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  1. 1. MANTHAN   Brain  Gain:  Promoting  Research  and   Innovation     Yamini  Bansal   Madalsa  Singh   Saniya  Pawar   Aaradhya  Srivastava     Ayush  Kanodia  
  2. 2.     Lack  of  Commercially  viable   research   India  filed  only  0.3%  of  total  world  patents   compared  to  China  which  filed  as  many  as   15%.   India’s  total  patent  output  from  1981-­‐2011   was  approximately  37,000.   China’s  patent  output  during  the  same   period  exceeded  150,000.       Lack  of  Innova5on-­‐driven   R&D  from  the  Private   Sector   India  has  only  14  companies  in  the  2011   R&D  rankings  of  the  top  1400  world   companies   The  highest  ranking  Indian  company  is   Tata  Motors  which  stands  at  264  as   compared  to  General  Motors  which  is  9th   Current Scenario of R&D in India Migra5on  of  Indian   Graduates  Abroad   The  number  of  Indian  students  studying   abroad  in  2010  was  2,00,612   Several  IT  graduates  had  leR  India  and   emerged  as  important  Entrepreneurs   where  15%  of  the  start  ups  today  are   supposed  to  by  people  of  Indian  origin       AMBIT  OF  THE  PROBLEM  
  3. 3. Low  research  &  Low  pracUcal   component  in  curriculum         Absence  of  high-­‐knowledge  jobs   and  innovaUve  enterprises           Lower  competency  at  the  world   market  in  terms  of  product   innovaUon  and  technologies         India  sUll  relying  on  industries   harnessing  obsolete  techniques         StagnaUon  of  innovaUon    at   the  University  Level   StagnaUon  of  skills  at  the   Employability  Level   StagnaUon  of  technology  at   Industry     Level   StagnaUon  of  economy  due   to  non-­‐sustainability     *Lack  of  commercially  viable  research     *Lack  of  monetary  incenUves   *Research  is  not  marketable   *OpportuniUes  to  enter  industrial    research  abroad   *Companies  are  not  focusing     on  potenUal  technology  for  the   long  term  but  depend  on   exisUng  technology     *Lack  of  foresight   *Driven  by  quarterly  profits  and     “Returns  on  Investment”   *Companies  making  the   maximum  revenues  like  Indian   Oil  CorporaUon  are  not  those   which  heavily  depend  on  R&D   for  sustenance   *Lack  of  incenUve  to  invest   *The  trend  in  the  private  sector   is  to  buy  technology  rather  than   undertaking  high-­‐risk,  high-­‐ investment  R&D   AMBIT  OF  THE  PROBLEM  
  4. 4. PROPOSED  SOLUTION   Market-­‐Driven  Industry-­‐Academia  Engagement   Institute-­‐Industry   AfKiliate  Programs   Training  for  high-­‐ end  manpower   development   Creation  of  Kield-­‐ speciKic,   collaborative   Innovation  Clusters   We  suggest  ways  to  increase  the  %   contribu3on  of  the  Private  Sector  in  R&D   with    Academia   Israel  spends  more  than  4%  of  GDP  in  Research  &  Development   (R&D)  while  Japan,  South  Korea  and  Scandinavian  countries  spend   more  than  3%.  US,  France,  Germany  spend  more  than  2%  and  China   spends  more  than  1.50%.  But  the  most  important  point  is,  in  all  these   countries,  Industry  spends  more  than  government  in  R&D  in  some   countries  3  3mes  more  than  Government  spending.  In  India,  while   total  spending  in  R&D  is  around  1%,  Government's  spending  is  2  to  3   3mes  more  than  that  of  Industry's.  
  5. 5. The  Industry  Innova0on  Clusters  under  Na0onal  Innova0on  Council  were  formed  with  the  objec0ve  of  catering  to  mutual  needs  of   industry  and  academia  by  providing  an  avenue  for  co-­‐opera0on.  Our  objec0ve  is  to  a@ract  private  investment  to  these  clusters   To  increase  funds  and  expand  to  high-­‐end  technological  research,  we  propose:   •  CreaUon  of  clusters  specific  to  a  prominent  area  of  research  like  Renewable  Energy,   Nanotechnology,  CS-­‐IT,  Manufacturing  Processes     •  IntroducUon  of  lab  faciliUes  with  mulUple  university  partnerships  sponsored  by   private  companies     •  Jointly  owned  lab  equipment  for  common  use   •  Opportunity  for  UniversiUes  to  create  Prototypes  instead  of  non-­‐commercial   theoreUcal  research  which  private  companies  would  be  more  willing  to  invest  in.     PROPOSED  SOLUTION:  INNOVATION  CLUSTERS  2.0   Landscaping   ConceptualizaUon   Product  Design   Servicing  Product  TesUng   Sales   University  Professors  and  Researchers  can  assist  the  companies  here   Why  is  this  beIer  than  them  working  in  their  own  R&D  labs?   •  Jointly  owned  expensive  infrastructure   •  Pre-­‐compeUUve  knowledge  sharing     •  Opportunity  to  invest  in  high-­‐risk  research   •  Access  to  mulUtudes  of  technology  on  the  same  ground   •  High  concentraUon  of  experts  from  various  fields  
  6. 6. Implementation   PROPOSED  SOLUTION:  INNOVATION  CLUSTERS  2.0     • The  government  will  set  aside  an  iniUal  seed  capital  for  the  NaUonal  InnovaUon  Council  to  develop   these  high-­‐end  technology  clusters  IniUal  capital  investment   • Private  Companies  in  all  sectors  will  be  invited    to  be  signatories  to  an  agreement  that  would  enable   them  to  sponsor  the  sejng  up  their  field-­‐specific  faciliUes  and  secure  returns  on  their  engagement.   Invite  companies  to  be   voluntary  signatories   • A  panel  consisUng  of  senior  research  scienUsts  and  industrial  representaUve  will  be  set  up  to   evaluate  the  prospecUve  areas  of  research  working  with  NaUonal  InnovaUon  Council   • The  panel  will  be  required  to  submit  detailed  proposals  on  the  resources  (lab  equipment  etc.  )   required  for  the  sejng  up  of  each  cluster   IdenUficaUon  of  potenUal   areas  of  research     • ConstrucUon  of  the  facility  and  procurement  of  required  lab  equipments  in  a  specified  Ume  frame   • They  will  hold  regular  convenUons  making  road-­‐maps  for  development  and  idea-­‐exchange  Sejng  up   • Quarterly  meeUngs  will  be  held  at  the  clusters  to  facilitate  dialogue  between  private  companies  and   universiUes  to  review  current  work  and  evaluate  future  requirements  of  funding   • A  contact  point  will  be  provided  to  both  universiUes  and  industries  to  facilitate  easy  communicaUon   ConUnuing  Engagement  
  7. 7. Stake-­‐Holder  Analysis   R&D   Government   of  India   Private   Players   Technical   Start-­‐Ups   University   Partners   *IniUal  Funding   for  basic  infrastructure   (Upto  10  years)   *Consistent  flow  of    funds   *Technical  SoluUons   *OpUmized  products   *Government    incenUves     *Opportunity  to  produce  prototypes   (linking  technological  development   to  commercial  products  )   *Infrastructure   *Challenging  problems   *New  Ideas/SoluUons   *Consultancy   *Funds   *Marketable  ideas   *Infrastructure   *HR   *IncubaUon   *Technical  assistance   Technical  research  of   *Strategic  importance   *Healthcare   *Socio-­‐Economic     PROPOSED  SOLUTION:  INNOVATION  CLUSTERS  2.0    
  8. 8. University  of  Stanford  currently  has  more  40  academic  department-­‐corporate  affiliate,  from  startups  to  mature   corporates,  to  provide  educa0on,  research  partnership  and  connec0ons  to  world  class  faculty  and  students     PROPOSED  SOLUTION:  AFFILIATE  PROGRAMS   FormaUon  of  inter-­‐ disciplinary  centers   within  universiUes   keeping  the  need  of   the  industry  in  mind   Industries  enter  into   affiliate  programs   with  these  centers   based  on  research   requirements     Companies  engage  for   consultancy,  tesUng   faciliUes,  process   opUmizaUon  and   technical  approvals       Impact:   1.  Remove  the  hassles  involved  for  companies   requiring  soluUons  to  mulU-­‐disciplinary   problems     2.   Students  working  in  the  department/research   lab  get  hands-­‐on  experience  of  industry   problem  statements   3.  Introduces  the  relevance  of  applied  research  in   the  university   4.  Involves  the  pumping  of  money  in  the   department/research  facililty  as  opposed  to   the  money  earned  by  professors  through   individual  consultancy  as  in  status  quo   5.  Opportunity  for  Industries  to  work  with  the   pool  of  scienUfic  experUse  from  abroad   through  the  network  of  the  exisUng  professors   ImplementaUon:   1.  IdenUficaUon  of  prospecUve  problems  areas   in  industries  involving  mulUdisciplinary   research   2.  Designing  a  legal  framework  for  the  affiliate   program  (resources  to  be  shared,  funds  to   be  provided)     3.  Holding  annual  meeUngs  to  review  progress   of  the  program  and  anUcipate  future   requirements   4.  Giving  enough  flexibility  to  exercise  IPR  to   both  the  industry  and  university  
  9. 9. Descrip5on   Implementa5on   Impact   Fellowships  &   Exchange   Programs   Private  companies  will  consUtute   fellowship  programs/  exchange   programs  to  enable  university   students  to  work  with  industrial   research  groups  within  their   faciliUes  for  product  innovaUon   and  opUmizaUon       -­‐Provision  of  salary,  awards,   fringe  benefits  and  project  costs     -­‐PotenUal  of  becoming  a   permanent  employee  of  the   company     -­‐A  review  team  of  the  private   company  to  execute  selecUon   procedure,  performance  based   review  of  the  fellow     University:     Increase  employability  of  the   students  of  the  university   Make  higher  educaUon  cost   effecUve   Industry:   •  Employment  of  newly   acquired  technical  experUse   •  PotenUal  long  term   employability  with  reduced   risk     Short  Term   Courses  at   University  for   Industry   employees   -­‐Specific  courses  designed  to  keep   industries  up  to  date  with  current   technology  with  a  special   emphasis  on  small  scale   industries     -­‐  Hands  on  training  about  latest   lab  equipment  and  technology   development     -­‐1-­‐2  week  courses/seminars     -­‐Publicity  for  available  courses   through  the  university  webpage   and  industry  convenUons           University:     Funding  and  remunera5on  in   lieu  of  the  knowledge   Use  of  academic  concepts  in   prac5cal  industrial  projects   Industry:     Up-­‐to  date  manpower   Technology  up-­‐gradaUon     InteracUon  with  Professors   through  on  the  spot  problem   solving   PROPOSED  SOLUTIONS:  HIGH-­‐END  MANPOWER  DEVELOPMENT  
  10. 10. •  ConKlicts  between  private  players  and  universities  in  the  innovation   clusters  due  to  IPR   •  Abiding  by  Non-­‐Disclosure  Agreements  as  multiple  companies  will  work  in   the  same  R&D  space     •  Initial  cost  to  be  borne  by  the  Government  for  setting  up  facilities   •  Pertinent  challenge  of  corruption  in  setting  up  a  innovation  facilities   Challenges and Risks
  11. 11. Sources •  The  2011  EU  Industrial  R&D  Investment  Scoreboard  :  hPp://iri.jrc.ec.europa.eu/scoreboard11.html   •  NIC:  hpp://www.innovaUoncouncil.gov.in   •  Thomson  Reuters  Web  of  Knowledge   •  DST:  White  Paper  on  R&D:  dst.gov.in/white-­‐paper.pd   •  STI  Policy  2013   •  hpp://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33526.pdf   •  hpp://www.pppinindia.com/Defining-­‐PPP.php   •  hpp://www.stanford.edu/group/ICO/industry/industryAffiliate.html     Acknowledgements •  Prof.  Udayan  Ganguly,  Electrical  Engineering,  IIT  Bombay   •  Prof.  S.D.  Jog,  Mechanical  Engineering,  IIT  Bombay