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  2. • Music has always been an important part in the daily life of the African, whether for work, religion, ceremonies, or even communication. Singing, dancing, hand clapping and the beating of drums are essential to many African ceremonies, including those for birth, death, initiation, marriage, and funerals. Music and dance are also important to religious expression and political events.
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  4. Traditional music of Africa •Apala (Akpala) is a musical genre from Nigeria in the Yoruba tribal style to wake up the worshippers after fasting during the Muslim holy feast Ramadan
  5. Juju •is a popular music style from Nigeria that relies on the traditional Yoruba rhythms, where the instruments in Juju are more Western in origin
  6. Zouk is fast, carnival-like hythmic music, from the Creole slang word for ‘party,’ originating in the Carribean Islands of Guadaloupe and Martinique and popularized in the 1980’s
  7. Blues •the notes of the blues create an expressive and soulful sound. The feelings that are evoked are normally associated with slight degrees of misfortune, lost love, frustration, or loneliness.
  8. Soul music • was a popular music genre of the 1950’s and 1960’s. It originated in the United States. It combines elements of African • American gospel music, rhythm and blues, and often jazz. The catchy rhythms are accompanied by handclaps and extemporaneous body moves which are among its important features.
  9. Spiritual, • normally associated with a deeply religious person, refers here to a Negro spivritual, a song form by African migrants to America who became enslaved by its white communities. • This musical form became their outlet to vent their loneliness and anger, and is a result of the interaction of music and religion from Africa with that of America.
  10. Call and response •much like the question and answer sequence in human communication, it also forms a strong resemblance to the verse-chorus form in many vocal compositions.
  11. Latin American Music • Cumbia became a popular African courtship dance with European and African instrumentation and characteristics. It contained varying rhythmic meters among the major locations – meter in Colombia; , , and meters in Panama, and meter in Mexico. Instruments used are the drums of African origin, such as the tabora (bass drum) and cleves.
  12. Tango •may have been of African origin meaning “African dance” or from the Spanish word taner meaning “to play” (an instrument).
  13. Cha cha •Is a ballroom dance the originated in Cuba in 1953, derived from the mambo and its characteristic rhythm of 2 crochets – 3 quavers – quaver rest, with syncopation on the fourth beat.
  14. Bossa Nova •means either “trend” or “something charming,” integrating melody, harmony, and rhythm into a swaying feel, where the vocal style is often nasal.
  15. Salsa •is a social dance with marked influences from Cuba and Puerto Rico that started in New York in the mid 1970’s. Its style contains elements from the swing dance and hustle as well as the complex Afro-Cuban and Afro-Carribean dance forms of pachanga and guaguanco.
  16. Rumba •is a repetitive melody with an ostinato pattern played by the maracas, claves, and other Cuban percussion instruments. It contains jazz elements that became a model for the cha cha, mambo, and other Latin American dances.
  17. Reggae •is an urban popular music and dance style that originated in Jamaica in the mid 1960’s. It contained English text coupled with Creole expressions that were not so familiar to the non- Jamaican.
  18. Foxtrot •is a 20th century social dance that originated after 1910 in the USA. It was executed as a one step, two step and syncopated rhythmic pattern. The tempo varied from 30 to 40 bars per minute and had a simple duple meter with regular 4-bar phrases.
  19. Paso doble • (meaning “double step”) is a theatrical Spanish dance used by the Spaniards in bullfights, where the music was played as the matador enters (paseo) and passes just before the kill (faena).
  20. Jazz Music •Ragtime is an American popular musical style mainly for piano, originating in the Afro-American communities in St. Louis and New Orleans. Its style was said to be a modification of the “marching mode” made popular by John Philip Sousa
  21. Big Band •refers to a large ensemble form originating in the United States in the mid 1920’s closely associated with the Swing Era with jazz elements.
  22. Bebop or bop •is a musical style of modern jazz which is characterized by a fast tempo. The speed of the harmony, melody, and rhythm resulted in a heavy performance where the instrumental sound became more tense and free.
  23. Jazz rock •Is the music of 1960’s and 1970’s bands that inserted jazz elements into rock music. A synonym for “jazz fusion,” jazz rock is a mix of funk and R&B (“rhythm and blues”) rhythms