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Crossing Analytics Systems: Case for Integrated Provenance in Data Lakes

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Presents a data provenance based solution to improve traceability and manageability in Data Lakes. Presented in IEEE eScience 2016 conference.

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Crossing Analytics Systems: Case for Integrated Provenance in Data Lakes

  1. 1. Crossing Analytics Systems: Case for Integrated Provenance in Data Lakes Isuru Suriarachchi and Beth Plale School of Informatics and Computing Indiana University IEEE E-science 2016 : Hot Topics
  2. 2. The Data Lake has arisen within last couple of years as conceptualization of data management framework with flexibility to support multiple data processing tools needed for truly Big Data analytics.
  3. 3. Data Warehouse • Supports multidimensional analytical processing – Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) or Multidimensional OLAP • Numeric facts (measures) categorized by dimensions creating vector space (OLAP cube). • Interface is matrix interface like Pivot tables • Schema is star schema, snowflake schema • Storage is largely relational database
  4. 4. Credit: https://www.linkedin.com/topic/data-warehouse-architecture Data Warehouse Architecture • ETL: Extraction, Transformation, Load
  5. 5. Challenging the Warehouse: Big Data • From numerous sources – social media, sensor data, IoT devices, server logs, clickstream etc. • Not all numeric (quantitative) thus differently structured – Structured, semi-structured, unstructured • Continuously generated or archived
  6. 6. Suitability of Data Warehouse for Today’s Big Data • ETL imposes burden – Schema on write – Inflexibility/inefficiency at ingest time – Information loss upon schema translation • Weak fit for popular Big Data analytical tools (e.g., Spark, Hadoop) and data serving platforms (e.g., HDFS, S3)
  7. 7. Data Lake • A scalable storage infrastructure with no schema enforcement at ingest • Data ingested in raw form: no loss • Schema-on-read • Integrated Transformations – With e.g., Hadoop, Spark IngestAPI Data Data Lake Clickstream Sensor data IoT Devices Social Media Could Platforms Server Logs Metadata Lineage Transform Transform Transform Data Data Data Analysis Big Data Processing Frameworks Ex: Hadoop, Spark, Storm
  8. 8. Data Lake Challenges • Increased flexibility leads to harder manageability – Differently typed data can be easily dumped into the Data Lake – Data products can be in different stages of their lifecycle: raw, half processed, processed etc. – Can easily turn into “data swamps” • Requires traceability!!.. – Provenance can help
  9. 9. Data Provenance • Information about activities, entities and people who involved in producing a data product • Standards – OPM – PROV • If a Data Lake ensures that every data product’s provenance is in place starting from data product’s origin, critical traceability can be had
  10. 10. What provenance perspective could bring to a Data Lake? • Track origins of data, chained transformations • Contribute to reuse determinations of trust and quality • React!! Minimally constrain what enters a Lake?
  11. 11. Challenges in Provenance Capturing • Chains of Transformations – Different analytics systems: Hadoop, Spark etc. • Need is end to end integrated provenance across transformations • System specific provenance collection methods are less useful – Integration/stitching problems – E.g.: RAMP, HadoopProv for Hadoop
  12. 12. Solution to minimal lake governance • All components in lake stream provenance to central provenance subsystem – Stores provenance for long term queries – Monitors provenance stream in real time • Event in stream represented by edge in provenance graph • Global lake wide policy: Uniform Persistent ID (PID) (Handle, UUIDs, DOIs) attached to all data objects in Data Lake – required to guarantee integrated provenance
  13. 13. Model • PID assigned to all data objects – granularity • Transformations T1, T2, and T3 – Distributed – May use different frameworks d1 T1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7 d8T2 T3 d1d3 d4 d6 d7 d8 Chain of transformations sharing Ids Backward provenance from central provenance store
  14. 14. Provenance traces integrate across systems of Data Lake
  15. 15. Reference Architecture IngestAPI Batch Processing Ex: Hadoop, Spark Lineage Raw Data from various sources Transformations Workflow Engines Ex: Kepler Legacy Scripts Stream Processing Ex: Storm, Spark Monitoring Debugging Reproducing Data Quality QueriesVisualization Data Data Data Data Import Lineage Data Export Data Lake Messaging System Ingest API Query API ProvenanceSubsystem Prov Stream Processing Prov Storage Prov Stream • Real-time provenance stream processing • Stored provenance for long term usage
  16. 16. Prototype Use Case • Different frameworks used – Flume: Captures tweets and write into HDFS – Hadoop Job: Computes hashtag counts – Spark Job: Computes category counts
  17. 17. Central provenance store • Uses Komadu – A distributed provenance collection tool – Visualization, Custom Queries I. Suriarachchi, Q. Zhou and B. Plale (2015). Komadu: A Capture and Visualization System for Scientific Data Provenance. Journal of Open Research Software 3(1):e4
  18. 18. Client Library • Log4j like API for provenance capture • Dedicated thread pool in provenance layer • Batching to minimize network overhead Application Layer API Komadu Client Layer RabbitMQ Client Layer client.addGeneration(A, E) batching prov thread pool RabbitMQ Server Komadu Client Library
  19. 19. Use case evaluation • Flume, Hadoop and Spark jobs instrumented using Komadu client libraries • Jobs stream provenance events into central provenance store (Komadu) • Persistent IDs (UUID) assigned for each data object at entry to data lake; PID persists thereafter with data object
  20. 20. Use case evaluation: experimental environment • 5 small VM instances, 2 2.5GhZ cores, 4 GB RAM, 50 GB local storage • 4 VM instances used for HDFS cluster • 3.23 GB Twitter data collected over 5 days running Flume on master node • Hadoop and Spark set up on top of HDFS cluster • Separate instance for RabbitMQ and Komadu
  21. 21. Use case evaluation: Metrics • Batch size: – impact of batch size on provenance capture efficiency. Measured by total execution time for Hadoop using provenance event batching mechanism in Komadu library • Overhead of provenance capture: – Measured against total tool-specific execution time – measure overhead of customized value field (in key value pair) – Measure overhead of provenance capture for Hadoop and Spark
  22. 22. Batch Size Test • Hadoop job execution times with varying batch sizes • Optimal batch size: ~5000 KB
  23. 23. Overhead: Hadoop • custom val: emits PID with key value pair as (#nba, <2, id>) instead of (#nba, 2) • data prov HDFS: writes provenance into HDFS, used by HadoopProv and RAMP
  24. 24. Overhead: Spark • Higher provenance capture overhead compared to Hadoop
  25. 25. Future Work • Performance overhead is prohibitively high – decouple PID assignment from execution? Examine granularity • Live provenance stream processing for real time monitoring/reaction • Explore minimal provenance at on-line rates and more comprehensive provenance at off- line rates
  26. 26. Work funded in part by National Science Foundation OCI-0940824 IEEE E-science 2016 : Hot Topics