional skills. An inadequate background in the
subject or lack of information might lead to incomplete and ineffective communication.
● Linguistic Competence: It is the possession of appropriate language skills and the ability to present scientific facts or
information clearly and objectively. As technical communication involves technical presentation of data in reports,
proposals, research papers, technical bulletins, manuals, and handbooks, linguistic competence includes several
functional skills. Lack of these skills may lead to ineffective or incomplete communication. These skills include the ability
to analyse facts or information for clear presentation, use appropriate rhetorical devices to present scientific data, use
graphs, charts, and diagrams systematically.
● Organisational Competence: Since technical communication is a systematic and structured presentation of information,
it involves a process of logical and thematic organisation. Organisational competence is the ability to organise technical
information in a logical and structured way. It includes several skills such as the ability to sequence thoughts in a
sentence, organise a paragraph according to the needs of the reader and the topic, use appropriate logical ordering, and
provide thematic coherence to expression.
1.8 REQUIREMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION
19. INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS
1. Listen to the lectures, read the materials
provided in the .ppt presentation.
2. Attempt the MCQ exam via Google Form