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Transgenic Plants.pptx

  1. TRANSGENIC PLANTS Presented To: Dr. Kashif Rahim Presented By: Fatima Tuz Zahra
  2. TRANSGENIC PLANTS Transgene: • It is a foreign gene or genetic material that has been transferred by genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another. Transgenesis: • The process of introduction of exogenous DNA into the genome. Transgenic Plant: • The plant whose genome is altered by adding one or more transgenes
  3. TRANSGENIC PLANTS History • 1982, 1st transgenic plant produced which is tobacco plant. • 1984, 1st successful plant genetic engineering experiments using caulimovirus vector • 1994, 1st genetically modified crop approved for sale in U.S. was FlavrSavr tomato. • 1995, 1st pesticide producing crop, Bt. potato was approved by U.S. Environment protection department.
  4. TRANSGENIC PLANTS • 1996, 1st genetically modified flower Moondust, bluish colored carnation, was introduced. • 2000, Golden rice with ß-carotene developed with increased nutrient value.
  5. Applications: • Resistance to Biotic stresses Insect resistance Bacterial resistance Virus resistance • Resistance to Abiotic stresses Temperature Drought Salinity TRANSGENIC PLANTS
  6. • Valuable tool in studies • Improved coloration • Pharmaceuticals and vaccines products • Improvement of crop yield and quality • Phytoremediation Popular tree TRANSGENIC PLANTS
  7. PRODUCTION OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS Methods Recombinant DNA Selection and isolation of desired gene Insertion of gene into vector Transformation Agrobacterium gene transfer Gene gun method (also called Particle gun method) Electroporation method
  8. AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER • Agrobacterium is treated as nature’s most effective plant genetic engineer • The bacterium releases T-DNA segment of Ti plasmid into the plant cell cytoplasm which induce crown gall disease • Several dicots are affected by this disease e.g. Grapes, Roses etc.
  10. ELECTROPORATION • The process in which an electricity is applied to cell membrane to form pores on its surface for transfer of foreign gene. • If DNA is present in the buffer solution at sufficient concentration, it will be taken up through these pores. • Protoplast is used in this process.
  11. ELECTROPORATION • Protoplast and gene of interest are placed in a solution and electric pluses are given • Foreign DNA then integrated into plant genome
  12. GENE GUN • Also known as Biolistic, particle gun, bio blaster or micro projectile bombardment. • Process occurs with a highly accelerated velocity into the plant cell nuclei • Introduction of DNA into the cell using micro projectile • DNA coated particles shot into target cell
  13. EXAMPLES • Golden rice • Flavr savr Tomato • Colorful cauliflower • Tearless onion • Purple rose • BT cotton • Alfalfa
  14. GOLDEN RICE • Transgenic technology produced a type of rice that accumulates ß- carotene in rice grains. • When it is consumed, b-carotene is converted into vitamin-A • It contain 37mg/g of carotenoid of which 84% is ß-carotene.
  15. FLAVR SAVR TOMATO • This is produced by antisense technology. • The polygalactouronase gene, which is responsible for fruit decay is silenced.
  16. BT COTTON • Bt cotton is a genetically modified crop that is resistant to pest bollworm.
  17. BT CORN • Corn modified with a bacterial insecticide gene so that it produces insect toxins within its cells, protecting it from pest species.
  18. TRANSGENIC PLANTS • Advantages 1. Increase yields 2. Rich in nutrients 3. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses • Disadvantages 1. May cause allergic reactions 2. Loss of biodiversity 3. GM crops could cross breed with wild crops and contaminate them with unexpected results.
  19. Thank you!