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  2. 2. I N T E R V I E WQUESTIONS- What defines you as a feminist? Why do you think feminism has such a stigma connected to it? Should people fear the recent issues which are happening in the world right now? What gives you hope for feminism? What personal experience drew you to feminism? Why did you become a feminist? What is your biggest focus within the movement towards gender equality? What is your personal aim for feminism? Have you ever been personally attacked for being a feminist? Do you think protests work? Do you think young people protesting works? INTERVIEWEES: University of York Feminist Society- feminists@yusu.org Feminists Talk- Instagram Rhys- Student Forever Feminists- Instagram York Feminist Network- yorkfeministnetwork@gmail.com EMAILS SENT- 24/09/2018 University Of York Feminist Society York Feminist Network INSTAGRAM DIRECT MESSAGES SENT- 24/09/2018
  3. 3. Interview with Feminists Talk: Why have you decided to create an Instagram page for feminism? → We decided to create this account primarily because we, ourselves, were fed up of the way society treated women, treated victims, the expectations they had from women and the behaviour they allowed on the part of men. We wanted to raise awareness and try our best to bring about some change, no matter how little it may be. What defines you as a feminist? → I believe a ‘feminist’ is at their very core, someone who believes that everyone should be treated the same, that everyone should have the same rights and freedoms, and gender, race, sexual orientation should not dictate our rights. Why do you think feminism has such a stigma connected to it? → Personally, I feel that there are two aspects to modern day feminism. There’s a side that genuinely honours the true meaning of feminism and works to challenge misogyny and the patriarchy but there’s another far more radical side that tries to paint all men as predators and attacks men the same way some men attack women. I don’t think radical feminism helps anyone. It does more harm than good and perhaps, discourages people from the very notion of feminism without really knowing what it is. Should people fear the recent issues which are happening in the world right now? → I think we’re all already afraid. What we have to do now, is work to challenge what’s happening and bring about change. We’ve been quiet for too long. We need to raise our voices but also create a safe space for people who choose to speak out. We need to learn to listen more. What gives you hope for feminism? → When you look at the patriarchy over a timeline, and it does not have to extend a hundred years back, even when I look at the things my mother and my grandmother and other women in my own family have gone through at the hands of the patriarchy, and then when I compare my life to theirs and realize that I don’t go through even half of what they did, it gives me hope. You understand that every effort counts, it doesn't matter how small it seems at the time, it will always be significant over generations. What personal experience drew you to feminism? → Several incidents of boys not only catcalling me, but having the audacity to grab me in public places, sending me unsolicited dick pictures is probably what drew me to feminism in the first place. I felt unsafe, I knew it was not okay and I knew how many other women go through the very same thing on the daily. I wanted these women to feel safe, I wanted to feel safe, I wanted everyone to stop and acknowledge the things that women go through on the daily.
  4. 4. Have you ever been personally attacked for being a feminist? → About a few hundred times a day on my Instagram page, but also in real life. More than a few times, I’ve had male friends challenge what I believe in and make fun of my beliefs and what I stand for. I’ve stopped talking to them, to stay the least. What is your personal aim for feminism? → My personal aim is to watch change happen, to watch our white supremacist society fall apart and to play a significant role in making that happen. I want to educate men and women alike who view things from a place of privilege that these issues still exist in first world countries and are much more prevalent in a world outside the United States. A lot of people who are against feminism fail to acknowledge that a whole world exists outside of first world countries. Do celebrities have a big influence on what you choose to support? Why? → Personally, no. I do not keep up much with what celebrities say about feminism unless it is a big speech or anything revolutionary. I understand, though, that a lot of people found out about feminism and the MeToo movement through celebrities and I am grateful for them using their voice correctly and effectively. How do you view social media as a tool for social activism? → I believe it’s an excellent tool to raise awareness and even to make a significant change in the real world as a lot of activists on social media start businesses and donate a portion of the proceeds to charity. In our social media dominated world, it is important to use a medium to educate people that the people can relate to. If you could pick ONE person, famous or not famous… Who inspires you the most? Why? → I know this is going to sound cliché, but I would say my mom. Even though in our culture at her time, it was unconventional for women to work after they were married, she defied all the odds, for us. To set an example for us. She is a highly qualified gynaecologist, an associate consultant and she kept studying after she got married. In fact, she earns enough to support all of us, she’s done exceptionally well. She teaches and inspires me everyday that I can do anything that a man can do, I can change the world with my intelligence and with my heart. That is a lesson that most girls are not taught; they should be. Any last words? → I would like to say that ‘feminism’ is not a dirty word. People need to stop being afraid of confronting all the wrong that has been happening, that is allowed to happen, in our society. We are not here to oppress women, we would never, we are too familiar with what that feels like. We are only asking for the same opportunities, for a level playing field. Interview with Feminists Talk:
  5. 5. Interview with Leah: What defines you as a feminist? Wanting to be equal to others in the world. And trying to do something about it to make that happen. Why do you think feminism has such a stigma connected to it? I would have to think that it has the stigma as there are some people who decide to take it much too far, and no longer be equal, but have women as higher than males, which is not what it even means. I also feel there are some men who are unaware of what it means to be quite equal, which is not their fault, but they are misled. Some of these do not see the possible gaps in places and how the men are seen above. Should people fear the recent issues which are happening in the world right now? I feel they should fear some of those as it is reverting back to older times in some places, with men in power that are not aware of how to be this equal. A big one would be how Trump is making it more and more seem that it is okay to belittle women and other minorities, and make it alright for them to not be as equal as they should be. What gives you hope for feminism? What gives me hope is that there are quite a lot of people who identify as feminists with an actual knowledge of what the word means, and are spreading the knowledge through the internet. What personal experience drew you to feminism? Personally, finding out a couple facts about how unequal parts of the world are, lead me to feminism. After I found out a couple facts, it was easier to see more and more throughout the world. Have you ever been personally attacked for being a feminist? I have not been attacked, I have had multiple people argue with me over some facts and about the importance of being a feminist though. What is your personal aim for feminism? My personal aim is to have the world be more equal in general, and stop trying to make it continuously less equal. Do celebrities have a big influence on what you choose to support? Why? In a way, I guess celebrities do have an influence on me, due to them raising awareness and allowing me to find out about more issues. Although I try to not let them have too big of an effect as I still like to be able to have my own opinions.
  6. 6. Do celebrities have a big influence on what you choose to support? Why? In a way, I guess celebrities do have an influence on me, due to them raising awareness and allowing me to find out about more issues. Although I try to not let them have too big of an effect as I still like to be able to have my own opinions. How do you view social media as a tool for social activism? I feel it can help raise awareness, but in certain areas may not help a lot as there are too many people on social media who try to oppose everything said to them and any opinions of other people. If you could pick ONE person, famous or not famous… Who inspires you the most? Why? One of the most inspiring people to me would have to be Misha Collins (an actor from shows like Supernatural) as he has made sure to always support as many charities and less well-off people than himself. Along with this, he spreads his personal stories of his less successful days, and childhood which show how he has gone through a lot of bad things, and yet has still come through that smiling and gotten to the point where he can support others too how he was or wished he could have been supported. He has raised money for his charity, Random Acts, and used that money to build schools and other necessities in 3rd world counties and made sure that all the money has gone to what he says it will go to. Even keeping the supporters in the frame with everything through social media posts and encouraging some of them to go out and help muck in themselves. Interview with Leah:
  7. 7. Interview with Laura Flowers: What defines you as a feminist? I believe in equal rights for EVERYBODY Why do you think feminism has such a stigma connected to it? There’s so many misconceptions because of the name- people believe that feminism is favouring women over men when that’s not true at all. People need to understand that it’s called feminism due to it being females being oppressed Should people fear the recent issues which are happening in the world right now? Donald trump is terrifying for feminism but I feel there’s no need for a new fear- if anything feminists are getting stronger because of it. What gives you hope for feminism? The new wave of feminists joining the cause- hopefully they’ll stay not just for the social media trend What personal experience drew you to feminism? It wasn’t an experience as such but more education and realising how unequal the world is- how a white straight man can do anything he wants pretty much whereas someone of another race/sexuality/gender would get prosecuted for it Have you ever been personally attacked for being a feminist? No, I’ve had heated arguments because of it but I’ve never been articles for it What is your personal aim for feminism? For people to understand it’s not just a trend and to understand the causes around it and to see we are not just big angry women! Of course I would also love to live in an equal society too Do celebrities have a big influence on what you choose to support? Why? No, but I can understand why they do for a younger audience. If anything I take it with a pinch of salt because I think do they really think this or is this just to polish their brand/ get new fans and sometimes their feminism is problematic. For example, people such as Emma Watson can be seen as a “White Feminist” whom forgets about the race issues in feminism and her points of view appears for feminism to be ONLY a fight to get white women equal and forgets about black women/trans women and I think that view of feminism can be quite damaging for a young person to see. I prefer feminist Instagram accounts such as @rebel.lou who speaks on period poverty/trans issues as well as fighting the patriarchy
  8. 8. Interview with Laura Flowers: How do you view social media as a tool for social activism? I think it’s good as a tool of education and telling stories about feminism and other causes, without it I wouldn’t be as educated as I was. If you could pick ONE person, famous or not famous… Who inspires you the most? Why? Chimanda Ngozi Adichie, a revolutionary feminist & writer whom speaks beautifully about the feminist cause and issues of race. I’d recommend her TED talks to anybody. Any last words? Feminism is not feminism if it’s not equal and it’s not a fashion trend
  9. 9. Interview with Patrick Colman: What defines you as a feminist? My beliefs in equal opportunity for all people regardless of their sex. Why do you think feminism has such a stigma connected to it? The stigma in my opinion originates in the fairly large group of people in the feminist community that call themselves advocates for equal rights but have evolved into a more extreme form of social discrimination. This has caused a decline in the people who call themselves feminist and in 2016 only 7% of people in the UK identified themselves as feminist. This is because many people see the feminist movement develop more into man hating than a movement to bring equal rights to women where it has already been achieved. Should people fear the recent issues which are happening in the world right now? People should not be worried about women’s rights in western culture, however in many other cultures such as Asian and middle eastern there is a big problem with the discrimination of women and their role in society. This should be the main focus of women rights activists. What gives you hope for feminism? the fact that women are socially equal, have no barriers and have equal opportunities to men for a long time. In the UK and all western counties. What personal experience drew you to feminism? The way that women are treated in other cultures and how long it took our western culture to become the equal place for women makes me want to help and support women’s rights around the world and help advance the role of women in society in poorer countries. Have you ever been personally attacked for being a feminist? No. I have never met someone who has taken an Anti-feminist view. I personally believe that if anyone in 2018 is attacked for being a feminist they are being attacked by a part of a tiny percentage of extremist racists or they are against the more extreme branch of feminists that have evolved the man hating culture that has developed.
  10. 10. What is your personal aim for feminism? To improve the situation of women in countries like Saudi Arabia where women face challenges and are treated unfairly, and to make sure that the current equality in the UK continues into the future. Do celebrities have a big influence on what you choose to support? Why? No, celebrities have no effect on my political standpoints on any subjects. Celebrities are no more qualified than I am and their views on subjects are as important as the view of a person I meet in town. They are often paid to go to political events and they can be easily used to sway the votes of people such as in the 2016 American elections where both the left and right used celebrities to further their campaign. If I would be influenced by a figure it would be a politician. How do you view social media as a tool for social activism? I believe social media is a great way to spread awareness for any political view. On the other hand, despite the people who try to use the platform to spread facts and arguments there will always be a presence of people who will “troll” or hate on any person trying to make change. This leads me to think that the best use of time for a person trying to change something is to go into politics or join a community outside of the internet where more can be done. If you could pick ONE person, famous or not famous… Who inspires you the most? Why? One person who inspires me politically is the American podcast presenter of the daily wire Ben Shapiro. While I do not agree with some of his views on politics in the USA I believe that his morality surrounding discrimination is one that I can get behind. He is most well-known for disproving extreme feminist views that border the line between feminism and man hating. This is important to me as I think that extreme feminism that is mainly prominent in the USA is making many real feminist groups suffer. Interview with Patrick Colman:
  11. 11. The twentieth century will, without a doubt, be viewed by historians as the Woman’s Hour. The twentieth century was a massive breakthrough for feminism. Early twentieth century women had the destiny to marry young, stay home and raise children. By late 1900’s women had the right to work as well as the right of an education. There were many feminist influencers in the 1900’s society. Campaigners like Millicent Fawcett and Elizabeth Garret Anderson carried out a personal and peaceful protest to open careers to women. This was especially in Elizabeth’s interest as her aspirations were to enter the medical field. Unfortunately, her early attempts to get into medical school were rejected. Millicent founded the Fawcett Society, this challenged the barriers and obstacles that women still face- equal pay, representation in the boardroom and Cabinet. Today her society acts as a major influencer of public policy for woman and families. Elizabeth became the first female doctor and first female mayor of Britain, and Millicent was a leading feminist and campaigner. At this time, there were two different groups of feminists- suffragists and suffragettes. The suffragists were a national organisation who believed in a peaceful approach whereas the suffragettes were a smaller organisation with 2000 members who believed in direct action. It was the suffragettes who made the biggest difference in society. The suffragette term was first employed in the Daily Mail in January 1906, by march of that year it was in general use to differentiate the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) from the suffragettes. The WSPU was formed in 1903 in Manchester by a small group led by Emmeline Pankhurst. This group dedicated itself to securing the vote for women to enable them to take full part in the political process. There achieved this by any militant means, drawing the line at any threat to human life. They could break windows, throw stones, burn slogans, cut telegraph wires and telephones, destroy pillar boxes and burn or bomb empty buildings. Emily Wilding Davison was the martyr of this movement; she was prepared to give her life for women’s rights. Davison was arrested and went on a hunger strike in Holloway prison, 1912 she tried to kill herself in prison. She died a year later, she threw herself in front of the King’s Horse at Epsom and died from her injuries. By 1918 it was impossible to deny women’s contribution in the war effort and a year later, The Electoral Reform Bill granted voting rights to all women who owned property who were thirty or more. It was not until 1928 that the age limitation of voting was the same as men- 21. There have been many firsts for women, the first woman MP- Constance Markievicz, the first woman MP who took her seat in the House of Commons- Nancy Astor, First Woman Cabinet minster- Margaret Bondfield in 1929. Article- Feminism in the 1900’s:
  12. 12. Many years later the 1944 Education Act came into place, steered through Parliament by the Education Minister, R.A. Butler. Wives and mothers wanted a renegotiation of the old order. They argued for a form of democracy in the home where rights and responsibilities would be equally shared. They wanted equal rights, equal opportunity and equal pay in the work place. The Education Act established the principle of the free education for all from primary and secondary. In 1954 an article was published by The Hunts post headlined with “Girls Brainer Than Boys”. In the 1960’s women’s movement of the second part of the century began to bubble in the mid-sixties as American women like Betty Friedan wrote of their dissatisfaction with their lot as wives and mothers. In 1968 the women’s liberation movement had its first raft of publicity when women demonstrated at a Miss America competition and threw their stiletto heels in the bin. Whatever the hated symbols of oppression were, women were saying that what is the most personal is political and they were questioning and redefining their roles as wives, mothers, workers, and lovers in the light of their own experience. Linda Grant reported that some of the women felt the sexual revolution of the sixties had given them the right to say yes, feminism told them it was OK to say no. To be a young woman in the late sixties and early seventies was increasingly exciting, any problem which they faced they forced change. At the BBC women were not allowed to wear trousers until Susannah Simons in 1969 wore trousers to work, a senior executive pointed this transgression out, she took her trousers off which left her wearing an extremely short skirt. The rule was soon changed. It was also one of the rare moments in history a movement of immense power, in 1970 the first British conference of the Women’s Liberation movement in oxford resolved to press for the employment legislation. Barbara Castle as Secretary of State for Employment introduced the Equal Pay bill. This was enacted together with the Sex Discrimination Act. The laws have not proved perfect, but they have provided a legal framework for change. To this day women are still sacked for being pregnant and are sexually harassed at work, Men still cling to the old ways where the man was the master and the woman served. Men will still earn 30% more than women by the end of the century. But this is something which might change over the next few years. Feminism has become almost too shameful to admit with lots of women prefacing their opinions, but I personally feel as though the 1900’s was a breakthrough for feminism and women’s right. We should all be thankful for the suffragettes and the influential women in the 1900’s who prepared to give their life for women’s rights. Article- Feminism in the 1900’s:
  13. 13. Article- Feminism and Musical Theatre: Throughout history there has always been an issue in the world, whether its other cultures, beliefs, sexes, ages and even social classes. It’s well known that some people don’t like people who are different from them. However, I believe theatre has always been a step ahead of this issue. You can often find social injustice in every musical ever invented. Hairspray, Avenue Q, Kinky Boots, Grease, Legally Blonde and Les Misérablesare just a few musicals which feature these motives. Grease the musical exposes the negative social issues of the late 1950’s. A boy meets a girl on their summer holiday and they fall in love. When they finally see each other their summer romance isn’t the same, Danny changes he is no longer the sweet and caring boy who saved her life from drowning instead he’s a back boy with grease stains, a leather jacket and slicked black hair. They end up riding off together into the sunset. Grease is the most well-known musical but it still is very underrated. Grease takes place in 1959 Los Angeles in a high school called “Rydell High”. In this time period teenagers followed their parents’ wishes (this is portrayed through the character Sandy). Sandys costume says a lot about her attitude at the beginning, she wears modest skirts, natural hair, stayed away from sex, drugs, alcohol and smoking. While on the other hand there were the Pink Ladies who were the badass girls of the school. Their leader Rizzo is portrayed at as the school slag; she carries around a “don’t mess with me” vibe. This musical gave the teenagers of the 50’s a voice, it showed them that its ok to break the role barriers of society. It also tells the society that it’s okay for females to be bad. You know this because of the Pink Ladies attitude as well as the ending scene with Sandy changing her appearance (I think she was just embracing her true self and disregarding the shame she will face from her family and society).
  14. 14. Legally Blonde explores the theme of “You must always believe in yourself”. Legally Blonde is a musical about a blonde sorority girl who falls in love with a preppy rich student destined for Harvard Law School. They end breaking up because Elle is “less of a Marilyn more of a Jackie” and that he wants someone who is “classy and not too tacky”, implying that Elle is a stupid blonde sorority girl who isn’t smart or classy to keep a guy like him. She follows him to Harvard Law school after spending all summer studying to get 179 on her LSAT. At the start of the musical no one believes Elle could get into an Ivy League school- she proved them wrong. After she gets into Harvard and gets into the Professors elite student legal team she gets sexual assaulted by her professor. Not only does she reject him straight away she rallies to get him fired and steals his murder case. Throughout the musical, she gets mocked for her feminine traits as if it’s a bad thing. Elle isn’t smart or classy enough for this rich preppy guy but people also think she’s not prepared to be in Law school because she’s a blonde sorority girl. Legally Blonde teaches girls that it is okay to embrace being feminine, smart, classy and independent. Les Misérables has examples of feminist undertones throughout the 2 hour 40-minute musical. It is set in France in 1978. During this time zone, it was extremely difficult for women to get a job, if you didn’t have a job or a husband you were destined to starve and die. The government of France gave nothing to the poor. Fantine was fired for having a child and not having a husband, in that day and age having a child without a husband was a deadly sin- notice how the father gets out of this mess, he’s gets her pregnant, leaves and is free to do whatever he wants for the rest of his life. Les Misérables is a great musical showing the struggles of the poor, but also shows the struggles of females in the 70’s. Personally this puts things into perspective for me regarding my feminist views, I can’t believe that women were treated like that while the father of this child just walked away. Sexism is still a massive problem. People get slut-shamed, fat-shamed and there is still a gender pay gap in today’s society. Theatre has always been relevant and a step forward for problems in society. Grease, Legally Blonde and Les Misérables all have a female lead and a script which could have changed the worlds perspective on feminist, Article- Feminism and Musical Theatre:
  15. 15. Article- Movements in Feminism: Over the past few years there have been increasing numbers of movements on social media and on the streets of cities. Most of the movements online are started by celebrities to bring more awareness to the cause. Hashtags have tremendous power, they’re an effective way to sift through the chaos of social media. They can take on a life of their own, becoming slogans to capture the attention of millions. The MeToo Campaign- This movement is against sexual harassment and sexual assault. This hashtag spread virally in October 2017. This was used on social media in an attempt to demonstrate the widespread prevalence of sexual assault and harassment, especially in the workplace. It soon followed after the sexual allegations of Harvey Weinstein. Tarana Burke, an American social activist and community organiser, began using the Phrase “Me Too” as early as 2006. The phrase was later popularised by Alyssa Milano, on twitter in 2017. She encouraged victims of sexual harassment to tweet about their experiences- she thought this would make people have a sense of magnitude of the problem. Several celebrities, including Gwyneth Paltrow, Ashley Judd, Jennifer Lawrence and Uma Thurman tweeted their experiences. Tarana Burke used this hashtag as part of her campaign to promote “empowerment through empathy” among women of colour who had experienced sexual abuse. She was inspired to use the phrase after being unable to respond to a 13-year-old girl who confided to her that she had been sexually assaulted. Millions of women have used the feminist hashtag, many also sharing their stories of how they have survived the manipulation or sexual violence. It took the internet by force that it was brought the conversation about sexual harassment to the forefront. TimesUp movement- This hashtag was introduced on New Year’s Day (1st January 2018) and becomes increasingly popular every day. As of February 2018, it has raised $20 million for its legal defence fund and gathered over 200 volunteer lawyers. The organisation aim is to create concrete change, leading safety and equality in the workplace. Even though Time’s Up is focused on what happens to professional people, the organisations work is really a tribute to Tarana Burke because of all the work which she did a decade before the MeToo exploded globally.
  16. 16. WhyIDidntReport hashtag- on September 16, Christine Blasely Ford publicly accused Brett Kavanaugh of sexually assaulting her when they were teenagers. This caused president trump to tweet “I have no doubt that, if the attack on Dr. Ford was as bad as she says, charges would have been immediately filed with local Law Enforcement Authorities by either her or her loving parents.". In response, women across Twitter are sharing their own stories of assault with the hashtag WhyIDidntReport to explain why it can be nearly impossible for victims and assault or harassment to come forward. Many of their stories are difficult, raw and upsetting but they are real. WomensReality- This hashtag invites women to examine the gap between women’s legal rights and women lived reality. By shining light on everyday experiences of discrimination, women are exposing why the movement for gender equality still matters to them. Gender discrimination plays out in ways which we might not see at first. For every right, there is a shadow side of reality. ThisGirlCan- Launched in January 2015, this campaign was developed by Sport England to promote sport amongst women. This campaign is a celebration of active women who are doing their own thing no matter how they do it. It is funded by the National Lottery and developed by Sport England, their aim is to help women overcome the fear of judgement that is stopping too many women and girls from joining in. It’s a sad reality that often when a woman speaks out about her opinion on gender equality she is responded with threats of rape or murder. However, rather than being a negative space Twitter has become a space in which examples of activism are dotted around the site, people can freely speak their opinions and connect with people who share the same opinions. Over the recent years hashtags have started to become more powerful, especially in feminism . Article- Movements in Feminism:
  17. 17. Article- Fact File of influential women: Millicent Fawcett (1846–1929) A leading suffragist and campaigner for equal rights for women. She led Britain’s biggest suffrage organisation, the non- violent (NUWSS) and played a key role in gaining women the vote. She also helped found Newnham College, Cambridge. Emmeline Pankhurst (1858–1928) A British suffragette, Emily Pankhurst dedicated her life to the promotion of women’s rights. She explored all avenues of protest including violence, public demonstrations and hunger strikes. She died in 1928, 3 weeks before a law giving all women over 21 the right to vote. Marie Curie (1867–1934) Polish/French scientist. Curie was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize and the first person to win the Nobel Prize for two separate categories. Her first award was for research into radioactivity (Physics, 1903). Her second Nobel prize was for Chemistry in 1911. A few years later she also helped develop the first X-ray machines. Rosa Luxemburg (1870–1919) Polish/German Marxist revolutionary, Rosa Luxemburg sought to bring social reform to Germany. She wrote fiercely against German imperialism and for international socialism. In 1919, she was murdered after a failed attempt to bring about a Communist revolution in Germany. Coco Chanel (1883–1971) French fashion designer. One of the most innovative fashion designers, Coco Chanel was instrumental in defining feminine style and dress during the 20th Century. Her ideas were revolutionary; in particular she often took traditionally male clothes and redesigned them for the benefit of women. Annie Besant (1847–1933) British campaigner for social justice, an advocate of women’s rights and later member of the Theosophist society. She also actively campaigned for Indian independence. Mother Teresa (1910–1997) Albanian nun and charity worker. Devoting her life to the service of the poor and dispossessed Mother Teresa became a global icon for selfless service to others. Through her Missionary of Charities organisation, she personally cared for thousands of sick and dying people in Calcutta. She was awarded the Nobel Peace prize in 1979. Rosa Parks (1913–2005) American civil rights activist. Rosa Parks’ refusal to give up her bus seat in Montgomery, Alabama, indirectly led to some of the most significant civil rights legislation of American history. She sought to play down her role in the civil rights struggle but for her peaceful and dignified campaigning she became one of the most well respected figures in the civil rights movements. Margaret Thatcher (1925–2013) The first female Prime minister of Great Britain, she governed for over 10 years, putting emphasis on individual responsibility and a belief in free markets. Anne Frank (1929–1945) Dutch Jewish author. Anne Frank’s diary is one of the most widely read books in the world. It reveals the thoughts of a young, yet surprisingly mature 13-year-old girl, confined to a secret hiding place. “Despite everything, I believe that people are really good at heart.
  18. 18. Article- events in 2017/2018 that changed the world: 2017 January- Donald Trump President/woman’s march February- North Korea Missile test March- Article 50 April- Syrian Missile attack May- Manchester terror attack June- London Bridge/Grenfell July- North Korea, missile attack August- 20Th anniversary of Diana- white nationalists march through Uni of Virginia Campus September- Olympics October- Theresa May handed a P45/ Las Vegas music festival shooting/ Harvey Weinstein November- Da Vinci’s painting sold for more than $450 million December- Trump signed the tax reform bill into law 2018 January- Women’s marches are held around the country to commemorate the first anniversary of the global event February- Grammy awards March Prince Harry & Megan encourage Birmingham students to pursue careers in science and maths April- Louis Arthur Charles is born May- Royal Wedding/ one year since bombing of Manchester June- one year since Grenfell/trooping colour July- Trump Star vandalised/ Protesters dress as pregnant Trumps- to support women’s reproductive rights. August- Man arrested after crashing to cyclists and security barriers outside Houses of Parliament. September- 2 Russians accused of the UK poisoning of Russian Spy in Salisbury October- Pret a manger to change labelling after girl; allergy death

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