O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.
Wild Bananas,Domestication, Extinctionand Breeding Possibilities             Ivan Buddenhagen                  11/2005    ...
4/14/2011   2
4/14/2011   3
WILD BANANAS- ANCIENT GROUP- MANY SPECIES, SUBSPECIES- NOW RARE, ISOLATED- EXTINCTION ± 95%
4/14/2011   5
4/14/2011   6
4/14/2011   7
4/14/2011   8
4/14/2011   9
M. acuminata seedlings in the wild4/14/2011                       10
4/14/2011   11
4/14/2011   12
MUSA – 4 SECTIONS- EUMUSA (n=11)- RHODOCHLAMYS (n=11)- CALLIMUSA (n=10)- AUSTRALIMUSA (n=10)4/14/2011               13
4/14/2011   14
4/14/2011   15
4/14/2011   16
4/14/2011   17
4/14/2011   18
4/14/2011   19
4/14/2011   20
WILD BANANAS      NO RESEARCH- BIOLOGY?- CLIMATIC ADAPTATION?- SELECTION FORCES?    - SEED PRODUCTION    - SEED DISSEMINAT...
WILDS- NON - PARTHENOCARPIC- SEED FERTILE- BAT POLLINATED- BAT DISSEMINATED- BIRDS, INSECTS, MAMMALS? 4/14/2011           ...
• Bat pollinating              M. acuminata              in Thailand.            Photo courtesy of            M. Tuttle   ...
4/14/2011   24
4/14/2011   25
4/14/2011   26
4/14/2011   27
4/14/2011   28
MAN’S ROLE IN   EXTINCTION- MAJOR ELIMINATION OF    HABITAT- EATING BATS- HARVESTING BUDS
4/14/2011   30
4/14/2011   31
4/14/2011   32
4/14/2011   33
4/14/2011   34
NATURAL SELECTION         IN WILDS•   Parthenocarpy        Neutral?•   Female infertility   Negative•   Seed dormancy     ...
NATURAL SELECTION      IN WILDS- Less height            Negative- Vertical bunch angle   Negative- Vertical peduncle      ...
DOMESTICATIONMIGRATION OF MAN TO:     –      SOUTH ASIA     –      SOUTHEAST ASIA     –      ARCHIPELAGOS     –      NEW G...
4/14/2011   38
DOMESTICATION       REDEFINED-   Jungle plant to garden-   Making a clone-   Using Fiber, Leaves-   Migrating with clone
4/14/2011   40
4/14/2011   41
4/14/2011   42
4/14/2011   43
4/14/2011   44
DOMESTICATION     - EXACTLY WHERE ?     - HOW MANY PLACES ?     - FROM WHICH WILDS ?     - STILL OCCURRING ?4/14/2011     ...
4/14/2011   46
INTRUSION- CREATED OUTCROSSING    - TRIPLOIDS    - AA X BB HYBRIDS    - MORE HUMAN SELECTION- ADDED MORE PARTHENOCARPY 4/1...
PARTHENOCARPY- MULTIPLE OCCURRENCE IN WILDS- SAME GENES?- INDEPENDENT FROM STERILITY      AND TRIPLOIDY- FRUIT-EATING BATS...
4/14/2011   49
PARTHENOCARPY-   In some wilds?-   Hardly detectable-   Complementary dominant genes?-   No biochemical/molecular         ...
Wild acuminata malaccensis 4/14/2011              51
4/14/2011   52
Segregating for parthenocarpy and         Foc resistance 4/14/2011                    53
4/14/2011   54
DIFFERENT        PARTHENOCARPIC         ORIGINS IN AAs?- Yes, in different subspecies            - SW India            - S...
DOMESTICATES   - PARTHENOCARPIC   - LOW SEED FERTILITY   - PURE ACUMINATA – AA/AAA   - BALBISIANA HYBRIDS –      AB, AAB, ...
DIFFERENCES BETWEENDOMESTICATES AND WILDS             »Parthenocarpy?             »Female infertility             »Height?...
DOMESTICATION CREATED       MAJOR DISEASESIN WILDS:-   Little known of pathogens/pests-   Some co-evolved-   Co-evolution ...
HOW FOR FUSARIUM        WILT?-By intrusion of clones into    balanced Musa/Fusarium    coevolved sites.-By intrusion of co...
4/14/2011   60
HOW FOR BACTERIAL WILTS?-Intrusion of bananas into new-   encounter situations (bacteria   from other hosts) (Moko)-Intrus...
4/14/2011   62
HOW FOR MYCOSPHAERELLA?- Musa co-evolved pathosystem- Clonal movement into different    pathogen populations- Changing eco...
4/14/2011   64
THE BALBISIANA ENIGMAWhere truly native, pre-Man?Why no subspecies?Does parthenocarpy occur?Where hybridized with which A’...
ANSWERS- Extensive range is largely    clonal introduction- Usually clonal near towns- Clones bear empty seeds-Rare feral ...
4/14/2011   67
4/14/2011   68
4/14/2011   69
4/14/2011   70
ANSWERS- Greatest diversity with named clones:     Assam     N. Bangladesh- Truly native:    Himalayan foothills eastward ...
ANSWERSNo subspecies because:- Only one wild “population” known -    small area.- Not anciently evolved in separate    are...
ANSWERSNo parthenocarpy?- Maybe, but contentious- But, not selected for parthenocarpy    - “Domesticated” for fiber/leaves...
4/14/2011   74
4/14/2011   75
Budless Kepok4/14/2011                   76
ANSWERSDomesticated?- Yes - Clonality- But seeded, so falsely     considered “Wild”
4/14/2011   78
ANSWERSWhere hybridized? - Balbisiana intrusion into different     AA wilds and derived clones - SW India, Sri Lanka - Phi...
4/14/2011   80
BREEDING              POSSIBILITIES- They expand with understanding  - Domestication origins  - Wild origins  - Pathosyste...
BREEDING POSSIBILITIES      REQUIRE: - Exploring/Collecting of wilds - Connecting clonal A’s to wilds - Screening wilds pr...
BREEDING STRATEGY- NEW APPROACH- LEAVE EXISTING TRIPLOIDS            EXCEPT AWAK- USE CLONAL DIPLOIDS- AND4/14/2011       ...
RESYNTHESIZE- From original wilds- Find them- Rescreen for R first- Rehybridize4/14/2011                  84
CREATE ENTIRELY   NEW BANANAS ?- Find more BBs      - Select & Screen- Find more AAs      - Select & Screen4/14/2011      ...
RE-HYBRIDIZE    - Best AAs and BBs to ABs    - Double to ABAB    - Double to AAAA/BBBB    - Create TRIPLOIDS4/14/2011     ...
BETTER BREEDING           REQUIRES:- Broader germplasm base- Better exchange of germplasm- Wider horizons of possibilities...
Best Banana in myGermplasm Collection   4/14/2011           88
Próximos SlideShares
Carregando em…5
×

Wild Bananas, Domestication, Extinction and Breeding Possibilities

WILD BANANAS(Ancient group, Many species, Subspecies),DOMESTICATION,PARTHENOCARPY,BREEDING STRATEGY

  • Entre para ver os comentários

Wild Bananas, Domestication, Extinction and Breeding Possibilities

  1. 1. Wild Bananas,Domestication, Extinctionand Breeding Possibilities Ivan Buddenhagen 11/2005 Revised 9/2008 4/14/2011 1
  2. 2. 4/14/2011 2
  3. 3. 4/14/2011 3
  4. 4. WILD BANANAS- ANCIENT GROUP- MANY SPECIES, SUBSPECIES- NOW RARE, ISOLATED- EXTINCTION ± 95%
  5. 5. 4/14/2011 5
  6. 6. 4/14/2011 6
  7. 7. 4/14/2011 7
  8. 8. 4/14/2011 8
  9. 9. 4/14/2011 9
  10. 10. M. acuminata seedlings in the wild4/14/2011 10
  11. 11. 4/14/2011 11
  12. 12. 4/14/2011 12
  13. 13. MUSA – 4 SECTIONS- EUMUSA (n=11)- RHODOCHLAMYS (n=11)- CALLIMUSA (n=10)- AUSTRALIMUSA (n=10)4/14/2011 13
  14. 14. 4/14/2011 14
  15. 15. 4/14/2011 15
  16. 16. 4/14/2011 16
  17. 17. 4/14/2011 17
  18. 18. 4/14/2011 18
  19. 19. 4/14/2011 19
  20. 20. 4/14/2011 20
  21. 21. WILD BANANAS NO RESEARCH- BIOLOGY?- CLIMATIC ADAPTATION?- SELECTION FORCES? - SEED PRODUCTION - SEED DISSEMINATION - PLANTS SHORT LIVED
  22. 22. WILDS- NON - PARTHENOCARPIC- SEED FERTILE- BAT POLLINATED- BAT DISSEMINATED- BIRDS, INSECTS, MAMMALS? 4/14/2011 22
  23. 23. • Bat pollinating M. acuminata in Thailand. Photo courtesy of M. Tuttle Bat Conservation Intl.4/14/2011 23
  24. 24. 4/14/2011 24
  25. 25. 4/14/2011 25
  26. 26. 4/14/2011 26
  27. 27. 4/14/2011 27
  28. 28. 4/14/2011 28
  29. 29. MAN’S ROLE IN EXTINCTION- MAJOR ELIMINATION OF HABITAT- EATING BATS- HARVESTING BUDS
  30. 30. 4/14/2011 30
  31. 31. 4/14/2011 31
  32. 32. 4/14/2011 32
  33. 33. 4/14/2011 33
  34. 34. 4/14/2011 34
  35. 35. NATURAL SELECTION IN WILDS• Parthenocarpy Neutral?• Female infertility Negative• Seed dormancy Positive• Seed longevity Positive 4/14/2011 35
  36. 36. NATURAL SELECTION IN WILDS- Less height Negative- Vertical bunch angle Negative- Vertical peduncle Negative- Long fingers Neutral- Pathosystem balance Positive
  37. 37. DOMESTICATIONMIGRATION OF MAN TO: – SOUTH ASIA – SOUTHEAST ASIA – ARCHIPELAGOS – NEW GUINEASEA LEVEL CHANGESVOLCANIC ERUPTIONSLINGUISTICS4/14/2011 37
  38. 38. 4/14/2011 38
  39. 39. DOMESTICATION REDEFINED- Jungle plant to garden- Making a clone- Using Fiber, Leaves- Migrating with clone
  40. 40. 4/14/2011 40
  41. 41. 4/14/2011 41
  42. 42. 4/14/2011 42
  43. 43. 4/14/2011 43
  44. 44. 4/14/2011 44
  45. 45. DOMESTICATION - EXACTLY WHERE ? - HOW MANY PLACES ? - FROM WHICH WILDS ? - STILL OCCURRING ?4/14/2011 45
  46. 46. 4/14/2011 46
  47. 47. INTRUSION- CREATED OUTCROSSING - TRIPLOIDS - AA X BB HYBRIDS - MORE HUMAN SELECTION- ADDED MORE PARTHENOCARPY 4/14/2011 47
  48. 48. PARTHENOCARPY- MULTIPLE OCCURRENCE IN WILDS- SAME GENES?- INDEPENDENT FROM STERILITY AND TRIPLOIDY- FRUIT-EATING BATS/PRIMATES POSITIVE SELECTION?
  49. 49. 4/14/2011 49
  50. 50. PARTHENOCARPY- In some wilds?- Hardly detectable- Complementary dominant genes?- No biochemical/molecular studies- Present in balbisiana? 4/14/2011 50
  51. 51. Wild acuminata malaccensis 4/14/2011 51
  52. 52. 4/14/2011 52
  53. 53. Segregating for parthenocarpy and Foc resistance 4/14/2011 53
  54. 54. 4/14/2011 54
  55. 55. DIFFERENT PARTHENOCARPIC ORIGINS IN AAs?- Yes, in different subspecies - SW India - SE Asia and Sumatra - New Guinea - Philippines- Do parthenocarpic genes differ?4/14/2011 55
  56. 56. DOMESTICATES - PARTHENOCARPIC - LOW SEED FERTILITY - PURE ACUMINATA – AA/AAA - BALBISIANA HYBRIDS – AB, AAB, ABB4/14/2011 56
  57. 57. DIFFERENCES BETWEENDOMESTICATES AND WILDS »Parthenocarpy? »Female infertility »Height? »Bunch angle »Finger length? 4/14/2011 57
  58. 58. DOMESTICATION CREATED MAJOR DISEASESIN WILDS:- Little known of pathogens/pests- Some co-evolved- Co-evolution towards balance- Clonality freezes host evolution
  59. 59. HOW FOR FUSARIUM WILT?-By intrusion of clones into balanced Musa/Fusarium coevolved sites.-By intrusion of commensal Fusaria inside clones.
  60. 60. 4/14/2011 60
  61. 61. HOW FOR BACTERIAL WILTS?-Intrusion of bananas into new- encounter situations (bacteria from other hosts) (Moko)-Intrusion of new-encounter bacteria into old banana sites (Xantho wilt)
  62. 62. 4/14/2011 62
  63. 63. HOW FOR MYCOSPHAERELLA?- Musa co-evolved pathosystem- Clonal movement into different pathogen populations- Changing ecological dynamics- Freezing host genes
  64. 64. 4/14/2011 64
  65. 65. THE BALBISIANA ENIGMAWhere truly native, pre-Man?Why no subspecies?Does parthenocarpy occur?Where hybridized with which A’s?Is it domesticated?
  66. 66. ANSWERS- Extensive range is largely clonal introduction- Usually clonal near towns- Clones bear empty seeds-Rare feral seeded populations derived from clonal
  67. 67. 4/14/2011 67
  68. 68. 4/14/2011 68
  69. 69. 4/14/2011 69
  70. 70. 4/14/2011 70
  71. 71. ANSWERS- Greatest diversity with named clones: Assam N. Bangladesh- Truly native: Himalayan foothills eastward Arunachal Pradesh (+ E and W?) Burma/Thailand/S. China interface? 4/14/2011 71
  72. 72. ANSWERSNo subspecies because:- Only one wild “population” known - small area.- Not anciently evolved in separate areas.- Free breeding wilds poorly sampled/studied. 4/14/2011 72
  73. 73. ANSWERSNo parthenocarpy?- Maybe, but contentious- But, not selected for parthenocarpy - “Domesticated” for fiber/leaves - Moved by fisherfolk 4/14/2011 73
  74. 74. 4/14/2011 74
  75. 75. 4/14/2011 75
  76. 76. Budless Kepok4/14/2011 76
  77. 77. ANSWERSDomesticated?- Yes - Clonality- But seeded, so falsely considered “Wild”
  78. 78. 4/14/2011 78
  79. 79. ANSWERSWhere hybridized? - Balbisiana intrusion into different AA wilds and derived clones - SW India, Sri Lanka - Philippines  New Guinea - South Burma/adjacent area? 4/14/2011 79
  80. 80. 4/14/2011 80
  81. 81. BREEDING POSSIBILITIES- They expand with understanding - Domestication origins - Wild origins - Pathosystem origins 4/14/2011 81
  82. 82. BREEDING POSSIBILITIES REQUIRE: - Exploring/Collecting of wilds - Connecting clonal A’s to wilds - Screening wilds properly - Screening AA diploids properly 4/14/2011 82
  83. 83. BREEDING STRATEGY- NEW APPROACH- LEAVE EXISTING TRIPLOIDS EXCEPT AWAK- USE CLONAL DIPLOIDS- AND4/14/2011 83
  84. 84. RESYNTHESIZE- From original wilds- Find them- Rescreen for R first- Rehybridize4/14/2011 84
  85. 85. CREATE ENTIRELY NEW BANANAS ?- Find more BBs - Select & Screen- Find more AAs - Select & Screen4/14/2011 85
  86. 86. RE-HYBRIDIZE - Best AAs and BBs to ABs - Double to ABAB - Double to AAAA/BBBB - Create TRIPLOIDS4/14/2011 86
  87. 87. BETTER BREEDING REQUIRES:- Broader germplasm base- Better exchange of germplasm- Wider horizons of possibilities 4/14/2011 87
  88. 88. Best Banana in myGermplasm Collection 4/14/2011 88

×