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Positive Deviance

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Introducing and defining the concept of Positive Deviance
Applying the Positive Deviance approach into marketing research in order to find an action-based solution for clients
A case study: using PD to find a better strategy to improve motivations of employees and strengthen their bonds with the company

Introducing and defining the concept of Positive Deviance
Applying the Positive Deviance approach into marketing research in order to find an action-based solution for clients
A case study: using PD to find a better strategy to improve motivations of employees and strengthen their bonds with the company

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Positive Deviance

  1. 1. Copyright© INTAGE VIETNAM LLC. All Rights Reserved. 1 Positive Deviance: A New Approach for Qualitative Research
  2. 2. Copyright© INTAGE VIETNAM LLC. All Rights Reserved. 2 “Positive Deviance” refers to actions considered deviant within a given context, but which are later reinterpreted as appropriate or even heroic. 02Steve Jobs 04 Lady Gaga 03 Warren Buffet 01Mahatma Gandhi
  3. 3. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 Marching against War. Her answer was “No” Instead, Marching for Peace - Mother Teresa - SHE HAD POSITIVE DEVIANCE VIEW
  4. 4. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4 Positive Deviance is an uncommon behavior or practice observed in certain individuals or groups, which enables them to find better solutions to problems than other people who are facing similar difficulties. The Positive Deviance approach is an asset-based, problem-solving approach that enables the community to discover these successful behaviors and develop an action plan to promote their adoption. What is Positive Deviance Approach?
  5. 5. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5 Positive Deviance Approach was first applied in Vietnam • Jerry Sternin: Save the Children project in Vietnam in 1990 • The team’s mission: improve the nutritional status of children • At the start of the research, 64% of children in the pilot villages were malnourished. • Through a PD inquiry, the team had found poor but well nourished children within the pilot villages
  6. 6. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6 What PD behaviors were found? PD Families  Cooked the vines of potatoes which are usually thrown away although it’s rich in nutrients.  Caught small crabs and shrimps living in the rice paddies and cooked them to eat.  Fed children 3-4 times a day.  Parents helped their children eat meals by literally bringing food into their mouth.  They had their children wash their hands before every meal. At the end of the two year pilot, malnutrition fell by 85%. The team helped the villagers design a program to act their way into a new way of thinking. Other Family  The vines of potatoes are usually through away.  No catching or cooking of small crabs and shrimps are observed.  Feed children 2 meals a day.  Children ate meals on their own and may drop and waste some food.  They may have told their children to wash their hands but children did not wash hands all the time.
  7. 7. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7 How PD Approach is different from traditional problem solving?
  8. 8. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8 Problem Solving Approach TRADITIONAL vs. POSITIVE DEVIANCE  Outside – in, Consultancy  Deficit based “What’s wrong here?”  Begin with analysis of underlying causes of PROBLEM  Inside – out, Anthropology  Asset based “What’s right here?”  Begin with observation of demonstrably successful SOLUTIONS Traditional Positive Deviance Adapted from Jerry Sternin
  9. 9. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9 Adapted from Jerry Sternin Traditional #1 - Define #2 - Analysis #3 - Develop #4 - Implement #5 - Evaluate Positive Deviance #1 - Define #2 - Determine #3 - Discover #4 - Design #5 - Discern Problem Solving Approach TRADITIONAL vs. POSITIVE DEVIANCE
  10. 10. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10 STEPS for PD Approach Define the problem, current perceived causes, challenges and constraints, and desired outcomes.#1 Determine the presence of positive deviance individuals or groups#2 Discover uncommon but successful behaviors and strategies through inquiry and observation#3 Design activities to allow community members to practice the discovered behaviors.#4 Monitor and evaluate the resulting project or initiative which further fuels change by documenting and sharing improvements as they occur, and help the community discern the effectiveness of the initiative. #5
  11. 11. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11 Applying PD Approach to Employment Satisfaction Survey To find a better strategy to improve motivations of employees and strengthen their bonds with the company.
  12. 12. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12 The Company X could not achieve the sales target in 2018 and the employees’ salaries were not increased as much as the previous year when they had achieved the target. Most employees were not happy about the little increase in salary, and there was significant drop in ES scores conducted in the beginning of this year. Despite this situation, the company wishes to keep up their motivation and bond with the company in order to achieve this year’s target. #1 Define desirable situation
  13. 13. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4 Team 5 Team 6 Team 9 Team 9 Team 7 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 #2 Determine PD from ES scoresAttachmenttothecompany Satisfaction with their job & salary Typical Success Case Typical Failure Case
  14. 14. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14 #3 Discover PD behaviors through interviews & observation Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4 Team 5 Team 6 Team 9 Team 10 Team 7  They bring their children to work when they have to stay late at work, and other team members take care of the children.  Most teams celebrate each other’s birthday by eating cakes, but this team celebrates birthdays and holidays by decorating their work space.  They have fish as team’s pet, and each member is in charge of taking care of the fish (leader also needs to clean the fish tank!)  The team leader talks positive aspects of the company; not only the salary but long term benefits of working at the same company.
  15. 15. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15 #4 Design the strategy Conduct a workshop with team leaders to come up with any co-creation activities which all team members can engage themselves in. Show employees the long term benefits of working at this company.
  16. 16. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16 Other Potential Areas to Apply PD Approach • Improving store management or customer service of the stores • And more…
  17. 17. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17 Positive Deviance is not a “Success story” It’s about finding out solutions which anyone can practice
  18. 18. Copyright© INTAGE Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18 THANK YOU

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