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Shifting to Net Zero: A Case Study of New Delhi

  1. Shifting to Net Zero: A Case Study of New Delhi 2022 UNU-IAS ProSPER.Net Leadership Programme
  2. Rajat Rajat is a doctoral student at Hokkaido University. His research interest is the application of remote sensing technology for the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystems. Yen Nguyen Yen works for the Center for Higher Education Technology- Science Transfer-Research under the Association of Vietnam Universities and Colleges. Kaidi Ru Kaidi is a consultant for corporate clients in the construction and energy sectors and is interested in topics intersecting technology, public policy, and development. Padmi is a doctoral student at the University of Texas at Arlington, focusing on nature-based solutions for sustainable water management and climate change for resilient urban areas Padmi Ranasinghe
  3. Project Background The capital of India City area 1,483 sqKm. UN population projection in 2022 is 32M, and it will be 43.3M by 2035 (UN Population Prospects). Length of Railway 184 km. One of the highest registered vehicles in any city worldwide. No pollution emission norm. City residents lost multiple hundred million hours due to traffic.
  4. 2nd ≈11.5m Delhi's transport sector is the second largest emitter in the city after domestic use Registered motor vehicles in 2021, with 40% of road deaths being pedestrians (495 persons) Key Transport Issues in Delhi 30% Vehicle exhaust accounts for 30% of PM2.5 concentrations, with diesel- based Heavy duty trucks contributing to a third of the problem
  5. Improving Public Transport Network & Infrastructure Enhancing Walkability and Building Pedestrian & Cyclists- Friendly Communities Promoting Non-Motorized Transport & Low Carbon Transport Reducing Vehicular Pollution
  6. Project Timeline Constructing a BRT Corridor between Ambedkar Nagar to Delhi Gate Installing city-wide intelligent signaling system Retrofitting existing infrastructure along the 15 BRT corridors Augmentating state-owned CNG Bus Fleet (↑ mode share) Retrofitting Railway Terminals Accessible EV Charging Station Networks Improving Interchange Infrastructure Modernization of all Bus Queue shelters Completion of 8 rail corridors in NCR PUBLIC TRANSPORT IMPROVEMENTS Implementing city-wide bike sharing scheme Smart land planning and mixed zoning measures Inclusion of designated pavement, greenery, NMT crossings at required street interval Awareness campaigns Retrofitting old street lights to make cycling and walking safe and convenient Providing dedicated drop-o / pick-up bays on all arterial roads Retrofitting key junctions for safe mobility Adding walking and cycling track within 1km of all metro stations Accessible amentities, e.g. resting areas and WCs at intervals Tightening vehicle emission test procedures Creating financing mechanism for public transport from fuel-based vehicle manufacturing Establishing congestion charging at key areas Implementation of automatic fare collection system on all public transport Prohibiting non-destined vehicles to enter Delhi Tax increase on private fuel-based vehicles Modernization of parking systems City-wide mobile enforcement monitoring vehicular pollution Levy of Environment Compensation Charge on commercial vehicles entering Delhi Inter-state borders enforcment to monitor vehicle overloading Providing dedicated drop-o / pick-up bays 2023 2027 2031 2035 WALKABILITY AND NON- VEHICLE MOVEMENTS AUXILLARY SERVICES & REGULATORY SUPPORT
  7. Result Based Project Framework Inputs Outputs Actions Outcomes Awareness-raising to prompt local stakeholders to challenge the status quo, targeting areas with few public transports access Collaborating with current academic and industry partners to enhance proprietary innovations in urban tra ic management Developing bike and pedestrian friendly amenities such as bike safety boxes, bike lanes, bike-sharing docks, multilingual signage, and eliminating cul-de-sacs Establishing feedback and feed-forward communication channels to easily report and share transit delays and service outages Designing and coding a real-time GIS APP detailing cost, time saved, carbon footprint with various private and public transport options Seasonal public consultation with relevant stakeholders esp. hospitals, schools, and tourist sites for collective solution design Increasing transport connectivity by developing Park & Ride sites, solar car parks, and EV charging stations at key locations Building all-weather, climate resilient arterial roads and explore multiple forms of public transport such as regional Bus Rapid Transit City and district-level air quality data City and district-level data on the number of people hospitalised for relevant respiratory diseases by disease type City and district-level data on road safety accidents by vehicle type and occurrence Human capital and GIS/GPS based monitoring system for on-time transit Funding for public transport reforms and infrastructure development List of existing urban development plans to highlight local development gaps and priorities Current emission figures from the transport sector Relevant research and studies on the status quo List of current tra ic management system technologies applied Vehicle registration statistics by type, year, permit, and ownership Availability of public transport by type & map overlay by district with desire lines Datasets from Open Transit Data Delhi Sector Specific Regulatory Support Health & Safety Enhanced walkability and cycling in Delhi Reduced number of tra ic fatalities and the number of serious injuries due to tra ic collisions Reduce public transport service outages due to technological glitches and signal failures to zero Reduce wasted customer-hours of weather-related transit service outages Increase rail transit capacity into central Delhi between 8-9am by 20% by 2035 Ensure the average Delhi resident can reach their jobs by public transport within 45 minutes by 2035 Halve PM2.5 pollutants emitted from vehicle exhaust by 2035 Improved public health from lowered air pollution levels, esp. regarding non- communicable respiratory diseases Expanded EV charging station network covering major governmental institutions, hospitals, and universities Higher confidence in vulnerable populations and women to use public transport at night-time Promoting sharing-rather-than-buy private transport mindset Revised policy incentives and disincentives, e.g., subsidies for EV purchases and usages and gradual phasing out of diesel HDVs Completion of Delhi Cycle Walk Project Phase 1; build 36 km of dedicated corridor for pedestrians and cyclists Produce multilingual maps for domestic and local tourists to enjoy the Cycle Walk Reviewed documentation on vehicle permit granting process to streamline vehicle registration and operation processes Reviewed public transport pricing strategies and mechanisms to incentivise o -peak travelling Weekly social media campaigns on public transport availability and road safety, targeting cyclists and auto- rickshaw operators Installation and application of intelligent tra ic microwave detectors at key junctions to optimise routing during rush hours APP for everyday travel as well as a marketplace to facilitate second-hand EV purchases and motorcycle/bicycle retrofitting Updated police patrolling schedules to deter night crimes in public transport venues Reducing emissions from the transport sector in Delhi by 40% by 2035
  8. Challenges, Risks, and Mitigating Measures Part I
  9. Challenges, Risks, and Mitigating Measures Part II
  10. Challenges, Risks, and Mitigating Measures Part III
  11. Monitoring and Evaluation Framework I Indicator Data Source Timing Responsibility Reference to SDG Percentage of people travel in public transport in City of New Delhi Transport data 6 months Transport Department, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Delhi Transport Cooperation Ministry of Railways 9.1.2 11.2.1 13.2.2 Percentage of increase Passenger and freight volumes in public transportation, by mode of transport (including rush hours, night, weekend) Transport data 6 months Transport Department, Delhi Transport Cooperation Ministry of Railways 9.1.2 Extent of walkable and cyclable paths in the city (Km) Road / urban development ministry data 6 months Transport Department, Department of Urban Development, Urban Local gov. bodies 13.2.2 Percentage of electric vehicle running in an average day (Buses, trains, private own vehicles, taxies etc) Vehicle registration data annual Transport Department, Department of Urban Development Urban Local gov. bodies 12.c.1 13.1.3 Percent of Air quality improvement in the City Air quality monitoring data 6 months State and Central Pollution Control Board Department of Environment 9.4.1 11.6.2 13.2.2
  12. Monitoring and Evaluation Framework II Indicator Data Source Timing Responsibility Reference to SDG Percentage of reduction of road accidents in the city Police records/hospital records annual Police Department TransportDepartment,Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Delhi Transport CooperationMinistry of Railways 3.6.1 Number of street tra ic light and lighting instalment Road /urban development ministry data annual Transport Ministry and Department of Urban DevelopmentUrban Local gov. bodies 3.61.1 Extent of retrofitted area Urban development Dep. data annual Department of Urban Development Urban Local gov. bodiesNational Capital Region Planning boardTransportationDepartment,Ministry of Road Transport and Highways 9.1.2 Number of street trees planted Tree census, GIS data 6 months Park & Recreation department, Department of Environmental Department of Urban Development Urban Local gov. bodiesCommunity groups 11.7b.2 13.1.313.2.2 Number of New policies and laws for emission reduction by transportation Legal documents 6 months Legal bodies and relevant ministries
  13. References Delhi Tra ic Police (2018). Vehicle Registration and Accident Statistics. [online] Road Accidents In Delhi, pp.9–19. Available at: https://delhitra [Accessed 14 Dec. 2022]. Department of Transport (2022). Switch Delhi. [online] EV Policies in Delhi. Available at: [Accessed 14 Dec. 2022]. Department of Transport and IIIT-Delhi (2022). Open Transit Data Datasets. [online] Open Transit Data Delhi. Available at: [Accessed 14 Dec. 2022]. Goel, R. and Guttikunda, S. (2015a). Role of urban growth, technology, and judicial interventions on vehicle exhaust emissions in Delhi for 1991-2014 and 2014- 2030 periods. [online] doi:10.1016/j.envdev.2015.03.002. Goel, R. and Guttikunda, S.K. (2015b). Evolution of on-road vehicle exhaust emissions in Delhi. Atmospheric Environment, 105, pp.78–90. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.01.045. Goel, R., Guttikunda, S.K., Mohan, D. and Tiwari, G. (2015). Benchmarking vehicle and passenger travel characteristics in Delhi for on-road emissions analysis. Travel Behaviour and Society, 2(2), pp.88–101. doi:10.1016/j.tbs.2014.10.001. Government of NCT of Delhi (2019). Economic Survey of Delhi, 2018-19: Chapter 12 Transport. [online] Planning Department. Available at: [Accessed 14 Dec. 2022]. Government of NCT of Delhi (2021). Road Accidents Data. [online] Transport Department. Available at: data [Accessed 13 Dec. 2022]. Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change (2017). Delhi State Action Plan On Climate Change. [online] Government of India. Available at: [Accessed 14 Dec. 2022]. Ministry of Urban Development (2016). Delhi National Urban Transport Helpline Operations. [online] SMARTNET - Solutions Exchange for Urban Transformation in India. Available at: [Accessed 14 Dec. 2022]. Transport Department of the Government of NCT of Delhi (2018). Types Of Permit And Its Condition. [online] Transport Permits. Available at: [Accessed 13 Dec. 2022]. UrbanEmissions.Info (2022). Emissions in Delhi – Road Transport. [online] Emissions in India. Available at: delhi-road-transport/ [Accessed 14 Dec. 2022]. World Bank (2011). India Transportation. [online] Available at:
  14. Thank you!