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  1. 1. HVAC- Heating, Ventilation and Air conditioning Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. The V in HVAC, or ventilation, is the process of replacing or exchanging air within a space.
  2. 2. ASI – Archaeological Survey of India Epigraphy is the study of inscriptions, or epigraphs, as writing
  3. 3. LEED – Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a green building certification program used worldwide. Developed by the non-profit U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) It includes a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings, homes, and neighborhoods. It aims to help building owners and operators be environmentally responsible and use resources efficiently. Certification level Buildings can qualify for four levels of certification: Certified: 40-49 points Silver: 50-59 points Gold: 60-79 points Platinum: 80 points and above
  4. 4. GRIHA – Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment
  5. 5. ACE – Artificial Construction and Engineering Architeture Construction and Engineering
  6. 6. Architecture is the process, or profession, of designing buildings and their environments. The root of the word architecture is the Greek arkhitekton ("master builder"), ancient Greeks were very skilled at architecture which reflects from their columns designs, stadiums and temples etc. Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings and other physical structures. A wider definition often includes the design of the total built environment from the macro level of town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture to the micro level of construction details and, sometimes, furniture. Ar. – Architecture
  7. 7. RCC – Reinforced Concrete Cement Reinforced concrete (RC), also called reinforced cement concrete (RCC), is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are compensated for by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. USED IN Reinforced concrete is being used for the construction of foundations to the rooftops of buildings, In the construction of highways, Precast structures, Floating structures, Hydro-power tunnels, Irrigation canals, Drains, and all other structures. A grade of concrete with 20 MPa strength, it will be denoted by M20, where M stands for Mix. These grade of concrete is converted into various mix proportions.
  8. 8. FFL – Finished Floor Level Finished floor level (FFL) refers to the uppermost surface of a floor once construction has been completed but before any finishes have been applied.
  9. 9. PCC – Plain Cement Concrete The objective of plain cement concrete PCC is to arrange a firm impermeable bed to RCC in the foundation where the soil is soft and flexible. It is also known as Cement Concrete (CC) or Blinding Concrete. When, any reinforcement is not used inside the concrete, it is defined as the plain cement concrete.
  10. 10. DPC – Damp Proof Course The damp proof course (DPC) is generally applied at basement levels, which restricts the movement of moisture through walls and floors. is generally applied at basement levels, which restricts the movement of moisture through walls and floors and plinths to avoid to capillary action, due to the sub soil water sometimes which rises into the walls of buildings, against gravity, and indicates dampness. Materials widely used for damp proofing include: Flexible materials like rubber, hot bitumen (asphalt), plastic sheets, bituminous felts, sheets of lead, copper, etc.
  11. 11. AAC – Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) is made with fine aggregates, cement, and an expansion agent that causes the fresh mixture to rise like bread dough. This type of concrete contains 80 percent air. In the factory where it is made, the material is molded and cut into precisely dimensioned units.
  12. 12. STP – Sewage Treatment Plant The term Sewage is used to describe all types of wastewater generated from domestic dwellings. There are two types of sewage: blackwater, or wastewater from toilets, and graywater, which is wastewater from all domestic sources except toilets. Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from domestic and municipal wastewater, containing mainly household sewage plus some industrial wastewater. Physical, chemical, and biological processes are used to remove contaminants and produce treated wastewater (or treated effluent) that is safe enough for release into the environment.
  13. 13. Asphalt Concrete is a composite material commonly used in construction of roads, highways, airports, parking lots, and many other types of pavement. It is commonly called simply asphalt or blacktop. AC – Asphalt Concrete
  14. 14. Defn 1- A bill of quantities is a document used in tendering in the construction industry in which materials, parts, and labor are itemized. It also details the terms and conditions of the construction or repair contract and itemizes all work to enable a contractor to price the work for which one is bidding. Defn-2 A bill of quantities (sometimes referred to as a 'BoQ' or 'BQ') is a document, typically prepared by a cost consultant (often a quantity surveyor) that provides measured quantities of the items of work identified by the drawings and specifications in the tender documentation for a project. BOM is related to the list of inventory, including raw materials, parts, components, etc. It give a clarity on what all is needed for completion. BOQ – Bill of Quantities
  15. 15. CC – Centre to centre
  16. 16. Flood stage is the water level or stage at which a body of water's surface has risen to a sufficient level to cause sufficient inundation of areas that are not normally covered by water, causing an inconvenience or a threat to life and property. When a body of water rises to this level, it is considered a flood event. HFL – Highest Flood Level
  17. 17. ISI – Indian Standard The ISI mark is a standards-compliance mark for industrial products in India since 1955. The ISI is an initialism of Indian Standards Institution, the name of the national standards body until 1 January 1987, when it was renamed to the Bureau of Indian Standards.
  18. 18. DL- Dead Load LL – Live Load Dead loads are static forces that are relatively constant for an extended time. They can be in tension or compression. Live loads are usually variable or moving loads. These can have a significant dynamic element and may involve considerations such as impact, momentum, vibration, slosh dynamics of fluids, etc.
  19. 19. MEP – Mechanical Electrical Plumbing MEP WORK is a field of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing works of the building. Mechanical (HVAC), Electrical (fire alarm, lighting, cabling, elevators..etc), and Plumbing ( firefighting, domestic water supply, sanitary, rainwater drainage) and steam distribution and medical gas piping in case of hospitals.
  20. 20. Piles are used to carry the load of the structure deep into the ground, and pile caps form the solid foundation on which the piers are then built. Pile caps create a stable foundation and offer a larger area for the distribution of the building load onto the piles. PC – Pile Cap
  21. 21. PC – Precast Concrete Precast concrete is a form of concrete that is prepared, cast and cured off-site, usually in a controlled factory environment, using reusable moulds. Precast concrete elements can be joined to other elements to form a complete structure.
  22. 22. A Level where the substructure ends and the superstructure starts is known as the plinth level. The plinth is a part of the superstructure located between the ground level and the finished floor level. The plinth helps in transferring the superstructure's load to the foundation. Plinth beam is a reinforced concrete beam constructed between the wall and its foundation. PL – Plinth level
  23. 23. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC, or vinyl) is used in a variety of applications in the building and construction, health care, electronics, automobile and other sectors, in products ranging from piping , blood bags and tubing, to wire and cable insulation, windshield system components and more. PVC – Polyvinyl Chloride
  24. 24. Regular PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is a common, strong but lightweight plastic used in construction. It is made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers. If no plasticizers are added, it is known as uPVC (unplasticized polyvinyl chloride), rigid PVC, or vinyl siding in the U.S. UPVC – Unplasticized Polyvinyl chloride
  25. 25. Quality control is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. QC – Quality control
  26. 26. QS – Quantity Surveyor A Quantity Surveyor is a construction industry professional with expert knowledge on construction costs and contracts. Qualified professional quantity surveyors are known as Chartered Surveyors in the UK and Certified Quantity Surveyors in Australia and other countries. A Quantity Surveyor's job is to manage all costs related to building and civil engineering projects, and making sure their clients get value for money. They also ensure that projects conform to legal regulations, and are up to standard in terms of quality.
  27. 27. Reinforced brick concrete is a combination of the brick, reinforcement and concrete. Consists of bricks/blocks within itself along with the steel. Bricks or blocks are placed after fixing steel and before pouring concrete in such a way that bricks are covered from all sides and not visible in concrete RBC – Reinforced Brick Concrete
  28. 28. RCC – Reinforced Cement Concrete Reinforced concrete (RC), also called reinforced cement concrete (RCC), is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are compensated for by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. Ready-mix concrete, or RMC as it is also known, refers to concrete that is specifically manufactured for customers' construction projects, and supplied to the customer on site as a single product. It is a mixture of Portland or other cements, water and aggregates: sand, gravel, or crushed stone.
  29. 29. TB – Tie Beam The beam which connects two or more columns or rafters in a roof or roof truss or in any height above floor level to make the whole structure more stiff and stable at the foundation level is called tie beam. Tie beams are mainly provided at roof truss and floor level and a plinth.
  30. 30. A toilet tank stores water until it is released and flushes into the toilet bowl. So in other words...it's a toilet. Water closet is just another name for a typical gravity flush toilet. A “water closet” can also be used to describe a small room that houses a toilet. WC – Water Closet
  31. 31. A work order is a document that provides all the information about a maintenance task and outlines a process for completing that task. Work orders can include details on who authorized the job, the scope, who it's assigned to, and what is expected. WO – Work Order
  32. 32. The Pritzker Architecture Prize is awarded annually "to honor a living architect or architects whose built work demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, vision and commitment, which has produced consistent and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture". Founded in 1979 by Jay A. Pritzker and his wife Cindy, the award is funded by the Pritzker family and sponsored by the Hyatt Foundation. It is considered to be one of the world's premier architecture prizes, and is often referred to as the Nobel Prize of architecture. The designs on the medal are inspired by the work of architect Louis Sullivan and the Latin inspired inscription on the reverse of the medal is from Ancient Roman architect Vitruvius. Pritzker Prize 1979 Philip Johnson United States Glass House (1949) 2018 B. V. Doshi India IIM-B Indian Institute of Management Bangalore (1977–1992, multiple phases) 2021 Anne Lacaton and Jean-Philippe VassalFrance National School of Architecture in Nantes (2009)
  33. 33. Architect/city planner who authored the “ekistics”- the science of human settlements. A. Gropius B. Doxiadis C. Niemeyer D. Vitruvius ANS-B
  34. 34. One of Frank Lloyd Wright’s organic architecture? A. Falling water B. Robbie house C. Dulles airport D. Petronas tower ANS-A Robbie House Frank Lloyd Wright Petronas tower Cesar Pelli Dulles airport Eero Saarinen
  35. 35. Character of early Christian arch is determined by the novel development of. A. Stone vaults B. Timber trusses C. Arched vaults D. Lintel and Beam ANS-C
  36. 36. A style influenced by geometric figures ? A. Renaissance B. Gothic C. Romanesque D. Art Deco ANS-D Art Deco styles Art Deco is a popular design style of the 1920s and '30s characterized especially by sleek geometric or stylized forms and by the use of man-made materials. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners. Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, exuberance, and faith in social and technological progress.
  37. 37. Who gave the statue of liberty to the US ? A. Spain B. France C. Great Britain D. Portugal ANS-B It was given to the United States by the people of France in 1886, to represent the friendship between the two countries established during the American Revolution. The statue is on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, and it welcomes visitors, immigrants, and returning Americans travelling by ship.
  38. 38. From 5th centaury to the present, character of Byzantine architecture is A. Timber trusses B. Ribbed arches C. Domical roof construction D. Vault ANS-C Greek Architecture Post and Lintel Construction
  39. 39. A roman rectangular temple stood on a …… A. Plinth B. Podium C. Pedestal D. Stylobate ANS-B In classical Greek architecture, a stylobate is the top step of the stepped platform upon which colonnades of temple are placed (it is the floor of the temple).
  40. 40. What capital order was used in the parthenon? A. Doric B. Ionic C. Tuscan D. Corinthian ANS-D The Parthenon combines elements of the Doric and Ionic orders. Basically a Doric peripteral temple, it features a continuous sculpted frieze borrowed from the Ionic order as well as four Ionic columns supporting the roof of the opisthodomos.