S. No. Topics
2 Meaning and Definition
3 Characteristics of Values
4 Importance of Values
5 Types of Values
6 Instrumental Values
7 Sources of Values
8 Patterns and trends in Values
• Values are stable, long lasting beliefs about what is
important to an individual.
• Values are very important to the study of the
organisational behaviour, because values have an
important influence on the attitudes, perceptions,
needs, and motives of the people at work.
• Effective managers have to understand the values
underlying the behaviour of the employees,
because only then they will realise why the people
behave in strange and different ways sometimes.
• A value system is viewed as a relatively permanent
perceptual frame work which influence the nature
of an individual’s behaviour.
• The values are the attributes possessed by an
individual and thought desirable.
• Values are the common beliefs of a section of
people such as an ethnic group or a business
organization as to what is good and right.
• “Value is a concept of the desirable, an internalised criterion or
standard of evaluation a person possesses. Such concepts and
standards are relatively few and determine or guide an individual’s
evaluations of the many objects encountered in every day life.”
• “Values are global beliefs that guide actions and judgments across a
variety of situations.”
- Milton Rokeach
1. Values provide standards of competence and morality.
2. Values are fewer in number than attitudes.
3. Values transcend specific objects, situations or persons.
4. Values are relatively permanent and resistant to change.
5. Values are most central to the core of a person.
6. Values have two attributes – content and intensity. The content
attribute stresses that a particular code of conduct is important.
The intensity attribute specifies how important that particulars
code of conduct is.
7. When we rank an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. We
obtain the value system of that person.
8. In the value system, all of us have a hierarchy of values; which is
identified by the relative importance we assign to different values
such as freedom, self-respect, honesty, and so on.
• Values lay the foundations for the understanding of attitudes and
• Personal value system influences the manager’s perception of individuals.
• Value system influences the manager’s perception of the different
• Personal value system influences the way in which a manager views the
other individuals and the groups of the individuals in the organisation.
• Value system also influences a manager’s decisions and his solutions to
the various problems.
• Values influence the attitudes and behaviours. An individual will get more
job satisfaction if his values align with the organisation’s policies. If the
organisation’s policies are different from his views lead to job
dissatisfaction and decline in performance.
• The challenge and reexamination of established work values constitute
important corner stones of the current management revolution all over
the world. Hence, an understanding of the values become a necessity.
Milton Rokeach Classification
• Terminal Values :-
A terminal value is an ultimate goal in a desired
status or outcome. These lead to the ends to be
• Instrumental Values :-
Instrumental values relate to means for achieving
desired ends. It is a tool for acquiring a terminal
Terminal Values Instrumental Values
A world of beauty and peace Ambitious
Comfortable life Broad minded
Exciting life Capable
Family security Cheerful
Inner Harmony Forgiving
Mature love Helpful
Self respect Imaginative
Sense of accomplishment Independent
Social recognition Intellectual
True friendship Logical
Allport, Vernon & Lindzey Classification
G.W. Allport, P.E. Vernon & G. Lindzey have categorised into six major types as follows:
• Theoretical :- Interest in the discovery of truth through reasoning and systematic
thinking. The ideal theoretical man values the discovery of truth.
• Economic :- Interest in usefulness and practically, including the accumulation of
wealth. The ideal economic man values what is useful and concerned with practical
• Aesthetic :- Interest in beauty, form and artistic harmony. The ideal aesthetic man
values artistic and aesthetic experiences in life, though he himself may not be
• Social :- Interest in people and human relationships. The ideal social man places
great value on power.
• Political :- Interest in gaining power and influencing other people. The ideal
political man places great value on power.
• Religious :- Interest in unity and understanding the cosmos as a whole. The highest
value for the ideal religious man may be called unit.
• Movement away from the following values :
• Economic Incentives
• Organisational Loyalty
• Work-Related Identity
• Movement towards the following values :
• Meaningful work
• Pursuit of leisure
• Personal identity
• Self - Fulfillment
• Important work – related values for the present
and the future :
• Recognition for competence and accomplishment
• Respect and dignity
• Personal choice of freedom
• Involvement at work
• Pride in one’s work
• Lifestyle quality
• Financial Security
• Self – development
• Health and wellness