• It is a foreign gene or genetic material that has been transferred
by genetic engineering techniques from one organism to
• The process of introduction of exogenous DNA into the genome.
• The plant whose genome is altered by adding one or more
• 1982, 1st transgenic plant produced which is tobacco plant.
• 1984, 1st successful plant genetic engineering experiments using
• 1994, 1st genetically modified crop approved for sale in U.S. was
• 1995, 1st pesticide producing crop, Bt. potato was approved by
U.S. Environment protection department.
• 1996, 1st genetically modified flower Moondust, bluish colored
carnation, was introduced.
• 2000, Golden rice with ß-carotene developed with increased
• Agrobacterium is treated as nature’s most effective plant genetic
• The bacterium releases T-DNA segment of Ti plasmid into the
plant cell cytoplasm which induce crown gall disease
• Several dicots are affected by this disease e.g. Grapes, Roses etc.
• The process in which an
electricity is applied to cell
membrane to form pores on its
surface for transfer of foreign
• If DNA is present in the buffer
solution at sufficient
concentration, it will be taken up
through these pores.
• Protoplast is used in this process.
• Also known as Biolistic, particle
gun, bio blaster or micro
• Process occurs with a highly
accelerated velocity into the plant
• Introduction of DNA into the cell
using micro projectile
• DNA coated particles shot into
• Transgenic technology produced a
type of rice that accumulates ß-
carotene in rice grains.
• When it is consumed, b-carotene
is converted into vitamin-A
• It contain 37mg/g of carotenoid
of which 84% is ß-carotene.
FLAVR SAVR TOMATO
• This is produced by antisense
• The polygalactouronase gene,
which is responsible for fruit
decay is silenced.
• Bt cotton is a genetically modified
crop that is resistant to pest
• Corn modified with a bacterial
insecticide gene so that it
produces insect toxins within its
cells, protecting it from pest
1. Increase yields
2. Rich in nutrients
3. Resistance to biotic and abiotic
1. May cause allergic reactions
2. Loss of biodiversity
3. GM crops could cross breed
with wild crops and
contaminate them with