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hematology %%% كوردی.pdf

  1. Erbil Polytechnic University Soran Technical College MLT Stage 1 Prepared by: AmmarYusif Taws Muhammad Bafrin Salim Khadija Rzgar Supervised by: Mr. Azad
  2. Hematology analyzer
  3. Outlines ➢What is hematological test ➢Hematology analyzer ➢Parts Of Hematology Analyzer ➢Working principle ➢Problems ➢Result ➢Type ➢Uses ➢Advantages ➢Disadvantages ➢Refences
  4. What is hematological test? • Hematology is the science or study of blood and blood diseases. In the medical field, hematology includes the treatment of blood disorders and malignancies, including types of hemophilia, blood clots, leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma and sickle-cell anemia. Hematology is a branch of internal medicine that deals with the physiology, pathology, etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention of blood-related disorders.
  5. Hematology analyzer • Hematology analyzers are used to count and identify blood cells at high speed and accuracy. • These are computerized, highly specialized and automated machines . • Features vary from one hematology analyzer to another, such as closed vial testing and open sampling testing. Other features to consider in a hematology analyzer are:- ❖ sample size required ❖ type and quantity of testing modes ❖ speed in which the results are available ❖ automatic flagging of results that are out of normal range ❖ the capacity of test results it can store.
  6. Parts Of Hematology Analyzer ❖ Control Unit: The control unit is the main part of the hematology analyzer that is calibrated from time to time and is responsible for the precision of the device ❖ Function Keys: Helps to give the command and set the required values or change the settings of the machine. ❖ Monitor Interface: Displays the values obtained and the drawn comparisons. Any abnormality in the values is first indicated here. ❖ Cover: An easy-to-open hinge cover is placed on the top, covering the control unit to prevent contamination and damage. ❖ Sample stand/ Touch plate: This is where the samples are placed for testing. ❖ LED Lights: Indicated the status of the machine
  7. Working principle ✓ A hematology analyzer: is a device used to measure various properties of a blood sample such as hemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and other blood components. The analyzer works by passing the sample through a series of sensors and detectors that measure the properties of the sample. The data is then analyzed by a computer and the results are displayed on a monitor. The device is typically used in medical laboratories to aid in diagnosing diseases and other medical conditions.
  8. ‫خوێننایس‬ ‫شیکەرەوەی‬ : ‫اوج‬‫ر‬‫جۆ‬ ‫تایبەتمەندیە‬ ‫ی‬ ‫پێوانەکردن‬‫بۆ‬ ‫بەکاردێت‬ ‫ێکە‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ئامێ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ۆرەکان‬ ،‫خوێن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫سپیەکان‬ ‫خانە‬ ،‫خوێن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫سوورەکان‬ ‫خانە‬ ، ‫ی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫هیمۆگلۆبی‬ ‫وەک‬ ‫خوێن‬ ‫نموونەی‬ ‫خوێن‬ ‫تری‬ ‫ی‬ ‫پێکهاتەکان‬‫و‬ ،‫پلێتەکان‬ . ‫نمون‬ ‫ی‬ ‫اندن‬‫ر‬‫تێپە‬ ‫بە‬ ‫کاردەکات‬‫شیکەرەوەکە‬ ‫بەناو‬ ‫ەکە‬ ‫دە‬ ‫پێوانە‬ ‫نمونەکە‬ ‫ی‬ ‫تایبەتمەندیەکان‬ ‫کە‬‫دۆزەرەوەکان‬‫و‬ ‫هەستەوەرەکان‬ ‫لە‬ ‫ەیەک‬ ‫ر‬ ‫زنجێ‬ ‫کەن‬ . ‫دەدرێ‬ ‫پیشان‬‫مۆنیتۆر‬‫لەسەر‬ ‫ئەنجامەکان‬ ‫و‬ ‫شیدەکرێتەوە‬‫کۆمپیوتەر‬‫بە‬ ‫داتاکە‬‫دواتر‬ ‫ن‬ . ‫یارمەتیدان‬‫بۆ‬ ‫پزیشکیەکان‬ ‫تاقیگە‬ ‫لە‬ ‫بەکاردێت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ئاسان‬ ‫شێوەیەیک‬ ‫بە‬ ‫ەکە‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ئامێ‬ ‫لە‬ ‫پزیشیک‬ ‫تری‬ ‫ی‬ ‫حاڵەتەکان‬‫و‬ ‫نەخۆشیەکان‬ ‫ی‬ ‫دەستنیشانکردن‬ .
  9. Problems 1. Instrument calibration errors 2. Clotted specimens 3. Contamination/cross-contamination 4. Incorrect sample labeling 5. Insufficient sample volume 6. Inaccurate result interpretation 7. Interference from drugs or chemicals 8. Equipment malfunction 9. User error 10. Inadequate quality control procedures
  10. 1 . ‫ر‬ ‫ئامێ‬ ‫ەی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫کالیێ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫هەڵەکان‬ 2 . ‫او‬‫ر‬‫کلۆتک‬‫نموونەی‬ 3 . ‫پیسبوون‬ / ‫پیسبوون‬ 4 . ‫نادروست‬ ‫نموونەی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ناولێنان‬ 5 . ‫ناتەواو‬ ‫نموونەی‬ ‫قەبارەی‬ 6 . ‫نادروستەکان‬ ‫ئەنجامە‬ ‫لێکدانەوەی‬ 7 . ‫یان‬ ‫هۆشبەرەکان‬ ‫ماددە‬ ‫لە‬ ‫تێوەردان‬ ‫دەست‬ ‫کیمیاییەکان‬‫ماددە‬ 8 . ‫کەلوپەلەکان‬ ‫ی‬ ‫تێکچون‬ 9 . ‫بەکارهێنەر‬ ‫هەڵەی‬ 10 . ‫ناتەواو‬ ‫جۆری‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ۆڵ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫کۆنێ‬‫کرداری‬
  11. Results • .The results of a hematology analyzer can provide information about a variety of blood components, including red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, and platelets.This data can help a doctor diagnose various conditions, such as anemia, infection, or cancer
  12. ‫دەربارە‬ ‫انیاری‬‫ز‬ ‫دەتوانێت‬ ‫خوێننایس‬ ‫شیکەرەوەی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ئەنجامەکان‬ ‫ی‬ ‫و‬ ‫سوور‬ ‫خانە‬ ‫لەوانە‬ ،‫بکات‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫دابی‬ ‫خوێن‬ ‫پێکهاتەیەیک‬ ‫چەند‬ ‫پلێتەکان‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫ی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫هیمۆگلۆبی‬ ،‫خوێن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫سپیەکان‬ . ‫دەت‬ ‫داتایە‬ ‫ئەم‬ ‫وانێت‬ ‫حاڵەتێک‬ ‫چەند‬ ‫ی‬ ‫دەستنیشانکردن‬ ‫بۆ‬ ‫بدات‬ ‫پزیشک‬ ‫ر‬ ‫یارمەن‬ ‫وەک‬ ، ‫پەنجە‬ ‫ر‬ ‫شێ‬ ‫یان‬ ،‫هەوکردن‬ ،‫خوێن‬ ‫کەم‬
  13. Type 1. Hematology analyzer: The most important of this analyzer is the blood cell analysis (blood routine). 2. Semi-automatic/automatic biochemical analyzer: This kind of biochemical analyzer does biochemical tests, such as: liver function, kidney function, blood glucose and lipids, etc. 3. Electrolyte analyzer: this analyzer does electrolyte testing, including potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium, etc. 4. Hemocoagulometer: this analyzer is to do PT, APTT, TT, FBI and other blood coagulation items. 5. Enzyme standard instrument: qualitative / semi-quantitative immunoassay: hepatitis B and half, hepatitis C antibody, HIV antibody...
  14. 1 . ‫خوێننایس‬ ‫شیکەرەوەی‬ : ‫خوێنە‬ ‫شیکەرەوەیە‬ ‫ئەم‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ین‬ ‫ر‬ ‫گرنگێ‬ ‫خانە‬ ‫شیکردنەوەی‬ ( ‫خوێن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ڕۆتین‬ .) 2 . ‫ئۆتۆماتییک‬ ‫نیمچە‬ ‫ی‬ ‫بایۆکیمیان‬ ‫شیکەرەوەی‬ / ‫ئۆتۆماتییک‬ : ‫جۆرە‬ ‫ئەم‬ ‫وەک‬ ،‫دەکات‬ ‫ی‬ ‫بایۆکیمیان‬ ‫تاقیکردنەوەی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫بایۆکیمیان‬ ‫شیکەرەوەی‬ : ،‫جگەرە‬ ‫کرداری‬ ‫هتد‬ ‫و‬ ‫لێوی‬ ‫و‬ ‫خوێن‬ ‫گلوکۆزی‬‫و‬ ‫گورچیلە‬‫کرداری‬ 3 . ‫ی‬ ‫کارەبان‬‫شیکەرەوەی‬ : ‫لەوانەشە‬ ،‫دەکات‬ ‫ی‬ ‫کارەبان‬‫تاقیکردنەوەی‬ ‫شیکەرەوە‬ ‫ئەم‬ ‫هتد‬ ‫و‬ ‫کالسیۆم‬،‫اید‬‫ر‬‫کلۆ‬،‫سۆدیۆم‬ ،‫پۆتاسیۆم‬ 4 . ‫هیمۆکۆاگۆلۆمتەر‬ : ‫تر‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ئەوان‬ ‫و‬ ‫ئای‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ئێف‬ ، ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ، ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ئەی‬ ، ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ئەنجامدان‬ ‫بۆ‬ ‫شیکەرەوەیە‬ ‫ئەم‬ ‫خوێن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫کۆگالێدان‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ئایتمەکان‬ 5 . ‫ئەنزییم‬ ‫ستانداردی‬ ‫ازی‬‫ر‬‫ئام‬ : ‫ر‬ ‫کوالێن‬ / ‫ر‬ ‫چەندێن‬ ‫نیمچە‬ ‫ئایمونۆیس‬ : ‫ئایدز‬ ‫بۆدی‬ ‫دژە‬ ،‫یس‬ ‫ی‬ ‫هەوکردن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫هەوکردن‬ ‫بۆدی‬ ‫دژە‬ ،‫نیو‬‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫هەوکردن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫هەوکردن‬
  15. 6. Chemiluminescence analyzer: immuno-quantitative, including the detection of T3, T4, TSH, hormones, tumor markers, etc. 7. Radioimmunoassay analyzer: the same as above, because of radioactive waste, has been gradually replaced by chemiluminescent immunoassay analyzer. 8. Blood gas analyzer: blood gas analysis, mainly including partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, etc. 9. Blood vertebrate viscometer: blood rheology: high, medium and low whole blood/plasma viscosity 10. PH meter: blood pH: most blood gas analyzers also have this function
  16. 6 . ‫کیمیا‬‫کیمیای‬‫شیکەرەوەی‬ : ‫بە‬ ،‫ئیمۆنۆ‬ ‫ڕێژەی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫دۆزینەوەی‬ 3 ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ، 4 ‫هتد‬‫و‬‫توۆر‬ ‫ی‬ ‫نیشانەکان‬ ،‫هۆرمۆنەکان‬ ،‫ئێچ‬ ‫ئێس‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ، 7 . ‫ادیۆمۆنۆسای‬‫ڕ‬ ‫شیکەرەوەی‬ : ‫تیشکدەرەوە‬ ‫بەهۆی‬ ،‫سەرەوە‬ ‫شێوەی‬ ‫هەمان‬ ‫ی‬ ‫کیمیان‬‫ئیمۆنۆسای‬ ‫لەالیەن‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬‫گۆڕد‬‫وردە‬ ‫وردە‬ ،‫ۆدان‬‫ڕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫بەفێ‬ ‫شیکەرەوە‬ 8 . ‫خوێن‬ ‫گازی‬‫شیکەرەوەی‬ : ‫دەگرێتەوە‬ ‫ی‬ ‫بەیس‬ ‫سەرەیک‬ ‫شێوەیەیک‬ ‫بە‬ ،‫خوێن‬ ‫گازی‬‫شیکردنەوەی‬ ‫هتد‬‫و‬ ‫کاربۆن‬‫ئۆکسیدی‬ ‫دی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫بەیس‬ ‫فشاری‬ ، ‫ی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ئۆکسجی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫پەستان‬ 9 . ‫خوێن‬ ‫دەماری‬ ‫ڤاسکۆمتەری‬ : ‫خوێن‬ ‫رۆئۆلۆژی‬ : ‫نزم‬‫و‬ ‫مامناوەند‬ ،‫بەرز‬ ‫خوێن‬ ‫تەواوی‬ / ‫پالزما‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ڤایسکۆزین‬ 10 . ‫مەتر‬ ‫ئێچ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ن‬ : ‫خوێن‬ ‫ئێچ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ن‬ : ‫هەیە‬ ‫کارەیان‬‫ئەم‬ ‫خوێنیش‬ ‫گازی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫شیکەرەوەکان‬ ‫زۆربەی‬
  17. Uses ➢RBC distribution width ➢Mean corpuscular volume ➢Mean corpuscular hemoglobin ➢WBC differential count in percentage and absolute value ➢Platelet distribution width ➢Platelet mean volume ➢Large platelet cell ratio ➢Platelet criteria
  18. ❑ RBC ‫شكردنی‬‫دابه‬ ‫پانی‬ ❑ ‫مەبەست‬ ‫بازنەیی‬ ‫قەبارەی‬ ❑ ‫کۆرپۆسکوالر‬ ‫هیمۆگلۆبینێکی‬ ❑ ‫و‬ ‫سەدی‬ ‫ڕێژەی‬ ‫بە‬ ‫ژماردن‬ ‫جیاکاری‬ ‫سی‬ ‫بی‬ ‫دەبلیو‬ ‫ڕەها‬ ‫بەهای‬ ❑ ‫پەڕە‬ ‫دابەشکردنی‬ ‫پانی‬ ❑ ‫پلێتی‬ ‫ڕێژەی‬ ‫قەبارەی‬ ❑ ‫گەورە‬ ‫پەڕەی‬ ‫خانەی‬ ‫ڕێژەی‬ ❑ ‫پەڕەیی‬ ‫پێوەری‬
  19. Advantages of Hematology Analyzer • Speed with efficient handling of a large number of samples. • Accuracy and precision in quantitative blood tests. • Ability to perform multiple tests on a single platform. • Significant reduction of labor requirements. • Invaluable for accurate determination of red cell indices.
  20. ✓ ‫نمونەکان‬ ‫لە‬ ‫زۆر‬ ‫ژمارەیەکی‬ ‫کارای‬ ‫خستنی‬ ‫دەست‬ ‫لەگەڵ‬ ‫خێرایی‬ . ✓ ‫خوێندا‬ ‫ڕێژەیی‬ ‫تاقیکردنەوەی‬ ‫لە‬ ‫وردکاری‬ ‫و‬ ‫وردکاری‬ . ✓ ‫پالتفۆڕم‬ ‫یەک‬ ‫لەسەر‬ ‫تاقیکردنەوە‬ ‫چەندین‬ ‫ئەنجامدانی‬ ‫توانای‬ . ✓ ‫کار‬ ‫پێداویستیەکانی‬ ‫گرنگی‬ ‫کەمکردنەوەی‬ . ✓ ‫سوورەکان‬ ‫خانە‬ ‫پێڕستەکانی‬ ‫لە‬ ‫ووردی‬ ‫دیاریکردنی‬ ‫بۆ‬ ‫نابەرابەر‬ .
  21. Disadvantages of Hematology Analyzer • Flags: Flagging of a laboratory test result demands labor-intensive manual examination of a blood smear. • Comments on red cell morphology cannot be generated. Abnormal red cell shapes (such as fragmented cells) cannot be recognized. • Erroneously increased or decreased results due to interfering factors. • Expensive with high running costs.
  22. (a ‫کان‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ئاڵ‬ : ‫دەکات‬ ‫چڕی‬ ‫کاری‬‫داوای‬ ‫تاقیگە‬ ‫تاقیکردنەوەی‬ ‫ئەنجایم‬ ‫ی‬ ‫کردن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ئاڵ‬ (b ‫خوێن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫دەسن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫پشکنین‬ (c ‫بکرێت‬ ‫دروست‬ ‫ناتوانرێت‬ ‫سوور‬ ‫خانەی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫مۆرفۆلۆج‬ ‫لەسەر‬ ‫توانجەکان‬ . ‫نائ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫اسان‬ (d ‫سوورەکان‬ ‫خانە‬ ‫ی‬ ‫شێوەکان‬ ( ‫اوەکان‬‫ر‬‫پارچەک‬ ‫خانە‬ ‫وەک‬ ) ‫ێنەوە‬‫رس‬‫نانا‬ . (e ‫دەستتێوەردانەوە‬ ‫بەهۆی‬ ‫کردەوە‬‫کەم‬‫یان‬ ‫زیاد‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ئەنجامەکان‬ ‫هەڵە‬ ‫بە‬ (f ‫هۆکارەکان‬ (g ‫بەرز‬ ‫ی‬ ‫اکردن‬‫ڕ‬ ‫تێچووی‬ ‫لەگەڵ‬ ‫انبەها‬‫ر‬‫گ‬ .
  23. References ❑ hematology-analyzer ❑ ❑ ❑ cell-suspension-causing-cells-fig3-32549134
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