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Values - Organisational Behaviour

  1. S. No. Topics 1 Introduction 2 Meaning and Definition 3 Characteristics of Values 4 Importance of Values 5 Types of Values 6 Instrumental Values 7 Sources of Values 8 Patterns and trends in Values
  2. • Values are stable, long lasting beliefs about what is important to an individual. • Values are very important to the study of the organisational behaviour, because values have an important influence on the attitudes, perceptions, needs, and motives of the people at work. • Effective managers have to understand the values underlying the behaviour of the employees, because only then they will realise why the people behave in strange and different ways sometimes.
  3. • A value system is viewed as a relatively permanent perceptual frame work which influence the nature of an individual’s behaviour. • The values are the attributes possessed by an individual and thought desirable. • Values are the common beliefs of a section of people such as an ethnic group or a business organization as to what is good and right.
  4. • “Value is a concept of the desirable, an internalised criterion or standard of evaluation a person possesses. Such concepts and standards are relatively few and determine or guide an individual’s evaluations of the many objects encountered in every day life.” • “Values are global beliefs that guide actions and judgments across a variety of situations.” - Milton Rokeach
  5. 1. Values provide standards of competence and morality. 2. Values are fewer in number than attitudes. 3. Values transcend specific objects, situations or persons. 4. Values are relatively permanent and resistant to change. 5. Values are most central to the core of a person. 6. Values have two attributes – content and intensity. The content attribute stresses that a particular code of conduct is important. The intensity attribute specifies how important that particulars code of conduct is. 7. When we rank an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. We obtain the value system of that person. 8. In the value system, all of us have a hierarchy of values; which is identified by the relative importance we assign to different values such as freedom, self-respect, honesty, and so on.
  6. • Values lay the foundations for the understanding of attitudes and motivation. • Personal value system influences the manager’s perception of individuals. • Value system influences the manager’s perception of the different situations. • Personal value system influences the way in which a manager views the other individuals and the groups of the individuals in the organisation. • Value system also influences a manager’s decisions and his solutions to the various problems. • Values influence the attitudes and behaviours. An individual will get more job satisfaction if his values align with the organisation’s policies. If the organisation’s policies are different from his views lead to job dissatisfaction and decline in performance. • The challenge and reexamination of established work values constitute important corner stones of the current management revolution all over the world. Hence, an understanding of the values become a necessity.
  7. Milton Rokeach Classification • Terminal Values :- A terminal value is an ultimate goal in a desired status or outcome. These lead to the ends to be achieved. • Instrumental Values :- Instrumental values relate to means for achieving desired ends. It is a tool for acquiring a terminal value.
  8. Terminal Values Instrumental Values A world of beauty and peace Ambitious Comfortable life Broad minded Exciting life Capable Family security Cheerful Freedom Clean Happiness Courageous Inner Harmony Forgiving Mature love Helpful Salvation Honest Self respect Imaginative Sense of accomplishment Independent Social recognition Intellectual True friendship Logical Wisdom Loving
  9. Allport, Vernon & Lindzey Classification G.W. Allport, P.E. Vernon & G. Lindzey have categorised into six major types as follows: • Theoretical :- Interest in the discovery of truth through reasoning and systematic thinking. The ideal theoretical man values the discovery of truth. • Economic :- Interest in usefulness and practically, including the accumulation of wealth. The ideal economic man values what is useful and concerned with practical affairs. • Aesthetic :- Interest in beauty, form and artistic harmony. The ideal aesthetic man values artistic and aesthetic experiences in life, though he himself may not be creative. • Social :- Interest in people and human relationships. The ideal social man places great value on power. • Political :- Interest in gaining power and influencing other people. The ideal political man places great value on power. • Religious :- Interest in unity and understanding the cosmos as a whole. The highest value for the ideal religious man may be called unit.
  10. HALO
  11. • Movement away from the following values : • Duty • Honesty • Responsibility • Economic Incentives • Organisational Loyalty • Work-Related Identity • Movement towards the following values : • Meaningful work • Pursuit of leisure • Personal identity • Self - Fulfillment
  12. • Important work – related values for the present and the future : • Recognition for competence and accomplishment • Respect and dignity • Personal choice of freedom • Involvement at work • Pride in one’s work • Lifestyle quality • Financial Security • Self – development • Health and wellness