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Iaetsd the universal brain for all robots

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Iaetsd the universal brain for all robots

  1. 1. The Universal Brain For All Robots N.Abirami1 , V.Goutham2 1 Assistant Professor, Computer Science & Engineering, Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology, Chennai. abi.profession@gmail.com 2 Student, B.E.(CSE) V-Semester, Computer Science & Engineering, Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology, Chennai. gouthamvenkatesh95@gmail.com Abstract— The Raspberry Pi (RasPi) is an ultra-low-cost, single- board, credit-card sized Linux computer which was conceived with the primary goal of teaching computer programming to children. It was developed by the Raspberry Pi Foundation, which is a UK registered charity. The foundation exists to promote the study of computer science and related topics, especially at school level, and to put the fun back into learning computing. The device is expected to have many other applications both in the developed and the developing world. Raspberry-Pi is manufactured and sold in partnership with the world-wide industrial distributors Premier Farnell/Element 14 and RS Components Company. The Raspberry Pi has a Broadcom BCM2835 system on chip which includes an ARM1176JZF- S 700 MHz processor, Video Core IV GPU, and 256 megabytes of RAM. It does not include a built-in hard disk or solid-state drive, but uses an SD card for booting and long- term storage. The Foundation provides Debian and Arch Linux ARM distributions for download. Also planned are tools for supporting Python as the main programming language, with support for BBC BASIC, C and Perl. The gadget looks rather odd next to sleek modern offerings such as the iPad, and appears to have more in common with the crystal radio sets of the 1950s. However, the machine is a fully- fledged computer and can be connected to a monitor, keyboard and mouse, as well as speakers and printers. Fig 1: Raspberry Pi Module I. INTRODUCTION Rob Dudley of The Raspberry Pi Foundation designed this little board here, the Raspberry Pi, to address a lost generation of computer programmers and hardware engineers. So, this little board here is low cost, it's easily accessible, it's very simple to use. When you power it up you get a nice little desktop environment, it includes all of the things that you need to do to get started to learn programming. There's lots of information out there on the internet that you can take away and start programming code in to make things happen. The great thing about these boards as well is in addition to software, you can play with hardware. So these little general purpose pins here allow access to the processor and you can hang off little hardware projects that you build and you can control via the code you are writing through the software application. So, this is a great tool for kids to learn how computers work at a grassroots level. II.WHAT IS A RASPBERRY PI? The Raspberry Pi is a credit-card sized computer that plugs into TV and a keyboard. It is a capable little PC which can be used for many of the things that your desktop PC does, like spreadsheets, word- processing and games. It also plays high-definition video. A Raspberry -Pi leads a power supply or SD cards that are not included but can be purchased later. One can buy preloaded SD cards too. The Raspberry Pi measures 85.60mm x 53.98mm x 17mm, with a little overlap for the SD card and connectors which project over the edges. It weighs around 45g. Overall real world performance is something like a 300MHz Pentium 2. Raspberry-Pi cannot boot without an SD card.The Raspberry Pi uses Linux kernel-based operating systems. Raspbian, a Debian-based free operating system optimized for the Raspberry Pi hardware, is the current recommended system.The GPU hardware is Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology www.iaetsd.in ISBN : 978 - 1505606395 International Association of Engineering and Technology for Skill Development 90
  2. 2. accessed via firmware image which is loaded into the GPU at boot time from the SD-card. The firmware image is known as the binary blob, while the associated Linux drivers are closed source. Application software use calls to closed source run- time libraries which in turn calls an open source driver inside the Linux kernel. The API of the kernel driver is specific for these closed libraries. Video applications use Open MAX.There are a number of operating systems running, ported or in the process of being ported to Raspberry-Pi. Like, AROS, Android 4.0, Arch Linux ARM, Debian Squeeze, Firefox OS etc. Fig 2: Raspberry Pi Board III.WHAT’S THE FILLING OF A RASPBERRY PI? Initial sales were of the Model B, with Model A following in early 2013. Model A has one USB port and no Ethernet controller, and costs less than the Model B with two USB ports and a 10/100 Ethernet controller or the B+ with four USB ports. Though the Model A does not have an 8P8C (RJ45) Ethernet port, it can connect to a network by using an external user-supplied USB Ethernet or Wi-Fi adapter. On the model B the Ethernet port is provided by a built-in USB Ethernet adapter. As is typical of modern computers, generic USB keyboards and mice are compatible with the Raspberry Pi. The Raspberry Pi does not come with a real- time clock, so an OS must use a network time server, or ask the user for time information at boot time to get access to time and date for file time and date stamping. However, a real-time clock (such as the DS1307) with battery backup can be added via the IC interface. Hardware accelerated video (H.264) encoding became available on 24 August 2012 when it became known that the existing license also covered encoding. Previously it was thought that encoding would be added with the release of the announced camera module. However, no stable software support exists for hardware H.264 encoding .The New Raspberry Pi model B's would be fitted with 512 MB instead of 256 MB RAM. Fig 3: Internals of Raspberry Pi POWER-5v micro USB connector There has been a lot of speculation about the power supply design for the production Raspberry Pi devices. The alpha boards use a pair of switch- mode power supplies to generate 5V and 3V3 rails from a 6-20V input on a coaxial jack, and LDOs to generate the low-current 2V5 and 1V8 rails for the analog TV DAC and various I/O functions. Fig 4: Power AUDIO/VIDEO 1) RCA An RCA connector, sometimes called a phono connector or cinch connector, is a type of electrical connector commonly used to carry audio and video signals. The connectors are also sometimes casually referred to as A/V jacks. The name "RCA" derives from the Radio Corporation of America, which introduced the design by the early 1940s for internal connection of the pickup to the chassis in home radio-phonograph consoles. It was originally a low-cost, simple design, intended only for mating and disconnection when servicing the Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology www.iaetsd.in ISBN : 978 - 1505606395 International Association of Engineering and Technology for Skill Development 91
  3. 3. console. Refinement came with later designs, although they remained compatible. 2) HDMI HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a compact audio/video interface for transferring uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, ordigital audio device. HDMI is a digital replacement for existing analog video standards. 3) 3.5 mm Personal computer sound cards use a 3.5 mm phone connector as a mono microphone input, and deliver a 5 V polarizing voltage on the ring to power electret microphones. Compatibility between different manufacturers is unreliable. Fig 5: Audio/Video CONNECTIVITY 1) USB Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard developed in the mid-1990s that defines the cables, connectors and communications protocols used in a bus for connection, communication, and power supply between computers and electronic devices.USB was designed to standardize the connection of computer peripherals (including keyboards, pointing devices, digital cameras, printers, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters) to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power. 2) ETHERNET In computer networking, Fast Ethernet is a collective term for a number of Ethernet standards that carry traffic at the nominal rate of 100 Mbit/s, against the original Ethernet speed of 10 Mbit/s. Of the Fast Ethernet standards 100BASE-TX is by far the most common and is supported by the vast majority of Ethernet hardware currently produced. Fast Ethernet was introduced in 1995 and remained the fastest version of Ethernet for three years before being superseded by gigabit Ethernet. 3) GPIO General-purpose input/output ( GPIO) is a generic pin on an integrated circuit whose behavior, including whether it is an input or output pin, can be controlled by the user at run time.GPIO pins have no special purpose defined, and go unused by default. The idea is that sometimes the system integrator building a full system that uses the chip might find it useful to have a handful of additional digital control lines, and having these available from the chip can save the hassle of having to arrange additional circuitry to provide them. Fig 6: Connectivity INTERNALS 1) SOC A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit(IC) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions—all on a single chip substrate. The contrast with a microcontroller is one of degree. Microcontrollers typically have under 100 kB of RAM (often just a few kilobytes) and often really Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology www.iaetsd.in ISBN : 978 - 1505606395 International Association of Engineering and Technology for Skill Development 92
  4. 4. are single-chip-systems, whereas the term SoC is typically used for more powerful processors, capable of running software such as the desktop versions of Windows and Linux, which need external memory chips (flash, RAM) to be useful, and which are used with various external peripherals. 2) LAN A wireless LAN controller is used in combination with the Lightweight Access Point Protocol (LWAPP) to manage light-weight access points in large quantities by the network administrator or network operations center. The wireless LAN controller is part of the Data Plane within the Cisco Wireless Model. The WLAN controller automatically handles the configuration of wireless access-points. 3) JTAG The JTAG headers on the Raspberry Pi are located near the audio jack. They are labeled P2 and P3. JTAG stands for Joint Test Action Group. Headers or pins with the JTAG label are mainly used for debugging during the development of embedded software and hardware.JTAG header P2 is connected to the Broadcom BCM2835. As you may suspect from what I said about the DSI, It is all closed source and there is virtually no way to use this header. It is not a JTAG interface for the ARM CPU like so many people always assume.JTAG header P3 is connected to the LAN9512 LAN and USB Hub chip. It is only on the model B Pi since the model A does not use the LAN9512. The LAN9512 is a USB 2.0 bus and 10/100 ethernet controller. 4) CSI The CAMIF, also the Camera Interface block is the hardware block that interfaces with different image sensor interfaces and provides a standard output that can be used for subsequent image processing.A typical Camera Interface would support at least a parallel interface although these days many camera interfaces are beginning to support the MIPI CSI interface.The Raspberry Pi Foundation has released their Pi compatible camera module that connects to the CSI. It is a 5 megapixel camera with a fixed focused lens. 5) DSI The display serial interface, or DSI as I will refer to it from now on, is a high speed serial connector located between the power connector and the GPIO header on the Raspberry Pi. The purpose of the DSI connector is to give the end user a quick and easy way to connect an LCD panel to the Pi. In this case the chip being interfaced with is the Broadcom BCM2835, which is at the heart of the Raspberry Pi. Fig 7: Internals STORAGE Secure Digital (SD) is a non-volatile memory card format for use in portable devices, such as mobile phones, digital cameras. Fig 8: Storage A CONFESSION IV. USES OF RASPBERRY PI 1. LIBRE OFFICE Libre Office is a free and open source office suite, developed by The Document Foundation. It was forked from OpenOffice.org in 2010, which was an open-sourced version of the earlier StarOffice. The LibreOffice suite comprises programs to do word processing, spreadsheets, slideshows, diagrams and drawings, maintain databases, and compose math formulae. Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology www.iaetsd.in ISBN : 978 - 1505606395 International Association of Engineering and Technology for Skill Development 93
  5. 5. LibreOffice uses the international ISO/IEC standard OpenDocument file format as its native format to save documents for all of its applications (as do its OpenOffice.org cousins Apache OpenOffice and NeoOffice). Fig 9: LibreOffice 2. PROGRAMMING Python is a widely used general-purpose, high-level programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability, and its syntax allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than would be possible in languages such as C. The language provides constructs intended to enable clear programs on both a small and large scale. Python supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative and functional programming or procedural styles. It features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management and has a large and comprehensive standard library. SCRATCH Scratch is a multimedia authoring tool that can be used by students, scholars, teachers, and parents for a range of educational and entertainment constructivist purposes from math and science projects, including simulations and visualizations of experiments, recording lectures with animated presentations, to social sciences animated stories, and interactive art and music. Simple games may be made with it, as well. Viewing the existing projects available on the Scratch website, or modifying and testing any modification without saving it requires no online registration. Fig 10: Python 3. GAME CONSOLE A video game console is a device that outputs a video signal to display a video game. The term "video game console" is used to distinguish a machine designed for consumers to use for playing video games on a separate television in contrast to arcade machines, handheld game consoles, or home computers. Fig 11: Game console 4. MINE CRAFT Mine craft is a sandbox indie game originally created by Swedish programmer Markus "Notch" Persson and later developed and published by Mojang. It was publicly released for the PC on May 17, 2009, as a developmental alpha version and, after gradual updates, was published as a full release version on November 18, 2011. A version for Android was released a month earlier on October 7, and an iOS version was released on November 17, 2011. On May 9, 2012, the game was released on Xbox 360 as an Xbox Live Arcade game, as well as on the PlayStation 3 on December 17, 2013. Both console editions are being co- developed by 4J Studios. All versions of Minecraft receive periodic updates. Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology www.iaetsd.in ISBN : 978 - 1505606395 International Association of Engineering and Technology for Skill Development 94
  6. 6. Fig 12: Mine craft 5. TOR ROUTER Tor (previously an acronym for The Onion Router) is free software for enabling online anonymity and resisting censorship The term "onion routing" refers to application layers of encryption, nested like the layers of an onion, used to anonymize communication The NSA (National Security Agency) has a technique that targets outdated Firefox browsers codenamed EgotisticalGiraffe,and targets Tor users in general for close monitoring under its XKeyscore program. Fig 13: Tor Router 6. HTPC A home theatre PC (HTPC) or media center computer is a convergence device that combines some or all the capabilities of a personal computer with a software application that supports video, photo, audio playback, and sometimes video recording functionality. An HTPC system typically has a remote control and the software interface normally has a 10-foot user interface design so that it can be comfortably viewed at typical television viewing distances. An HTPC can be purchased pre- configured with the required hardware and software needed to add video programming or music to the PC. Enthusiasts can also piece together a system out of discrete components as part of a software-based HTPC. Fig 14: HTPC 7. BARTENDER A robotic drink-dispensing rig is aiming to steal your customers while pouring cocktail creations at the push of a touchscreen button. Its creators call it Bartendro. Operated through an iPad interface, the open source, synthetic Al Swearengen holds up to 15 bottles of beverage plumbed into custom-designed, Raspberry Pi-controlled pumps. It’s capable of mixing dozens of drinks, including black Russians, Kahlua mudslides, or almost any other classy beverage of your choosing. A tiny Raspberry Pi serves as the brain, operating up to 15 dispensers, which essentially suck booze out of whatever bottles you’ve got handy, then mix it to your specifications. Fig 15: Bartender Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology www.iaetsd.in ISBN : 978 - 1505606395 International Association of Engineering and Technology for Skill Development 95
  7. 7. 8. CAMERA The Raspberry Pi camera module can be used to take high-definition video, as well as stills photographs. It’s easy to use for beginners, but has plenty to offer advanced users if you’re looking to expand your knowledge. There are lots of examples online of people using it for time-lapse, slow- motion and other video cleverness. You can also use the libraries we bundle with the camera to create effects.The camera module is very popular in home security applications, and in wildlife camera traps.You can also use it to take snapshots. Fig 16: Camera 9. CLOCK This simple project was to replace a radio clock working from MSF with a clock based on NTP. It just so happened that an older 10.2-inch LCD TV became free, and I wanted to have a go at programming the Raspberry Pi and learn just a little (not too much) more about Linux. The project involved setting up the Raspberry Pi to display correctly on the TV (I converted a Windows Test card program to run on Linux to check the display size), using the Free Pascal and Lazarus IDE to compile a suitable wall- clock program, learning how to auto-login on the Raspberry Pi, and how to start a program automatically on the desktop (i.e. using the GUI). Fig 17:Clock 10. PIBOLT One of the coolest little developer boards out there is the Raspberry Pi. That board can be used for any project needing electronics for control that you can dream up. A new robotics kit made for use with the Raspberry Pi is getting ready to hit Kickstarter. That robotics kit is called the PiBot. PiBot will have a range of features that electronics fans will appreciate including voice recognition, face recognition, and live HD streaming from the PiBot camera. The robot will be controllable from a smartphone and tablet. PiBot will also be able to follow lines, measure distance, and use GPS. The company behind the PiBot also plans to have workshops that will allow people to come in and play with the robotics kit. There are a few things we don't know at this time such as when the PiBot will hit market and how much it will cost. Fig 18: PiBot V.ADVANTAGES OF THE PI 1. Power consumption - The Pi draws about five to seven watts of electricity. This is about one tenth of what a comparable full-size box can use. Since servers are running constantly night and day, the electrical savings can really add up. 2. No moving parts - The Pi uses an SD card for storage, which is fast and has no moving parts. There are also no fans and other things to worry about. 3. Small form factor - The Pi (with a case) can be held in your hand. A comparable full-size box cannot. This means the Pi can be integrated inside of devices, too. Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology www.iaetsd.in ISBN : 978 - 1505606395 International Association of Engineering and Technology for Skill Development 96
  8. 8. 4. No noise - The Pi is completely silent. 5. Status lights - There are several status lights on the Pi's motherboard. With a clear case you can see NIC activity, disk I/O, power status, etc. 6. Expansion capabilities - There are numerous devices available for the Pi, all at very affordable prices. Everything from an I/O board (GPIO) to a camera. The Pi has two USB ports; however by hooking up a powered USB hub, more devices can be added. 7. Built-in HDMI capable graphics - The display port on the Pi is HDMI and can handle resolutions up to 1920×1200, which is nice for making the Pi in to a video player box for example. There are some converters that can convert to VGA for backwards compatibility 8. Affordable - compared to other similar alternatives, the Pi (revision B) offers the best specs for the price, at least that I've found. It is one of the few devices in its class that offers 512 MB of RAM. 9. Huge community support - The Pi has phenomenal community support. Support can be obtained quite easily for the hardware and/or GNU/Linux software that runs on the Pi mainly in user forums, depending on the GNU/Linux distribution used. 10. Over clocking capability - The Pi can be overclocked if there are performance problems with the application used, but it is at the user's risk to do this. VI. DRAWBACKS OF THE PI With all of the positive things about the Pi, there are a couple of items that I feel are very minor drawbacks: 1. ARM architecture - While ARM is a highly efficient and low powered architecture, it is not x86 and therefore any binaries that are compiled to run on x86 cannot run on the Pi. The good news is that entire GNU/Linux distributions have been compiled for the ARM architecture and new ones are appearing all of the time. 2. RAM not upgradable - The main components of the Pi is soldered to the motherboard, including the RAM which is 512 MB. This is not a problem though as GNU/Linux can easily run on this. I've found the Pi uses about 100 MB of RAM while running as a small server (this is without running X11). VII. CONCLUSION Today virtualisation is very popular so some may say that the cost of spinning up a virtual machine is less than running a Raspberry Pi. But, calculate the power consumption for your hypervisor, and weigh out the differences to see which method in fact costs less overall. Sometimes, a physical box or physical segmentation is needed, or avoiding high costs of running a full hypervisor is a factor, and this is where the Pi can step in. REFERENCES [1] Md. Kawser Jahan Raihan, Mohammad Saifur Rahaman, Mohammad Kaium Sarkar & Sekh “Raspberry Pi Image Processing Based Economical Automated Toll System”, Global Journals Inc. (USA), Volume 13 Issue 13 Version 1.0 - 2013 [2]Online-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raspberry_Pi [3]Schneider Electric.( 132 Fairgrounds Road, West Kingston, RI 02892 USA). [4] Online -Preferred links from www.google.com [5] Raspbian Technology Services [6] Online -raspberrypibooks.net/ [7] Online -raspberrypi.org [8] Raspberry Pi User Guide (2nd Edition) [9] Online - http://www.uncrd.or.jp/env/3rd- regional-est-forum/doc/13_Bangladesh.pdf [10] Raspberry Pi Manual: A practical guide to the revolutionary small computer [11] Raspberry Pi Projects Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology www.iaetsd.in ISBN : 978 - 1505606395 International Association of Engineering and Technology for Skill Development 97

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