2. Aim of Presentation
concept of research
and its methodologies
to conduct research in
an appropriate manner
Understanding the way
to write a research
Understanding basic of
3. Introduction to Research
Any systematic and organized investigation towards increasing
the sum of knowledge can be termed as research. Research is
one of the means by which we seek to discover the truth.
Research is best conceived as the process of arriving at
dependable solutions to problems through the planned and
systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data
5. Introduction to Research
• Types of Research
Qualitative and Quantitative
Descriptive and Analytical
Applied and Fundamental
Primary and Secondary
6. Conceptual frameworks
• Conceptual framework outlines the key concepts and ideas that
are relevant to the research topic and identifies the relationships
• It helps to guide the research process and helps to define the
research problem, research questions, and hypotheses.
• It is developed based on a thorough review of the literature.
8. Literature Review
• A literature review can be defined
as crucial resources to support a
study to achieve the objectives and
needs of the study
• No new research can be taken
seriously without first reviewing the
previous research done on the
• The presence of a literature review
illustrates wide reading by the
9. Literature Review
Four key outcomes of doing the review.
• Assessment of the current state of research on a topic.
• Identification of the experts on a particular topic.
• Identification of key questions about a topic that needs further
• Determination of methodologies used in the past studies of the
same or on similar topics.
10. Literature Review
The sources of literature review –
Articles in journals
Government & other organization documents
12. Research Question
• ‘A statement that identifies the phenomenon to be studied’.
• A research question is usually the first step in any research
13. FINER Criteria for good research Questions
14. Examples of Research Questions
Describing and exploring What are the characteristics of X?
How has X changed over time?
What are the main factors in X?
Explaining and testing What is the relationship between X and Y?
What is the role of X in Y?
What are the causes of X?
Evaluating What are the advantages and disadvantages of X?
How effective is X?
15. Research Hypothesis
• A research hypothesis is a logical supposition, a reasonable
guess, and an educated prediction about the nature of the
relationship between two or more variables that we expect to
happen in our study.
• A research question is essentially a hypothesis asked in the form
of a question.
• It is mainly two types- Null Hypothesis and Alternate Hypothesis
17. Objectives of the Research
• General Objective:
expected to achieve by the study in general terms.
• Specific Objective:
break down a general objective into smaller, logically connected parts.
Stated in action verbs e.g., to describe, to identify, to measure, to
18. Research Methods
The process of collecting and
analyzing numerical data. It can
be used to find patterns and
averages, make predictions,
test causal relationships, and
generalize results to wider
Involves collecting and
analyzing non-numerical data
(e.g. text, video, or audio).
19. Types O f quantitative Research Method
20. Descriptive Study
• Descriptive case reports describe in-depth characteristics of one or a
limited number of ‘cases’.
• A case may be, for example, a patient, a health centre, or a village.
Such a study can provide quite useful insight into a problem.
• Title: "A Rare Case of Autoimmune Encephalitis: Diagnosis and
21. Descriptive Study
Cross-sectional surveys aim at describing and quantifying the distribution
of certain variables in a study population at one point in time.
• Physical characteristics of people, materials, or the environment
• Socio-economic characteristics of people such as their age, education, marital
status, number of children and income
Title: "Prevalence of Hypertension among Adults in a Rural Community: A
22. Comparative or Analytical Studies
• Case-control study:
• The investigator compares one group (case) among whom the problem
that he wishes to investigate is present (e.g. malnutrition) and another
group called a control or comparison group, where the problem is
absent, to find out what factors have contributed to the problem.
• Association between Smoking and Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study
23. Comparative or Analytical Studies
• Cohort studies
• In a cohort study, a group of individuals that are exposed to a risk factor
(study group) is compared to a group of individuals not exposed to the
risk factor (control group).
• Cohort studies can be retrospective and prospective
• Title: "Long-term Effects of Physical Activity on Cardiovascular Health: A
Prospective Cohort Study“
• Title: "Association between Prenatal Exposure to Air Pollution and
Childhood Asthma: A Retrospective Cohort Study"
24. Comparative or Analytical Studies
• Experimental studies
• An experimental design is a study design that gives the most reliable
proof for causation.
• Individuals are randomly allocated to at least two groups.
• One group is subject to an intervention, or experiment, while the other
group(s) is not.
• The outcome of the intervention (effect of the intervention on the
dependent variable/problem) is obtained by comparing the two groups.
• Title: "Effectiveness of a New Drug in Lowering Blood Pressure: A
Randomized Controlled Trial
25. Population & Sample
• Population is the pool of individuals from which a
statistical sample is drawn for a study.
• Target population refers to the entire group of
individuals or objects to which researchers are
interested to generalize the conclusions.
• Study population is a subset of the target
population from which the sample is actually
• Sample is subset of study population used in
i. Simple random
ii. Systematic Random
iii. Stratified Random
iv. Cluster Random
v. Multistage Random
i. Purposive sampling:
ii. Convenience sampling
iii. Quota sampling
iv. Snowball sampling
Variables are characteristics, attributes, or properties that can vary
or take different values within a dataset or research study.
the viewpoint of a causal relationship
1. Independent variable (Exercise)
2. Dependent variable(Cognitive Function)
3. Extraneous variable(Diet)
4. Confounding variable(Age)
• From the viewpoint of the unit of
1. Quantitative variables
a. Discrete variables(student number)
b. Continuous variables(Age)
2. Categorical variables
a) Binary variables (head tail in coin flip)
b) Nominal variables(colour)
c) Ordinal variables(Place in finishing race)
A set of values or information about a variable that is measured or
recorded on study subjects or observational units.
• The commonly used data collection techniques/methods include:
1. Using available information (document review)
3. Interview (face-to-face)
4. Administering written questionnaire
Measures of Dispersion (Scatter/spread)
• Absolute measures of dispersion
• Mean deviation(MD) Variance
• Standard deviation (SD)
• Relative The measures of dispersion e.g. coefficient of
It is the pattern of distribution of a variable in a population
• Types of probability distribution:
Continuous probability distribution: it is concerned with continuous
• Normal distribution
• Log normal distribution etc.
Discrete probability distribution: it is concerned with discrete variables
• Binomial distribution
• Poisson distribution
37. Normal Distribution
I. The mean, median and mode are
exactly the same.
II. The distribution is symmetric
III. The distribution can be described by the
mean and the standard deviation.
IV. Increasing the mean moves the curve
right, while decreasing it moves the
V. A small standard deviation results in a
narrow curve, while a large standard
• It is the process by which sample statistics is used to estimate
the corresponding population parameter within a range of
values. For estimation of any population parameter two types of
estimates need to be computed.
• Point estimate
• Interval estimate: also called confidence interval(CI).Upper and lower
endpoints of CI which serve as bounding values are known as
confidence limit (CL).
Hypothesis tests (Significance tests)
• These are statistical tests used to determine whether the null
hypothesis will be rejected in favor of an alternative hypothesis
or the null hypothesis will be accepted.
• Types of significance test (statistical test):
• Parametric test: e.g. t-test, F-test (ANOVA), Z-test, Correlation
coefficient test etc.
• Non-parametric test: e.g. chi-square test, Fisher exact test, proportion
test, Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon test, Spearman rank correlation test
• One Tailed Test
• Two Tailed Test
Level of significance
• It is the point of demarcation between by chance and not by
chance for observation to occur.
• It is customarily expressed as percentage e.g. 5% (0.05) level,
4% (0.04) level etc.
• Significant means, the event is unlikely to occur due to by chance
(sampling error) without any cause rather it is due to some obvious
• Not significant means, the event is likely to occur due to chance
(sampling error) without any cause.
• Correlation is the relationship or association between two
1. Linear relation (Pearson Correlation Coefficient formula)
• Positively correlated two variables changes in the same direction.
e.g. temperature & pulse rate. r = +1
• Negatively correlated two variables changes in the opposite
direction. e.g. Insuline & Blood sugar Level. r = -1
• r =0, there is no relation
2. Non-linear relation( Nonparametric test) eg; Age and Death Rate
• The regression analysis is a technique of studying the
dependence of one variable (called dependent variable), on one
or more variables (called Independent variable)
• Linear Regression equation: y = a +bx, where x is the
independent variable and y is the dependent variable. ‘b’ is called
the regression coefficient and measures the amount of change in
y for unit change in x. ‘a’ is a constant.
Odds Ratio (OR)
• The OR represents the odds that an outcome will occur given a
particular exposure, compared to the odds of the outcome occurring in
the absence of that exposure
Relative risk/Risk ratio (RR)
• A risk ratio (RR), also called relative risk, compares the risk of a health
event (disease, injury, risk factor, or death) among one group with the
risk among another group
• This absolute measure of effect represents the difference between the
risks in two groups; usually between an exposed and an unexposed
47. Odds Ratio
Calculating Odds Ratios:
Exposure Disease disease
Present Absent Total
Present a b a+b
Absent c d c+d
Total a+c b+d a+b+c+d
a = Number of exposed cases,b = Number
of exposed non-cases
c = Number of unexposed cases,d =
Number of unexposed non-cases
OR=(Odds of outcome in exposed)/(Odds
of outcome in unexposed)=(a⁄b)/(c/d)
•OR=1 Exposure does not
affect odds of outcome
•OR>1 Exposure associated
with higher odds of outcome
•OR<1 Exposure associated
with lower odds of outcome
48. Relative Risk
Calculation of RR-
Total Exposure Present
• Present a b a+b
• Absent c d c+d
• Total a+c b+d
• RR =Risk of the disease with
exposure/risk of the disease
• RR= (a/a+b)/(c/c+d)
•RR=1, No association
between Disease (D) &
•RR>1, D is more likely
in E (E as risk factor)
•RR<1, D is less likely
in E (E as a protective
• Sensitivity is the ability of a test to
correctly classify an individual as
`having the disease’.
• The ability of a test to correctly
classify an individual as ‘disease-
free’ is called specificity.
Positive predictive value
• It is the percentage of patients
with a positive test who
actually have the disease.
Negative predictive value
• It is the percentage of patients
with a negative test who do not
have the disease.
Acknowledgement of the sources .Extensive referencing indicates
wide research, a correct approach and the use of these sources
as evidence to back up the researcher’s argument.
• Vancouver- Numerical i.e. 1, 2,3 consecutively in superscript
and should appear in the reference section in same chronology.
• Harvard- In the text cites author and year and, in the reference,
section appear alphabetically A, B, C ----
To cite an article
• Vidal MD, Weisser JR, Gonjalez S, Toro MA. Incidence and clinical
effects of intra abdominal hypertension in critically ill patient. Crit care
Med 2008; 36: 1823-31
To cite Chapter in a Book
• Connel PRO. The Vermiform Appendix. In: Williams NS. Short Practice
of Surgery. 26th Ed. Taylor & Francis. Tokyo. 2013. 1199-1214
For Citation from Internet
• Competency-based Medical education. http://www.google.com/med
edu.[Accessed on March 15, 2011].
55. Research Ethics
• Good Clinical Practice (GCP)
It is an international ethical and
scientific standard for the
design, conduct, performance,
monitoring, auditing, recording,
analysis, and reporting of clinical
• Institutional Review Board
The purpose is to safeguard the
rights, safety, and well-being of
56. Research Ethics
To approve a research protocol, the IRB must ensure that
Risks to participants are minimized.
Risks to participants are reasonable with anticipated benefits.
The selection of participants is equitable.
Informed consent is properly obtained and documented.
safety of participants.
Confidentiality of data.
57. BCPS Recommendation for Writing Thesis
• The Thesis is the original work of the trainee and should reflect their subject
understanding and research abilities .
Selection of Guide and Co-Guide
Choosing the topic
Preparing Research protocol
Acceptance of protocol by BCPS
To research under the guidance of the guide
Write thesis in a good standard of clear English using appropriate academic terms .
Defend the Thesis
• Exploration of research
methodology is not an
endpoint but rather a
stepping stone to further
inquiry and lifelong learning.
It is a journey that extends
far beyond this presentation.
"Nurturing the Seeds of
Exploration: Research aims to explore and investigate new areas, phenomena, or topics in order to gain a deeper understanding or uncover new knowledge. It involves examining existing information and gaps in knowledge to identify areas that require further investigation.
Description: Research aims to provide a detailed and accurate description of a particular subject, event, or phenomenon. It involves gathering data and information to create a comprehensive picture or account of the topic under study.
Explanation: Research aims to explain the causes, mechanisms, relationships, or patterns behind a specific phenomenon or occurrence. It seeks to understand why certain events or behaviors happen and to uncover the underlying factors or processes involved.
Prediction: Research aims to develop models or theories that can predict future outcomes or trends based on existing data and knowledge. It involves analyzing patterns and trends to make informed projections or forecasts.
Improvement: Research aims to contribute to practical applications and improvements in various fields. It seeks to find solutions, develop interventions, or suggest recommendations that can enhance processes, technologies, policies, or practices.
Validation: Research aims to validate or test existing theories, concepts, or hypotheses through empirical evidence. It involves conducting experiments, gathering data, and analyzing results to confirm or refute existing ideas or theories.
Applied and Fundamental
Applied research is done to find a solution for an immediate problem faced by a society or an industrial/business/service organization. The results are immediately utilizable. Fundamental research (or, Basic or Pure research) is concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory.
Conceptual and Empirical
The main difference between conceptual and empirical research is that conceptual research involves abstract ideas and concepts, whereas empirical research involves research based on observation, experiments and verifiable evidence.
Descriptive and Analytical
Descriptive research describes phenomena as they exist. It is used to identify and obtain information on the characteristics of a particular is Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding Enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is a description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.
Analytical research aims to understand phenomena by discovering and measuring causal relations among them. The researcher must use facts or information that are already available and analyze those to make a critical evaluation of the material. This research finds the cause& effect relationship.
Qualitative and Quantitative
Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. Quantitative research is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data. It can be used to find patterns and averages, make predictions, test causal relationships, and generalize results to wider populations.
Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with the qualitative phenomenon, i.e., phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. Qualitative research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires of human behavior, using in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and other techniques.
1. Autonomy: It refers to the obligation on the part of the investigator to respect each participant as a person capable of making informed decision
2. Beneficence: Beneficence refers to that the participants are treated ethically not only by respecting their decisions but also by protecting them from harm and making efforts to secure their well-being. The general rules Do no harm
3. Non-maleficence (Maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms)
4. Justice: Justice connotes fairness and equity and concerns the distribution of benefits and burdens of research. Injustice may arise when selecting participants only from a specific socio-economic class, age, sex, racial, cultural, and institutional setup.