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Basic to learn about research methodology

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- 1. Unveiling the Research Methodology: A Journey into Scientific Inquiry Maj. Md Imran Jewel Grading Trainee in Medicine R
- 2. Aim of Presentation Understanding basic concept of research and its methodologies Knowing methodology to conduct research in an appropriate manner Understanding the way to write a research protocol Understanding basic of biostatistics
- 3. Introduction to Research Any systematic and organized investigation towards increasing the sum of knowledge can be termed as research. Research is one of the means by which we seek to discover the truth. Research is best conceived as the process of arriving at dependable solutions to problems through the planned and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data
- 4. Introduction to Research • Aims of Research Exploration Description Prediction Explanation Validation Improvement
- 5. Introduction to Research • Types of Research Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptive and Analytical Applied and Fundamental Primary and Secondary
- 6. Conceptual frameworks • Conceptual framework outlines the key concepts and ideas that are relevant to the research topic and identifies the relationships between them. • It helps to guide the research process and helps to define the research problem, research questions, and hypotheses. • It is developed based on a thorough review of the literature.
- 8. Literature Review • A literature review can be defined as crucial resources to support a study to achieve the objectives and needs of the study • No new research can be taken seriously without first reviewing the previous research done on the topic. • The presence of a literature review illustrates wide reading by the researcher.
- 9. Literature Review Four key outcomes of doing the review. • Assessment of the current state of research on a topic. • Identification of the experts on a particular topic. • Identification of key questions about a topic that needs further research. • Determination of methodologies used in the past studies of the same or on similar topics.
- 10. Literature Review The sources of literature review – Articles in journals Abstracts Unpublished thesis Books Government & other organization documents Internet
- 11. Literature Review PubMed Google Scholar HINARI(Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative)
- 12. Research Question • ‘A statement that identifies the phenomenon to be studied’. • A research question is usually the first step in any research project.
- 13. FINER Criteria for good research Questions F Feasible I Interesting N Novel E Ethical R Relevant
- 14. Examples of Research Questions Describing and exploring What are the characteristics of X? How has X changed over time? What are the main factors in X? Explaining and testing What is the relationship between X and Y? What is the role of X in Y? What are the causes of X? Evaluating What are the advantages and disadvantages of X? How effective is X?
- 15. Research Hypothesis • A research hypothesis is a logical supposition, a reasonable guess, and an educated prediction about the nature of the relationship between two or more variables that we expect to happen in our study. • A research question is essentially a hypothesis asked in the form of a question. • It is mainly two types- Null Hypothesis and Alternate Hypothesis
- 17. Objectives of the Research • General Objective: expected to achieve by the study in general terms. • Specific Objective: break down a general objective into smaller, logically connected parts. Stated in action verbs e.g., to describe, to identify, to measure, to compare, etc S Specific MMeasurable A Achievable R Relevant T Time-bound
- 18. Research Methods Quantitative Research The process of collecting and analyzing numerical data. It can be used to find patterns and averages, make predictions, test causal relationships, and generalize results to wider populations. Qualititative Research Involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g. text, video, or audio).
- 19. Types O f quantitative Research Method Descriptive Case Report Case Serie s Cross sectional Analytical Experiment al Observational Case- Control Cohor t Prospective Retrospectiv e
- 20. Descriptive Study Case Report: • Descriptive case reports describe in-depth characteristics of one or a limited number of ‘cases’. • A case may be, for example, a patient, a health centre, or a village. Such a study can provide quite useful insight into a problem. • Title: "A Rare Case of Autoimmune Encephalitis: Diagnosis and Treatment Challenges"
- 21. Descriptive Study Cross-Sectional surveys: Cross-sectional surveys aim at describing and quantifying the distribution of certain variables in a study population at one point in time. • Physical characteristics of people, materials, or the environment • Socio-economic characteristics of people such as their age, education, marital status, number of children and income Title: "Prevalence of Hypertension among Adults in a Rural Community: A Cross-Sectional Study
- 22. Comparative or Analytical Studies • Case-control study: • The investigator compares one group (case) among whom the problem that he wishes to investigate is present (e.g. malnutrition) and another group called a control or comparison group, where the problem is absent, to find out what factors have contributed to the problem. • Association between Smoking and Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study
- 23. Comparative or Analytical Studies • Cohort studies • In a cohort study, a group of individuals that are exposed to a risk factor (study group) is compared to a group of individuals not exposed to the risk factor (control group). • Cohort studies can be retrospective and prospective • Title: "Long-term Effects of Physical Activity on Cardiovascular Health: A Prospective Cohort Study“ • Title: "Association between Prenatal Exposure to Air Pollution and Childhood Asthma: A Retrospective Cohort Study"
- 24. Comparative or Analytical Studies • Experimental studies • An experimental design is a study design that gives the most reliable proof for causation. • Individuals are randomly allocated to at least two groups. • One group is subject to an intervention, or experiment, while the other group(s) is not. • The outcome of the intervention (effect of the intervention on the dependent variable/problem) is obtained by comparing the two groups. • Title: "Effectiveness of a New Drug in Lowering Blood Pressure: A Randomized Controlled Trial
- 25. Population & Sample • Population is the pool of individuals from which a statistical sample is drawn for a study. • Target population refers to the entire group of individuals or objects to which researchers are interested to generalize the conclusions. • Study population is a subset of the target population from which the sample is actually selected. • Sample is subset of study population used in
- 26. Sampling Probability Sampling i. Simple random sampling ii. Systematic Random Sampling iii. Stratified Random Sampling iv. Cluster Random Sampling v. Multistage Random Sampling Non-Probability Sampling i. Purposive sampling: ii. Convenience sampling iii. Quota sampling iv. Snowball sampling
- 29. Variables Variables are characteristics, attributes, or properties that can vary or take different values within a dataset or research study. the viewpoint of a causal relationship 1. Independent variable (Exercise) 2. Dependent variable(Cognitive Function) 3. Extraneous variable(Diet) 4. Confounding variable(Age)
- 30. Variables • From the viewpoint of the unit of measurement 1. Quantitative variables a. Discrete variables(student number) b. Continuous variables(Age) 2. Categorical variables a) Binary variables (head tail in coin flip) b) Nominal variables(colour) c) Ordinal variables(Place in finishing race)
- 31. Data: A set of values or information about a variable that is measured or recorded on study subjects or observational units. • The commonly used data collection techniques/methods include: 1. Using available information (document review) 2. Observation 3. Interview (face-to-face) 4. Administering written questionnaire
- 32. Data Analysis Data Entry Data coding Data Cleaning Plan for analysis(SPSS, STATA, R or SAS ) Descriptive data analysis Inferential data analysis
- 33. Biostatistics Data Summarization • Construction of master table • Construction of frequency table (frequency distribution table) • Construction of contingency table / cross-table
- 34. Biostatistics Measures of Location • Measures of central tendency: • Mean • Median • Mode • Percentile
- 35. Biostatistics Measures of Dispersion (Scatter/spread) • Absolute measures of dispersion • Range • Mean deviation(MD) Variance • Standard deviation (SD) • Relative The measures of dispersion e.g. coefficient of variation (CV)
- 36. Biostatistics Probability Distribution It is the pattern of distribution of a variable in a population • Types of probability distribution: Continuous probability distribution: it is concerned with continuous variables. • Normal distribution • t-distribution • Log normal distribution etc. Discrete probability distribution: it is concerned with discrete variables • Binomial distribution • Poisson distribution
- 37. Normal Distribution I. The mean, median and mode are exactly the same. II. The distribution is symmetric III. The distribution can be described by the mean and the standard deviation. IV. Increasing the mean moves the curve right, while decreasing it moves the curve left. V. A small standard deviation results in a narrow curve, while a large standard
- 38. Normal Distribution Application (importance) of the normal distribution: 1. Hypothesis testing 2. Estimation of the unknown population parameter 3. The setting of the normal range (e.g. m±2SD)
- 39. Biostatistics Estimation • It is the process by which sample statistics is used to estimate the corresponding population parameter within a range of values. For estimation of any population parameter two types of estimates need to be computed. • Point estimate • Interval estimate: also called confidence interval(CI).Upper and lower endpoints of CI which serve as bounding values are known as confidence limit (CL).
- 40. Biostatistics Hypothesis tests (Significance tests) • These are statistical tests used to determine whether the null hypothesis will be rejected in favor of an alternative hypothesis or the null hypothesis will be accepted. • Types of significance test (statistical test): • Parametric test: e.g. t-test, F-test (ANOVA), Z-test, Correlation coefficient test etc. • Non-parametric test: e.g. chi-square test, Fisher exact test, proportion test, Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon test, Spearman rank correlation test etc • One Tailed Test • Two Tailed Test
- 41. Biostatistics P-Value • P-value is the quantitative estimate of this probability by chance, and it ranges from 0 to1.
- 42. Biostatistics Level of significance • It is the point of demarcation between by chance and not by chance for observation to occur. • It is customarily expressed as percentage e.g. 5% (0.05) level, 4% (0.04) level etc.
- 43. Biostatistics Statistical significance • Significant means, the event is unlikely to occur due to by chance (sampling error) without any cause rather it is due to some obvious extraneous causes. • Not significant means, the event is likely to occur due to chance (sampling error) without any cause.
- 44. Biostatistics Correlation • Correlation is the relationship or association between two variables. 1. Linear relation (Pearson Correlation Coefficient formula) • Positively correlated two variables changes in the same direction. e.g. temperature & pulse rate. r = +1 • Negatively correlated two variables changes in the opposite direction. e.g. Insuline & Blood sugar Level. r = -1 • r =0, there is no relation 2. Non-linear relation( Nonparametric test) eg; Age and Death Rate
- 45. Biostatistics Regression Analysis • The regression analysis is a technique of studying the dependence of one variable (called dependent variable), on one or more variables (called Independent variable) • Linear Regression equation: y = a +bx, where x is the independent variable and y is the dependent variable. ‘b’ is called the regression coefficient and measures the amount of change in y for unit change in x. ‘a’ is a constant.
- 46. Biostatistics Odds Ratio (OR) • The OR represents the odds that an outcome will occur given a particular exposure, compared to the odds of the outcome occurring in the absence of that exposure Relative risk/Risk ratio (RR) • A risk ratio (RR), also called relative risk, compares the risk of a health event (disease, injury, risk factor, or death) among one group with the risk among another group Absolute risk • This absolute measure of effect represents the difference between the risks in two groups; usually between an exposed and an unexposed group.
- 47. Odds Ratio Calculating Odds Ratios: Exposure Disease disease Present Absent Total Present a b a+b Absent c d c+d Total a+c b+d a+b+c+d Where, a = Number of exposed cases,b = Number of exposed non-cases c = Number of unexposed cases,d = Number of unexposed non-cases OR=(Odds of outcome in exposed)/(Odds of outcome in unexposed)=(a⁄b)/(c/d) =ad/bc •OR=1 Exposure does not affect odds of outcome •OR>1 Exposure associated with higher odds of outcome •OR<1 Exposure associated with lower odds of outcome
- 48. Relative Risk Calculation of RR- Disease Total Exposure Present Absent • Present a b a+b • Absent c d c+d • Total a+c b+d a+b+c+d • RR =Risk of the disease with exposure/risk of the disease without exposure • RR= (a/a+b)/(c/c+d) •RR=1, No association between Disease (D) & Exposure (E) •RR>1, D is more likely in E (E as risk factor) •RR<1, D is less likely in E (E as a protective factor)
- 49. Biostatistics Sensitivity: • Sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly classify an individual as `having the disease’. Specificity • The ability of a test to correctly classify an individual as ‘disease- free’ is called specificity.
- 50. Biostatistics Positive predictive value (PPV): • It is the percentage of patients with a positive test who actually have the disease. Negative predictive value (NPV): • It is the percentage of patients with a negative test who do not have the disease.
- 51. Referencing Acknowledgement of the sources .Extensive referencing indicates wide research, a correct approach and the use of these sources as evidence to back up the researcher’s argument. • Vancouver- Numerical i.e. 1, 2,3 consecutively in superscript and should appear in the reference section in same chronology. • Harvard- In the text cites author and year and, in the reference, section appear alphabetically A, B, C ----
- 52. Referencing To cite an article • Vidal MD, Weisser JR, Gonjalez S, Toro MA. Incidence and clinical effects of intra abdominal hypertension in critically ill patient. Crit care Med 2008; 36: 1823-31 To cite Chapter in a Book • Connel PRO. The Vermiform Appendix. In: Williams NS. Short Practice of Surgery. 26th Ed. Taylor & Francis. Tokyo. 2013. 1199-1214 For Citation from Internet • Competency-based Medical education. http://www.google.com/med edu.[Accessed on March 15, 2011].
- 53. Research Ethics • Research ethics refers to the principles, guidelines, and standards that govern the conduct of research involving human participants or animals.
- 54. Research Ethics Autonomy Beneficence Non-maleficence Justice
- 55. Research Ethics • Good Clinical Practice (GCP) It is an international ethical and scientific standard for the design, conduct, performance, monitoring, auditing, recording, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials. • Institutional Review Board (IRB) The purpose is to safeguard the rights, safety, and well-being of
- 56. Research Ethics To approve a research protocol, the IRB must ensure that Risks to participants are minimized. Risks to participants are reasonable with anticipated benefits. The selection of participants is equitable. Informed consent is properly obtained and documented. safety of participants. Confidentiality of data.
- 57. BCPS Recommendation for Writing Thesis • The Thesis is the original work of the trainee and should reflect their subject understanding and research abilities . Selection of Guide and Co-Guide Choosing the topic Preparing Research protocol Acceptance of protocol by BCPS To research under the guidance of the guide Write thesis in a good standard of clear English using appropriate academic terms . Defend the Thesis
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- 73. Conclusion • Exploration of research methodology is not an endpoint but rather a stepping stone to further inquiry and lifelong learning. It is a journey that extends far beyond this presentation. "Nurturing the Seeds of Knowledge."
- 74. THANK YOU
- 75. QUESTION?

- Exploration: Research aims to explore and investigate new areas, phenomena, or topics in order to gain a deeper understanding or uncover new knowledge. It involves examining existing information and gaps in knowledge to identify areas that require further investigation. Description: Research aims to provide a detailed and accurate description of a particular subject, event, or phenomenon. It involves gathering data and information to create a comprehensive picture or account of the topic under study. Explanation: Research aims to explain the causes, mechanisms, relationships, or patterns behind a specific phenomenon or occurrence. It seeks to understand why certain events or behaviors happen and to uncover the underlying factors or processes involved. Prediction: Research aims to develop models or theories that can predict future outcomes or trends based on existing data and knowledge. It involves analyzing patterns and trends to make informed projections or forecasts. Improvement: Research aims to contribute to practical applications and improvements in various fields. It seeks to find solutions, develop interventions, or suggest recommendations that can enhance processes, technologies, policies, or practices. Validation: Research aims to validate or test existing theories, concepts, or hypotheses through empirical evidence. It involves conducting experiments, gathering data, and analyzing results to confirm or refute existing ideas or theories.
- Applied and Fundamental Applied research is done to find a solution for an immediate problem faced by a society or an industrial/business/service organization. The results are immediately utilizable. Fundamental research (or, Basic or Pure research) is concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. Conceptual and Empirical The main difference between conceptual and empirical research is that conceptual research involves abstract ideas and concepts, whereas empirical research involves research based on observation, experiments and verifiable evidence. Descriptive and Analytical Descriptive research describes phenomena as they exist. It is used to identify and obtain information on the characteristics of a particular is Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding Enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is a description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. Analytical research aims to understand phenomena by discovering and measuring causal relations among them. The researcher must use facts or information that are already available and analyze those to make a critical evaluation of the material. This research finds the cause& effect relationship. Qualitative and Quantitative Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. Quantitative research is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data. It can be used to find patterns and averages, make predictions, test causal relationships, and generalize results to wider populations. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with the qualitative phenomenon, i.e., phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. Qualitative research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires of human behavior, using in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and other techniques.
- 1. Autonomy: It refers to the obligation on the part of the investigator to respect each participant as a person capable of making informed decision 2. Beneficence: Beneficence refers to that the participants are treated ethically not only by respecting their decisions but also by protecting them from harm and making efforts to secure their well-being. The general rules Do no harm 3. Non-maleficence (Maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms) 4. Justice: Justice connotes fairness and equity and concerns the distribution of benefits and burdens of research. Injustice may arise when selecting participants only from a specific socio-economic class, age, sex, racial, cultural, and institutional setup.