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Diversity and food consumption

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14 May 2019. The SCAR Food Systems Strategic Working Group (SCAR FS SWG)
Marie Plessz, INRA + Eric Verger, IRD

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Diversity and food consumption

  1. 1. 14/05/2019 Marie Plessz, INRA Eric Verger, IRD Diversity and food consumption
  2. 2. CASA, Support to SCAR 2 1. Diversity in food supply and dietary health (Eric Verger) 2. Diversity, variety and differences in food consumption practices (Marie Plessz) Outline
  3. 3. CASA, Support to SCAR 3 Food supply diversity • Diversity in packaged supermarket products is far from being healthy  Variety of sauces and spreads almost as important as the one of fruit and vegetables in Oceania  Less than half of the packaged foods had good nutrient profile (based on Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion)  “Clear potential to improve product availability (…), in particular by reducing the large variety of very similar ultra-processed foods” (Luiten et al. 2015) Australian and New Zealand packaged foods. Adapted from Mhurchu et al. 2015
  4. 4. CASA, Support to SCAR 4 The broad concept of dietary diversity • Some positive aspects of dietary diversity…  Consuming wider variety of different foods or food groups is associated to higher chances to cover nutrient needs, whatever the context (from LIC to HIC) • … and some negative aspects  Consuming wider variety of dissimilar foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, baked goods, snacks, soda) is associated with higher gain in waist circumference is USA (Oliveira Otto et al. 2015)  Exposure to a variety of foods may increase energy intake and food consumption (Science Advisory From the American Heart Association. 2018) • Dietary diversity cannot be a stand‐alone recommendation
  5. 5. CASA, Support to SCAR 5 More specific types of diversity • Diversity of fruits and vegetables seems beneficial for health  Diversity of consumption within fruits and vegetables are associated with lower risk of type II diabetes in a UK cohort (Conklin et al. 2016)  Higher fruit and vegetable intakes (associated with fruit and vegetable variety) are associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease (Bhupathiraju et al. 2013) • Diversity of ultra-processed foods seems detrimental for health  An increase the proportion of UPF in the diet is associated with an overall higher mortality risk (Schnabel et al. 2019) and overall cancer risk (Fiolet et al. 2018) in a French cohort
  6. 6. CASA, Support to SCAR 6 Diversity within healthy diets • Diversity to be found in connection to all the aspects of healthy diets  Example from the 2019 Canadian Dietary Guidelines: - Eat plenty of vegetables and fruits, whole grain foods and protein foods. Choose protein foods that come from plants more often - Limit highly processed foods. If you choose these foods, eat them less often and in small amounts • Gaps in current knowledge  Optimal levels of diversity in diet for better nutrition and health  Compatibility between healthy diets and locally and seasonal food productions
  7. 7. CASA, Support to SCAR 7 1. How consumers deal with diversity generated ‘upstream’ in the food system 2. Diversity as variety in a household/person/group’s food practices “The absence of uniformity or monotony” 3. Diversity as difference across social/ethnic/cultural groups “Something that makes one thing or person not the same as another thing or person” Diversity and consumption practices
  8. 8. CASA, Support to SCAR 8 • Diversity in products ; provisioning channels and definitions of appropriate ways of eating • Prescriptors: public policies, NGOs, marketing, friends, family • Prescriptions: objective and content • Prescriptions ‘in silos’, often competing, sometimes conflicting • Consumers work at reducing diversity and its negative effects • Try not to purchase some products • Short food chains require even more work • Routines, Tastes • Work requires time, energy, skills, coordination. May fail. • Mostly women do it Consumers and diversity in food systems
  9. 9. CASA, Support to SCAR 9 • Variety in meal content: a social norm  It is considered appropriate: good housekeeping avoids monotonous meals  Generates more food waste (Evans 2014)  Sometimes ready-prepared, pre-packaged products sold (and viewed) as ways to ensure variety. • Inside a food repertoire (tastes)  A different soup everyday, is it variety?  Wider repertoires in higher socioeconomic groups? • Variety in eating contexts  Commercial venues, work, school, hospital, retirement home, prison, holiday, on travel…  Both a social norm and an answer to daily-life organisation  Eating away from home generates more food waste (42% of food waste for 15% of meals) • Generates economic activity but resource-intensive Variety
  10. 10. CASA, Support to SCAR 10 Differences • Differences in tastes express class, ethnic and gender identity  Liking/avoiding specific foods (Bourdieu, Distinction)  Signals who you are to others  Makes you feel at home/a stranger • Differences in living conditions  Household composition, equipment, housing (garden? Compost, freezer?)  Income, work schedules  Food skills and capacities  Vary across socioeconomic group • Diversity helps accommodate citizens’ tastes and living conditions  social cohesion • BUT policies focusing on helping citizens make the right choices stigma and blame on the most vulnerable citizens
  11. 11. CASA, Support to SCAR 11 Conclusion • Why do we need to strengthen diversity in food systems? • We need to rethink the concept of diversity in food systems • Already high level of diversity/variety but not a balanced one • More diversity of plant-based food, less of redundant ultra-processed foods • Avoid mental burden generated by diversity and ensure gender equity • Avoid stigma and blame on the most vulnerable citizens
  12. 12. Short chains AGRICULTURAL DIVERSITY FOODSUPPLY DIVERSITY BIODIVERSITY in ecosystems VARIETY and DIFFERENCES in meals and diets Global food trade The agrifood sector plays a key role in tranforming agricultural diversity into food supply diversity
  13. 13. CASA, Support to SCAR 13 Bhupathiraju et al. Quantity and variety in fruit and vegetable intake and risk of coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Dec;98(6):1514-23. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.066381. Conklin et al. Dietary Diversity, Diet Cost, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the United Kingdom: A Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS Med. 2016 Jul 19;13(7):e1002085. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002085 de Oliveira Otto et al. Everything in Moderation--Dietary Diversity and Quality, Central Obesity and Risk of Diabetes. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 30;10(10):e0141341. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141341. de Oliveira Otto et al. Dietary Diversity: Implications for Obesity Prevention in Adult Populations: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2018 Sep 11;138(11):e160-e168. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000595. Fiolet et al. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort. BMJ. 2018 Feb 14;360:k322. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k322. Health Canada. Canada’s Dietary Guidelines for Health Professionals and Policy Makers. Ottawa: Health Canada; 2019. https://food-guide.canada.ca/en/guidelines/what-are-canadas-dietary- guidelines/ Luiten et al. Ultra-processed foods have the worst nutrient profile, yet they are the most available packaged products in a sample of New Zealand supermarkets. Public Health Nutr. 2016 Feb;19(3):530-8. doi: 10.1017/S1368980015002177 Mhurchu et al. Nutrient profile of 23 596 packaged supermarket foods and non-alcoholic beverages in Australia and New Zealand. Public Health Nutr. 2016 Feb;19(3):401-8. doi: 10.1017/S1368980015000968. Schnabel et al. Association Between Ultraprocessed Food Consumption and Risk of Mortality Among Middle-aged Adults in France. JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Feb 11. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.7289. References: nutritional epidemiology
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