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Private sector participation in animal health services: Requirements and expectations

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Presented by Indraph M. Ragwa, C.E.O., Kenya Veterinary Board at the Workshop on Enhancing Private Sector Participation in Animal Health Services, ILRI, Nairobi, 7 November 2019

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Private sector participation in animal health services: Requirements and expectations

  1. 1. Private sector participation in animal health services: Requirements and expectations Indraph M. Ragwa, C.E.O., Kenya Veterinary Board Enhancing Private Sector Participation in Animal Health Services, ILRI- Nairobi, 7 November 2019
  2. 2. Introduction  Veterinary profession in Kenya started in the 1890s after the establishment of the Department of Veterinary Services to cater for white settlers during the colonial era.  Prior to Kenya’s independence from the British Government, Veterinary Services were mainly provided by the private sector.  To regulate the profession, Kenya Veterinary Board was established on 13th October 1953.
  3. 3. Introduction (cont.)  After Kenya gained independence in 1963, veterinary services became a public good where the services were now provided by the Government.  This continued until the advent of the structural adjustment programs in the late 1980s.  The upshot being privatization of clinical services, tick control, artificial insemination and freeze on the employment of animal health service providers by the government.
  4. 4. Introduction (cont.)  Privatization was misconstrued to mean that every Tom, Dick and Harry could now provide veterinary services.  That period saw the emergence of unqualified personnel who provided sub-standard services to farmers and pastoralists.  The end result being loss of animals of high value, exposing the public to drugs and chemical residues thus contributing to antimicrobial resistance.  This also affected access of livestock and livestock products to international markets.
  5. 5. Government Regulatory Measures  Attempts were then made by the Directorate of Veterinary Services to contain the situation where a circular was issued prescribing that for one to offer veterinary services, especially in agrovets, the minimum qualification should be a two-year training in Animal Health from AHITI.  In 2008 through session paper no 2 (National Livestock Policy), the government resolved to separate management of veterinary medicines from that of human medicines.  The provision of Animal Health services was transformed in 2011 through enactment of the Veterinary Surgeons Veterinary Paraprofessional Act which clearly stated that these services can only be provided by competent and registered personnel.
  6. 6. Government Regulatory Measures (cont.)  The preamble for this act reads: “An act of Parliament to make provision for training, registration and licencing of veterinary surgeons and veterinary paraprofessionals; to provide for matters relating to animal health services and welfare and for connected purposes”.  The Act and its attendant regulations provides a comprehensive framework to regulate the provision of animal health services.  Besides incorporating the veterinary paraprofessionals in the regulation bracket, it also introduced other measures including an inspectorate unit to ascertain compliance with the standards in various practices, introduction of veterinary internship program before registration, introduction of continuous professional development programs for practitioners.
  7. 7. Provisions of the Act  Pursuant to Section 13 (I) of this Act, “No person shall practice or hold himself out, whether directly or indirectly, as practicing or being able to practice as a veterinary surgeon or a veterinary paraprofessional or take up employment as such unless he is registered and licenced under the Act”, 13 (2), “No organization or institution shall offer animal health services unless it is registered and issued with a licence by the Board and has a registered veterinary surgeon in its employment in charge of the Animal Health and Welfare services”.
  8. 8. Requirements for Registration  Before registration applicants have to meet several requirements which include, interalia, animal health training from institutions recognized by the Board and undergoing a one-year veterinary internship program.  The requirements are by the dint of Sections 15, 16 and 17 of the VSVP Act, while after retention, one is supposed to be retained annually in the register by dint of Section 21 (1).  In addition to being registered under the Act, private practitioners are required to take an annual licence by the dint of Section 26 of the Act.  Over and above all they require to abide by the code of ethics for veterinary surgeons and veterinary paraprofessionals all the time.
  9. 9. Definition of Veterinary Practice For greater certainty and pursuant to Section 14 of the Act, veterinary practice includes:  Prevention of an infectious or organic disease or pathological condition  Performance of surgical operations on an animal  Dispensing or administration of veterinary medicines on an animal  Giving of any treatment, advice, training, research, consultant services, diagnosis or attendance and other related veterinary services  Inspection of foods of animal origin for purposes of food safety  Provision of animal welfare services
  10. 10. Veterinary Practice Facilities Some of the veterinary practice facilities include:  Veterinary clinics and hospitals  Veterinary laboratories  Agrovets  Ambulatory services