O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.
LOW SALINITY WATER
INJECTION EOR SYSTEM
APPLICATION IN NORTH
SEA CLAIR FIELD
Henry Ajuwa
Msc Oil and Gas Engineering
Overview
 Project Description
 Objective
 Background/Introduction
 Field Geology
 Low Salinity water injection proces...
Objective
 Justify and demonstrate the potential reservoir
performance response due to the application of
a low salinity ...
Background/Introduction
The Clair Field lies 75km (47
miles) west of Shetland, North
Sea. Under a maximum water
depth of 1...
Field Geology
Hydrocarbons are sourced from the fractured
reservoir in the Clair Ridge Field are found in
fractured Devoni...
Low Salinity water injection process
On the clay surface,
multivalent cations are bond to
polar compounds present in
the o...
Low Salinity water injection
Mechanism
Change in ion exchange equilibria
occurs when divalent ions from
LowSal, exchange w...
Methodology
History Matching Technique
Workflow
Input Data
Reservoir Response Performance Simulation Engineering
using Conventional Water Injection (CWI) System.
MBAL Single Tank Mo...
RESULTS and DISCUSSIONS (CWI)
Oil production will increase from an average rate of 33
MSTB/D in 2015
Average peak rate of ...
Reservoir Response Performance Simulation Engineering
using LowSal System.
MBAL Single Tank
Model
• Field Oil production a...
RESULTS and DISCUSSIONS (LowSal)
Oil production will increase from an average rate of 43.5
MSTB/D in 2015
Average peak rat...
Comparative sensitivity analysis
Performance indicators Model Parameters
Average water produced
( MMSTB)
Conventional wate...
Conclusion
• Improved Microscopic Sweep Efficiency
• Reduction in the Remaining Oil Saturation
(So)
• Displaces Hydrocarbo...
Próximos SlideShares
Carregando em…5
×

LowSalPresentation

288 visualizações

Publicada em

  • Entre para ver os comentários

LowSalPresentation

  1. 1. LOW SALINITY WATER INJECTION EOR SYSTEM APPLICATION IN NORTH SEA CLAIR FIELD Henry Ajuwa Msc Oil and Gas Engineering
  2. 2. Overview  Project Description  Objective  Background/Introduction  Field Geology  Low Salinity water injection process  Low Salinity water injection Mechanism  Methodology  Input data  Key Findings/Results  Reservoir Response Performance Simulation Engineering using Conventional Water Injection (CWI) System.  Reservoir Response Performance Simulation Engineering using LowSal System.  Comparative Sensitivity Analysis  Conclusion
  3. 3. Objective  Justify and demonstrate the potential reservoir performance response due to the application of a low salinity water injection system in the Clair field. Its advantages and benefits  Proposal of alternative field development plan in terms of reservoir performance indicators, with the application low salinity water injection systems in Clair field
  4. 4. Background/Introduction The Clair Field lies 75km (47 miles) west of Shetland, North Sea. Under a maximum water depth of 150 metres According to BP , the Clair field contains approximately 6 billion OOIP, of with approximately 3.25 billion OOIP located in the Ridge section. with over 638 MMSTB recoverable reserves using conventional water injection Clair Ridge estimated incremental oil recovery due to the Low Sal from the first year of application is about 7-10% of the OOIP Recovery Factor is relatively Low because of •Highly heterogeneous nature of the reservoir, •Low reservoir pressure •Open fracture
  5. 5. Field Geology Hydrocarbons are sourced from the fractured reservoir in the Clair Ridge Field are found in fractured Devonian-Carboniferous red sandstone beds at a reservoir depth of about 1850m
  6. 6. Low Salinity water injection process On the clay surface, multivalent cations are bond to polar compounds present in the oil reservoir forming organo-metallic complexes By injecting LowSal into the reservoir, the forces binding oil molecules to the mineral (pore) surface of the reservoir are reduced (via multiple-cation exchange)
  7. 7. Low Salinity water injection Mechanism Change in ion exchange equilibria occurs when divalent ions from LowSal, exchange with multivalent cationic oragano complexes (MIE) Recovery Mechanisms for Incremental Oil Recovery • Decrease of Residual Oil Saturation (Bound Oil becomes mobile) • Alteration of Rock Wettability (water-wet state) • Alteration of Relative Permeability • Cation Exchange between Reservoir Surface and LowSal Multicomponent Ionic Exchange (MIE)
  8. 8. Methodology History Matching Technique Workflow
  9. 9. Input Data
  10. 10. Reservoir Response Performance Simulation Engineering using Conventional Water Injection (CWI) System. MBAL Single Tank Model • Field Oil Production and Recovery Factor Profile • Field Pressure and Cumulative oil production Profile • Field Water Production and Water Injection Profile Reservoir Response Performance Indicators (CWI)
  11. 11. RESULTS and DISCUSSIONS (CWI) Oil production will increase from an average rate of 33 MSTB/D in 2015 Average peak rate of 116.7 MSTB/D in 2020 From 2025 through to the end of field life in 2055, oil production will decline averagely from 95MSTB/D to 7.4MSTB/D Overall field oil Recovery Factor as 25.79% Cumulative oil production increases exponentially from 6.09MMSTB/D in 2015 to a peaked average rate of 838.42MMSTB/D in 2055 Reservoir pressure decreases exponentially from 2800 psia in 2015 and drops to average abandonment pressure of 947 psia in 2055 Produced water increase from 10.8MSTB/D in 2016 to a peak of 195 MSTB/D in 2027 The volume of water injected increase from 0 to 116MMSTB in 2016 and kept constant for a period of 35years The peak water injection occurs at an average rate of 410MMSTb in 2054 (approaching the end of it life cycle) The average water cut is 96%
  12. 12. Reservoir Response Performance Simulation Engineering using LowSal System. MBAL Single Tank Model • Field Oil production and Recovery Factor Profile • Field Pressure and Cumulative Oil production Profile • Field Water Production and Water Injection Profile Reservoir Response Performance Indicators (LowSal)
  13. 13. RESULTS and DISCUSSIONS (LowSal) Oil production will increase from an average rate of 43.5 MSTB/D in 2015 Average peak rate of 216.7 MSTB/D in 2020 From 2025 through to the end of field life in 2055, oil production will decline averagely from 208MSTB/D to 28.2MSTB/D Overall field oil Recovery Factor as 37.5% Cumulative oil production increases exponentially from 3.9MMSTB/D in 2015 to a peaked average rate of 1221MMSTB/D in 2055 Reservoir pressure decreases exponentially from 2800 psia in 2015 and drops to average abandonment pressure of 823 psia in 2055 Produced water increase from 1.4MSTB/D in 2016 to a peak of 190 MSTB/D in 2027 The volume of water injected increase from 0 to 116MMSTB in 2016 and kept constant for a period of 35years The peak water injection occurs at an average rate of 410MMSTb in 2054 (approaching the end of it life cycle) The average water cut is 96%
  14. 14. Comparative sensitivity analysis Performance indicators Model Parameters Average water produced ( MMSTB) Conventional water injection LowSal 195 Cumulative oil produced (MMSTB) Conventional water injection LowSal 838.42 Average oil rate (STB/D) Conventional water injection LowSal 116.7 Oil recovery factor (%) Conventional water injection LowSal 25.79 Recovery Factor using LowSal is 38%, compared to 26% using CWI, demonstrating an IOR of about 45%. Cum Oil Production Rate using LowSal is 1221 MMSTB compared to 838.42 MMSTB using CWI (382.58 MMSTB increase), demonstrating an IOR of about 46% Average Daily Oil Production Rate using LowSal is 216.7 MMSTB compared to 116.7MMSTB using CWI (100 MMSTB increase), demonstrating an IOR of about 86%
  15. 15. Conclusion • Improved Microscopic Sweep Efficiency • Reduction in the Remaining Oil Saturation (So) • Displaces Hydrocarbons in the process ultimately leading to an IOR • An increase in overall Oil Production • Improved Wettability in the Reservoir System, Cumulating to a more water-wet state Advantages of LowSal LowSal EOR method immensely increased the amount of recoverable oil in the field LowSal systems perform better production compared to the CWI systems

×