Passive voice, Relative Clauses, Causative, and Subordinating Conjungtion.
Review Grammar 3
VOICEIn the passive voice, the subject is the receiver of the action of the verb. In other words,
it focuses on the receiver of the action more than actor.
Passive voice is only for transitive verbs
Either an indirect object or a direct object may become the
The teacher was fired for his political activism ( the actor is unknown)
A handphone was buy in kalimantan ( emphasizes what was buy, the end result)
Be + Past Participle
Be + is, am, are ( present) + was,were (past) + be
(modal/future) + Being (progressive).
Stative passive is the passive form that is used to describe an exsiting
situation or state, functions as an adjective.
The door is old, The door is Green, The door is Locked ( It is describe the door)
It gives the idea of becoming, beginning to be, growing to be. The function is less formal,
common in spoken.
Eg. I am getting hungry, let’s have lunch
I got worried because of these problems.
form : Used to + Infinitive ( repeated action in the past, past situation that no longer
I used to live in kuala kapuas, now I live in Banjarmasin
• Be used to : to say that a situation is not ( no longer) new/strange
• Get used to : to say an action/ situation becomes less strange/new, becomes more
Passive with get
Used to, Be used to, get used to
Suppose vs Supposed
Meaning : meant to/ intended to (espectation)
Eg. The class is supposed to begin at 8.30
Be Supposed to +
Infinitive ( Verb 1)
I suppose I should go
Suppose as a verb meaning : think, assume ( a belief that lacks certainty )
I am Supposed to go
Supposed as an adjective meaning : Required, Obliged, similar to modal
The ing form a verb used a noun. The positions can be as a subject,
an object of prepositions and a complement. Ing – form have
different functions as a verb, an adjective and a noun. BE CAREFUL
For examples :
Walking is a good exercise gerund as a subject
We enjoy playing badminton as and object with common verbs
I am interested in learning languages as the object of preposition
( Including used to, accustomed to, forward to, object to)
Gerund and Infintive
Special expression followed by – ing
Go + Gerund
I went shopping in Ramayana
I always go hunting in siring every weekend
Eka usually goes swimming on Saturday
To live ina big city requires a lot of patience – as a subject
Anne wanted to stay at the beach – as direct object with
It is impossible to get a cheap apartment in a large city ( it
+ be + adjective)
It is a good idea to save money for the future ( it + be +
It takes a lot of energy to find the perfect job ( it + takes +
I am happy to hear that ( after certain adjectives)
I came here ( in order ) to study english ( infinitives of
You should be careful not to strain your eyes in front of
the computer ( negative form)
I read what she wrote
What she wrote is interesting
I do not know if you have studied a noun clause before
I wonder wether or not Marry went to work yesterday / or not
I need to explain what a noun clause is
Tell me how old she is
That mary studied very hard was obviousto John
That he is still alive is a miracle
It is a miracle that he is stil alive
For example :
• My mother told me where to go
• My mother told me where I should go
• Please tell me how to operate this machine
• Please tell me how I could operate this machine
Noun clauses as a object
I heard what he said
I listened to what she said
followed by infinitive
Dependent clauses that must be joined to independent clauses
Describe nouns and pronouns
Often placed in a sentence right after the noun they describe
Add details to sentences by functionig as adjectives
Adjective clauses begin with one of the relative pronouns :
RELATIVE PRONOUNS EXPLANATION EXAMPLE
WHO refers to people, as subject
in the clauses
The lady who teaches in
political science department is
WHOM refers to people, used as
object of prepositions and of
She is the woman about
whom I told you
WHICH / THAT refers about things and
animals. Which more formal
The watch that I bought was
WHOSE refers to
The father whose child is
missing is very sad
WHEN ( on which)
Refers to a time, cannot be
a subject but omitted
I will never forget the day
when I graduated
WHERE ( in which)
Refers to a place, cannot be
subject, can be omitted and
usually must be add
The house where he stays
WHY Refers to reason, can be
I do not know why he
An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that often
modifies, or describes, the verb in the main clause of a
For example :
After she bought safe equipment, Leigh explored the wreek of the Britannic.
In this sentences, the adverb clauses after she bought safe
equipment modifies the verb explored. The adverb clause tells when Leigh
explored the wreck of the Britannic.
Scuba divers wear tanks because they cannot breathe underwater.
modifies the verb wear
At first, communicating with my new friend was difficult because I did not
know how to sign ( it can also modifies adjective)
Zoe can explain the theory of relativity to you better than I can.
( It modifies verb)
How When Where Why Under what
Since After While Because Unless
If Before Where Although Even if
In order that Until wherever So that Even though
though Provided that
As Once Than
As if while That
My sister went to bed because she was sleepy – showing cause and
Now that I am married women, I have more responsibilities – because
Since Thursday is a holiday, we do not have to go campus – because it is
a fact that
Even though I am tired, I try to finish this task on time – ex. Unexpected
Whereas Olla is slim, her sister is fat – show direct contrast
My sister is free, while I am so busy – show direct contrast
While she was sleepig her child left the house – during the time that
Even if he does not join us , we are going to have a vacation
My son will get hungry if he does not have breakfast – showing
The causative is a common structure in English.
It is used when one thing or person causes another thing or
person to do something.
It shows that somebody or something is indirectly
responsible for an action. The subject doesn't perform the
action itself, but causes someone or something else to do
it instead. Pinker, (1988)
There are two basic causative structures. One is like an active,
and the other is like a passive. These examples use the
causative verb "have“.
They arranged for the handphone to be fixed by your brother
You caused him to fix it.
• You arranged for the handphone to be fixed by someone.
• We don't know who, so this is like a passive
You have your brother fix the handphone
You have the handphone fixed
Example : susan has her her brother do homework
we have the carpenter fix our window
In the passive form, there is usually no agent. The action verb is in the
past participle, and the object comes before it
Example : we have our door fixed
rose has her hair cut
khalipah has the window cleaned
This is the basic structure of the active form, along with some
The Active Caustive
Have someone do something
Have something done
There many other verbs that can be used with causatives. In the active form,
some of these verbs require the action verb to have "to" before it. These are some
examples of the most common causative verbs.
Action Verb Examples
- The robbers made us lie on the
[No passive form]
- I got Jane to pick me up in the
- She got her hair cut.
let Allow - permit plain form
- I'll let you borrow my bike.
- My dad used to give me
permission to stay up until 10 PM
[No passive form]
Common causative verbs
• allow, permit, require, force, urge, motivate, encourage, get, convince,
persuade, hire, employ, want
• make, have, let
•The lawyer convinced the judge to reduce the fine.
•The teacher encouraged his students to apply for the scholarships.
•The boss required new employees to attend training sessions twice a
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