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Mariana trench

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Mariana trench

  1. 1. Mariana TrenchDeepest trench in the world
  2. 2. Geology of Mariana Trench
  3. 3. LocationO Pacific Ocean O East of Japan
  4. 4. LocationO Deepest trench in the worldO Home to the deepest part of the earth: O Challenger Deep O 11,033 meters underwater O Mt Everest: 2183 m
  5. 5. Location
  6. 6. FormationO Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence O Fast-moving Pacific Plate is subducted under slower moving Philippine Plate
  7. 7. FormationO Crust created from East Pacific Ridge O Parallel to Mariana Trench O Oceanic diverging plate
  8. 8. FormationO New crust formed by the East Pacific Ridge moved and is subducted at the Mariana Trench Mariana East Pacific Ridge Trench
  9. 9. Computer Simulation of Mariana Trench
  10. 10. Mariana Islands
  11. 11. MarianaIslands
  12. 12. Geology of Mariana Islands O Example of an island arc O 15 Volcanic Islands that rise up from ocean floor
  13. 13. Geology of Mariana Islands O After millions of years, erupted lava and volcanic debris pile up on the ocean floor O Causes a submarine volcano to rise above sea level to form an island volcano
  14. 14. Biology of Mariana Trench
  15. 15. Biology of Mariana Trench O It is very cold and highly pressurized O Hydrothermal (hot water) vents formed by spreading tectonic plates release hydrogen sulfide and other minerals O consumed by the bacteria which are then consumed by other microorganisms forming a food chain O Creatures from the deep show an incredible resistance to temperature extremes by having different proteins which are adapted for life under these conditions( e.g. Crabs, Angler Fish)
  16. 16. Biology of Mariana TrenchO Another interesting characteristic of these deep sea creatures is their longevity O many able to live for over a centuryO Creatures seldom migrate and are slow to develop
  17. 17. Exploration of Mariana Trench
  18. 18. 1951: Challenger IIO Mariana Trench was first pinpointedO Surveyed by British Survey Ship: Challenger II
  19. 19. 1960: TriesteO Exploration of deepest point (Challenger Deep)O In U.S. Naval submarineO Swiss Scientist Jacques Piccard and US Navy Lt. Donald WalshO 20 min diveO Confirmed trench to be the deepest point on Earth
  20. 20. 1995: KaikoO Japanese Unmanned submersible launched to explore Mariana TrenchO Went exploring a few times before lost at sea in a typhoon (2003)
  21. 21. 2009: NereusO Submersible built by engineers at Woods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionO Collect rocks, animals, and water samples and transmit high-quality video to the surface through a hair-thin fiber-optic cable.
  22. 22. 2012: DEEPSEA CHALLENGERO A manned submersible – The second ever to go to the Challenger DeepO Undergoing sea trials beginning in March 2012O By Director James Cameron (director of TITANIC)
  23. 23. Thank you!! Any Questions?