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liquid dosage form.pptx

  1. Dosages Forms can be classified into: Liquid Dosage Forms Solution Syrup Suspension Emulsion
  2.  LIQUID DOSAGE FORMS 1. SOLUTIONS: A group of preparations in which the molecules of the solute (the dissolved substance) are dispersed among those of the solvent. Solutions can be classified into: 1- Aqueous solutions 2- Sweet and/or viscid solutions 3- Non-aqueous solutions
  3. 1- Aqueous Solutions Definition: Are liquid preparations that contain one or more soluble chemical substances dissolved in water. Advantages: It is Tasteless Odorless Free from irritating qualities Pharmacologically active
  4. Aromatic Waters: (medicated waters) Clear, saturated aqueous solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances. Used principally as flavored or perfumed vehicles. Examples of aromatic waters: * Peppermint Water USP *Stronger Rose Water USP
  5. 1- Douches:  Aqueous solutions directed against a part or into a cavity of the body  Are used as cleansing or antiseptic agents such as eye douches. 2- Enemas:  Rectal injections employed to evacuate the bowel.  They may possess anthelmintic, nutritive, sedative, or stimulating properties. Examples of aqueous solution preparation:
  6. Gargles: Aqueous solutions frequently containing antiseptics, antibiotics, and/or anesthetics Are used for treating the pharynx and nasopharynx (gargle is expectorated). Mouthwashes: Aqueous solutions containing for example antibiotics and flavoring agents to reduce plaque, gingivitis, dental caries, or to reduce bad breath.
  7. Nasal solutions: Aqueous solutions designed to be administered to the nasal passages in drops or sprays.  Are used to produce a local effect such as to reduce nasal congestion or to produce a systemic effect in many diseases. Otic solutions: Aqueous solutions used for topical administration in ear. Irrigation solutions: Used to wash surgical incisions, wounds, or body tissues.
  8. 2- Sweet and/or Viscid Solutions: Syrups Are concentrated solutions of sugar such as sucrose in water or other aqueous liquid.  Syrup NF contains: 850 g of sucrose + sufficient purified water (450 ml) to make 1 L of syrup, It is not saturated.  It is an 85% weight-in-volume (w/v) or approximately 65% weight-in-weight (w/w) solution with a specific gravity of 1.30.
  9.  3- Non-aqueous Solutions A) Elixirs  Are clear, pleasantly flavored, sweetened hydroalcoholic liquids intended for oral use.  The main ingredients in elixirs are ethanol and water but they usually include syrups, glycerin, flavoring agents and preservatives.  They are used as flavors or as medicated elixirs.
  10. B) Spirits  Spirits known as essences, are alcoholic, hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances containing 50%-90% alcohol.  This high alcoholic content maintains the water-insoluble volatile oils in solution.  If water is added to a spirit, the oils separate. 3- Non-aqueous Solutions
  11. 3- Non-aqueous Solutions C) Glycerins  Glycerins or glycerites are solutions or mixtures of medicinal substances is not less than 50% by weight of glycerin.  Glycerin is a valuable pharmaceutical solvent forming permanent and concentrated solutions not otherwise obtainable.
  12. 2. SUSPENSIONS  Suspension is a two-phase system consisting of a finely divided solid dispersed in a liquid.  The particle size of the dispersed solid is usually greater than 0.5 m, the liquid can be oily or aqueous. Preparations of suspensions are:  Oral mixtures, parenteral preparations and ophthalmic preparations.  Insoluble drugs may be formulated as suspensions for topical use such as calamine lotion.
  13. Properties of suspensions:  In well formulated suspensions the dispersed solid should settle slowly, if at all, and be redispersed readily on shaking.  The particles should have similar sizes and should not cake on settling.  The viscosity should be such that the preparation pours easily.
  14. The main ingredients in a suspension  The drug  Agents to wet the drug (wetting agents)  Agents to influence flocculation (flocculating agent)  Agents to control viscosity  External medium, usually water. In addition, flavoring, sweetening, and coloring agents and preservatives are used.
  15. Advantages of Suspensions 1- Used to supply drugs to the patient in a liquid form which is very convenient for many people. 2- If the drug is insoluble or poorly soluble, a suspension may be the most suitable dosage form 3- If a drug is unstable in an aqueous medium. 4- The taste of pharmaceuticals can be generally improved if they are supplied in suspension form rather than solutions
  16. 3. EMULSIONS  It is a two-phase system prepared by combining two immiscible liquids, one of which is dispersed uniformly throughout the other.
  17.  The liquid that is dispersed into small droplets is called the  Dispersed phase Internal phase Discontinuous phase  The other liquid is the  Dispersion medium External phase Continuous phase
  18.  When oil is the dispersed phase and an aqueous solution is the continuous phase, the system is designated as an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion.  Conversely, where water or an aqueous solution is the dispersed phase and oil or oleaginous material is the continuous phase, the system is designated as water- in-oil (W/O) emulsion.
  19.  Emulsions are unstable because: The globules of the dispersed liquid tend to coalesce to form large globules until all of the dispersed globules have coalesced.  An emulsifying agent is usually added to the system to prevent the coalescence of the globules and maintain the integrity of the individual globules of the dispersed phase.
  20. Advantages of emulsions over other liquid forms: 1- The unpleasant taste or odor of an oil can be masked partially or wholly, by emulsification 2- The solubility of many drugs is increased when they are incorporated into emulsions 3- The stability of many drugs which are unstable in aqueous solutions is increased when incorporated into an emulsion