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What is Journalism ? Types and Role of journalism.
Roll No :- 08 M.A. Sem :- 04 Year :- 2015-16
Paper :- 15 Mass Communication and Media Studies
Submitted to :-
Department of English
What is Journalism ? Types and Role of journalism
Definitions of Journalism:
What is Journalism ?
Words ‘Journal’ , ‘Journalism’, Journalist’ have their origin in the
French word ‘journal’ meaning a book and it has it’s origin in
turn in the Roman word ‘ diurnalis’ meaning daily.
Journalism is instant history, an account of history as it is being
made. Journalism is a report of things as they appear at the
moment of writing not a definitive study of a situation
Journalism is a contemporary report of the changing scene
intended to inform readers of what is happening around them.
In the modern times, Journalism has been turned into a
business and an industry.
It’s main functions is to carry different kinds of
advertisements that help it to be financially viable
and politically independent. It’s other functions
include reporting local, national and international
news and offering interpretation and opinions into a
business venture, the fundamental function remains
to sell readers to advertisers.
Besides, it aims at educating and entertaining its
readers so that they can participate fully in the affairs
of the state and in the cultural affairs as well.
Journalism as one part of mass communication and media
studies. Journalism is the practice of investigation and reporting of
events, issues and trends to a broad audience in a timely fashion and
there are many variations of journalism, the ideal is to inform the
intended audience along with covering organizations and
institutions such as government and business, journalism also covers
cultural aspects of society such as arts and entertainment. The field
includes editing, photojournalism and documentary.
“Journalism is storytelling with a purpose. That purpose is to provide
people with information they need to understand the world. The first
challenge is finding the information that people need to live their lives.
The second is to make it meaningful, relevant, and engaging.”
Types of journalism:
Journalism helps to explain the events that impact our lives and is
developed in a number of forms and styles uses different techniques and
writes for different purposes and audiences. So Journalism can be categorized
into several types as enlisted below.
1) Advocacy journalism.
2) Broadcast Journalism.
3) Investigative Journalism.
4) Tabloid Journalism.
5) Yellow Journalism.
1) Advocacy journalism:
As being a major type, it can be defined as
journalistic praxis. Advocacy journalism deals with
writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence
the opinions of the audience. On the other hand
opinion Journalism, exemplified by newspapers
editorials and media punditry, is not always expected
to involve the same degree in depth investigation. It
also describes the use of journalism techniques to
promote a specific political or social cause.
2) Broadcast Journalism:
It is also a type of journalism which is the field of news and
journals which are broadcast or in other words we can say that it is
published by electrical methods, instead of the older methods such
as printed newspapers and posters. Media in the broadcast
journalism includes television, radio and the internet. Radio and
television broadcasts are designed to get the news out to a wide
variety of people in language that is much less formal than
traditional print media.
3) Investigative journalism:
Investigative journalism can be defined a type
of journalism that tries to discover information of public
interest that someone is trying to hide. it also includes
serious crimes, political corruption or corporate
wrongdoing.an investigative journalist may spend
months or years researching and preparing a report.
4) Tabloid Journalism:
It is very much important type of journalism.
Tabloid journalism is a newspaper of small format giving
the news is condensed form, usually with illustrated often
so it puts more stress on crime stories, astrology,
gossip columns about the personal lives of celebrities and
sports stars and junk food news. And it is this sense of the
word that led to some entertainment news programs to be
called tabloid television.
5) Yellow Journalism:
It is one of the most significant types of journalism
which highlights little or no legitimate well researched news and
instead uses eyecatching headlines to sell more newspapers.
Yellow journalism is also known as sensationalism and it is
writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumours.
The Role of Journalism
The role and status of journalism, along with that of
the mass media, has undergone profound changes over the last
two decades with the advent of digital technology and
publication of news on the Internet.
This has created a shift in the consumption of print
media channels, as people increasingly consume news through
ereaders, smart phones and other electronic devices,
challenging news organizations to fully monetize their digital
wing as well as improvise on the context in which they publish
news in print.
Notably in the American media landscape, newsrooms have reduced
their staff and coverage as traditional media channels. Such as
television grapple with declining audiences. For instance between 2007
and 2012, CNN edited its story packages into nearly half of this original
This compactness in coverage has been linked to broad audience
attrition, as a large majority of respondents in recent studies show
changing preferences in news consumption. The digital era has also
ushered in a new kind of journalism in which ordinary citizens play a
greater role in the process of newsmaking with the rise of citizen
journalism being possible through the Internet.
The Role of Journalism