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Introduction to biotechnology

Brief introduction to biotechnology with reference to pharmaceutical Biotechnology
General introduction to biotechnology, principle of biotechnology, history and application in different field.
Type of biotechnology
Traditional and modern biotechnology
Overview on genetic engineering
Role of Biotechnology in pharma and medicine sectors, products in pharmaceutical biotechnology

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Introduction to biotechnology

  2. 2. Objectives of this lecture By the end of this lecture you will be able to: 1. Development a general understanding of biotechnology 2. Recognition the different areas in biotechnology 3. Realize the significance of biotechnology in pharmaceutical production and application
  3. 3. Introduction Biotechnology: Karl Ereky, 1917 ✓ Kárl Ereky was a Hungarian agricultural engineer. ✓ The term 'biotechnology' was coined by him in 1917. ✓ He is regarded by some as the "father" of biotechnology.
  4. 4. Introduction... Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms. Biotechnology is the use of biological processes, organisms or systems to manufacture products to improve the quality of human life
  5. 5. Biotechnology is ..... The American Chemical Society defines biotechnology as the application of biological organisms, systems, or processes by various industries to learning about the science of life and the improvement of the value of materials and organisms such as pharmaceuticals, crops, and livestock. As per the European Federation of Biotechnology, biotechnology is the integration of natural science and organisms, cells, parts thereof, and molecular analogues for products and services.
  6. 6. Principle of biotechnology Old Biotechnology: Natural strains of microorganisms or cell line are being used the production of acid, wine , vinegar, bread, cheese ✓ related to food and shelter; Includes domestication. ✓ Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine.
  7. 7. ✓ Various forms of biotechnology existed already in ancient times. ✓ The making of wines and beers uses this biotechnology under controlled conditions. Alcoholic beverages have been produced for centuries in various societies. ✓ Insight into the nature of the traditional processes was achieved about 1870 when Pasteur made clear that chemical conversions in these processes are performed by living cells and should thus be considered as biochemical conversions. Biotechnology became science!
  8. 8. Principle of biotechnology Modern Biotechnology Modern biotechnology is a term adopted by international convention to refer to biotechnological techniques for the manipulation of genetic material and the fusion of cells beyond normal breeding barriers. ⚫ Genetic engineering or rDNA technology ⚫ Chemical engineering
  9. 9. Genetic engineering or rDNA technology rDNA technology is one of the recent advances in biotechnology, which was developed by two scientists named Boyer and Cohen in 1973. ❑ Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology. ❑ Genetic engineering involves taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either. ▪ Transferring them to another organism. ▪ Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations.
  10. 10. Application of Biotechnology ❑Agriculture Biotechnology ❑Medical Biotechnology ❑Engineering Biotechnology ❑Biomedical Engineering ❑Textile and Paper Biotechnology ❑Environmental Biotechnology ❑Mining and Metal Biotechnology ❑Leather Biotechnology ❑Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
  11. 11. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Pharmaceutical biotechnology consist of the combination of two branches which are “PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE” and “BIOTECHNOLOGY”. DEFINATION: Pharmaceutical science: can simply be define as the branch of science that deals with the formulation compounding and dispensing of drugs Biotechnology: can simply be define as the application of biological system, living organisms or their derivatives in making or modifying products or processes for specific use.
  12. 12. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology : can simply be define as the science that covers all technologies required for the production, manufacturing and registration of biological drugs. The aim of this pharmaceutical biotechnology is to design, produce drugs that are adapted to each persons genetic make up, which can give the maximum therapeutic effect. Biotechnology plays an important role in pharmaceutical science most especially in the pharmaceutical industries by creation of genetically modified organisms that can be used in industrial production. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
  13. 13. Techniques used to produce biotechnologies products ❑ Genetic engineering or rDNA technology ❑ Monoclonal antibodies ❑ Cell therapy ❑ Gene therapy ❑ Polymerase chain reaction ❑ Peptide technologies
  14. 14. Application of Biotechnology in pharmaceutical sciences ➢ Biotechnology derived drugs are being applied in cancer, HIV, AIDS and AIDS related and autoimmune disease ➢ In diagnostic investigation ➢ As blood substitutes, cloning factors etc ➢ Human insulin and human growth factor were the first set of biotechnology products to be applied for human therapy
  15. 15. The common pharmaceutical biotechnology products: The common pharmaceutical biotechnology products that are made by the biotech pharmaceutical companies includes: ⚫ Antibodies ⚫ Proteins ⚫ Recombinant DNA Products.
  16. 16. Antibodies ⚫ Antibodies are both highly sensitive and highly specific for particular epitopes, which makes them ideal reagents for research applications ⚫ The exquisite specificity of monoclonal antibodies (Mab) has long provided the potential for creating new reagents for the in vivo delivery of therapeutic drugs or toxins to defined cellular target sites or improved methods of diagnosis.
  17. 17. Protein ⚫ Proteins perform a wide range of biological functions within organisms, including enzyme catalysis, defence, transport, support, motion, and regulation. ⚫ Recombinant proteins have wide applications in medicine, research, and biotechnology.
  18. 18. Recombinant DNA products ⚫ Recombinant DNA is used to identify, map and sequence genes, and to determine their function. ⚫ DNA technology and gene cloning are essential to the pharmaceutical industry and medicine. ⚫ DNA technology is being used to help diagnose genetic diseases, such as sickle-cell disease and Huntington's disease (brain disorder).