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Project Management.pptx

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Project Management.pptx

  1. 1. PROJECT SCHEDULING & TIME MANAGEMENT LECTURE 4
  2. 2. CONTENT OF PRESENTATION  WBS/ Activity Definition  Scheduling (Planning and Scheduling) o Objectives o Techniques o Critical Path Method (CPM)  Basic Definition of CPM  Activity  Activity Duration  Network Construction  Example 1 o Histogram  Resource Histogram  Constructing Resource histogram o Procedure for Resource Leveling o PERT o Example  Use of software for planning, scheduling & control of projects o Process overview o Software application o EVMS
  3. 3. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • To be able to perform an accurate estimate of the project targets it is very pertinent to divide project into manageable sets of components or activities called as (WBS) of the project. • Patrick (2003) defines WBS as “a hierarchical system that represents the total project scope in increasing levels of detail to define, organise, and display the project work in measurable and manageable components” 3
  4. 4. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) PMI • The WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables. Each descending level of the WBS represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project work. • The WBS is finalized by assigning each work package to a control account and establishing a unique identifier for that work package from a code of accounts. These identifiers provide a structure for hierarchical summation of costs, schedule, and resource information. 4
  5. 5. Sample WBS 5
  6. 6. Sample WBS 6
  7. 7. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • The WBS consists of different levels where level one is the least detailed level often representing the entire project. The number of activities in the WBS grows quite rapidly and it is not unusual that a large construction project is broken down into several hundreds of activities. There is no specific rule about which level of detail a WBS should have but a low level of detail may result in insufficient detail for effective planning, whereas a too high level of detail may become unmanageable and increase planning costs. It is generally the case that the WBS is poorly detailed rather than too detailed. According to Jackson (2004) the level of detail should correlate with the control level desired, i.e. to have enough activities and just the right amount of detail so that the work-flow effectively can be monitored and managed. 7 A proposed WBS for an infrastructure project (multi-storey building project).
  8. 8. Creating the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • A WBS is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project • WBS is a preliminary document that provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs and resources • Decomposition is subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces • A work package is a task at the lowest level of the WBS 8
  9. 9. Sample Intranet WBS Organized by Phase 9
  10. 10. Intranet WBS in Tabular Form 1.0 Concept 1.1 Evaluate current systems 1.2 Define Requirements 1.2.1 Define user requirements 1.2.2 Define content requirements 1.2.3 Define system requirements 1.2.4 Define server owner requirements 1.3 Define specific functionality 1.4 Define risks and risk management approach 1.5 Develop project plan 1.6 Brief Web development team 2.0 Web Site Design 3.0 Web Site Development 4.0 Roll Out 5.0 Support 10
  11. 11. Intranet WBS and Gantt Chart in Microsoft Project 11
  12. 12. Gantt Chart Organized by Project Management Deptt. 12
  13. 13. USES OF WBS 13
  14. 14. Exercise: WBS Draw hierarchal WBS of a project “Establishment 1122 Emergency Response Centers” in all nine divisions and 36 districts of Punjab. The following scope of work was to be executed at each station. • Design and Construction Supervision of facility • Construction of Emergency Response Center • Procurement of all furniture, fixtures, CCTV, attendance record • Purchase and installation of one server, 20 computers and associated software & hardware including scanner and printers • Purchase and installation High quality telephone exchange • Networking of computers, connectivity, internet and intranet • Procurement of 4 Ambulances and associated medical equipment • Procurement of Firefighting vehicle, 2 cranes and other emergency response equipment • Recruitment and Training of staff
  15. 15. SCHEDULE & TIME MANAGEMENT
  16. 16. PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT 6.1 ACTIVITY DEFINITION 1. Inputs 1. Enterprise environmental factors . 2. Organizational process assets 3. Project scope statement 4. Work Breakdown structure 5. WBS Dictionary 6. Project management plan 2. Tools and Techniques 1. Decomposition 2. Templates 3. Rolling wave planning 4. Expert judgment 5. Planning component 3. Outputs 1. Activity list 2. Activity attributes 3. Milestone list 4. Requested changes 6.2 ACTIVITY SEQUENCING 1. Inputs .1 Project scope statement .2 Activity list .3 Activity attributes .4 Milestone List .5 Approved change requests 2 . Tools and Techniques .1 Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) .2 Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) .3 Schedule network templates .4 Dependency determination .5 Applying leads and lags 3. Outputs .1 Project schedule network diagrams .2 Activity list (updates) .3 Activity attributes (updates) .4 Requested changes 6.3 ACTIVITY RESOURCE ESTIMATING 1. Inputs .1 Enterprise environmental factors .2 Organizational process assets .3 Activity list .4 Activity attributes .5 Resource availability .6 Project management plan 2. Tools and Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Alternatives analysis .3 Published estimating data .4 Project management software .5 bottom-up-estimating 3. Outputs .1 Activity resource requirements .2 Activity attributes (updates) .3 Resource breakdown structure .4 Resource calendars (updates) .5 Requested changes Continue on next slide PMI Approach of Project Time Management (Cont..)
  17. 17. PMI Approach of Project Time Management (Cont..) PROJECT TINE MANAGEMENT 6.4 ACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATING 1. Inputs .1 Enterprise environmental factors .2 Organizational process assets .3 Project scope statement .4 Activity list .5 Activity attributes .6 Activity resource requirements .7 Resource calendars .8 Project Management plan . Risk register . Activity cost estimates 2. Tools and Techniques .1 Expert judgment .2 Analogous estimating .3 Parametric estimating .4 Three-point estimating .5 Reserve analysis 3. Outputs .1 Activity duration estimates .2 Activity attributes (updates) 6.5 SCHEDULE DEVELOPMENT 1. Inputs .1 Organizational process assets , .2 Project scope statement, .3 Activity list .4 Activity attributes, .5 Project schedule network diagrams, .6 Activity resource requirements, .7 Resource calendars .8 Activity duration estimates .9 Project management plan, 10. Risk register 2. Tools and Techniques .1 Schedule network analysis .2 Critical path method .3 Schedule compression .4 What-if scenario analysis .5 Resource leveling .6 Critical chain method .7 Project management software .8 Applying calendars .9 Adjusting leads & lags 10. Schedule model 3. Outputs .1 Project schedule .2 Schedule model data .3 Schedule baseline .4 resource requirements (Updates) .5 Activity attributes (updates) .6 Project calendars (updates) .7 Requested changes 6.6 SCHEDULE CONTROL 1. Inputs .1 Schedule management plan .2 Schedule baseline .3 Performance report .4 Approved change request 2. Tools and Techniques .1 Progress reporting .2 Schedule change control system .3 Performance measurement .4 Project management software .5 Variance analysis .6 Schedule comparison bar charts 3. Outputs .1 Schedule model data (updates) .2 Schedule baseline (updates) .3 Performance measurements .4 Requested changes .5 Recommended corrective actions .6 Organizational process assets (updates) .7 Activity list (updates) .8 Activity attributes (updates) .9 Project management plan (updates) Continu e on Previou s slide
  18. 18. PROJECT SCHEDULING • Project Planning: Process of identifying all the activities necessary to successfully complete the project is called project planning. • Project Scheduling: Process of determining sequential order of planned activities, assigning realistic duration, to each activity and determining start and finish dates of each activity is called project scheduling. Project planning is prerequisite to project scheduling because there is no way to determine the sequential order of activities until they are identified. However, the terms planning and scheduling are often used synonymously because they are performed interactively. E.g. when some schedule is reviewed, it may be decided that additional activities may be added or rearranged in order to get the best schedule of events of projects.
  19. 19. OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT SCHEDULING  Finish project on time.  Finish project within cost.  Continuous (uninterrupted) flow of work.  Reduced amount of rework.  Minimize confusion and misunderstanding.  Increased knowledge of status of project to every one (including management).  Knowledge of distribution of costs of project.  Accountability of people / defined responsibility and clear understanding of who does what, when and how much.  Optimum use of resources.
  20. 20. TECHNIQUES FOR SCHEDULING Techniques used for scheduling depends upon the type, size, complexity, duration, personal and owner requirement. It is preferred to use a simpler technique which is simple to use and easily interpreted by all project participants. There are two general techniques which commonly used for planning and scheduling.  Bar Chart (Gantt Chart): It is the graphical representation of Time (X-axis) and Activities on Y- axis, so that the status of project may be visualized and controlled.  Net work analysis system (CPM and PERT): It is the schematic representation of various activities. This method calculates the minimum completion time for a project along with start and finish time of project activities.  Software application: (MS Project, Primavera, Pertmaster, Risky Project.
  21. 21. BAR CHART  Bar Chart was developed by Henery L. Gantt in 1917, which is the most common planning tool even today, which provided basis for developing planning and scheduling software.  Bar Charts are the easiest and most widely used form of scheduling in project management. Even with other scheduling techniques, the eventual schedule is presented the form of a bar chart. The level of detail of the activities depends on the intended use of the schedule. The most commonly used bar chart for engineering works is called Gantt chart.  A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule, start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of civil engineering project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project. Some Gantt charts also show the dependency (i.e. precedence network) relationships between activities. Gantt charts can be used to show current schedule status using percent- complete shadings.  Gantt charts have become a common technique for representing the phases and activities of a project work breakdown (WBS), so they can be understood by a wide audience all over the world.
  22. 22. CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) The Critical Path Method is a method where activities are arranged based on interrelationship. It is a planning and control technique that provides an accurate, timely and easily understood picture of the project. Its purpose is to allows effective scheduling and controlling. One of the most important features of CPM is the logic diagram. The logic diagram graphically portrays the relationship between project activities.  Critical path in a network is a longest path in terms of time unit, which gives minimum overall duration to complete the project.  CPM calls attention which activities must be completed before other activities can begun. A B D F G E C H
  23. 23. ACTIVITY A common technique used to understand and organize complex undertaking is to break the project into smaller pieces. This technique is used both planning and estimating. Each activity is a discrete task. Activities should be only be specified as per level of management. The number and detail of listed quality will vary from job to job and depend on the intended level of control. Usually for planning purposes activity doesn’t exceed from 25 days, if exceeds may be divided into further components. The activities must have four characteristics. 1. Time consumption: An activity must consume time. 2. Use of resources: An activity usually consumes Labour, Material or Equipment resources. 3. Definite Start and Finish time: An activity represents a definite scope of work i.e. Starting and Ending point in time. 4. Activities are measurable. The progress towards completion of activity’s scope of work must be measureable.
  24. 24. ACTIVITY DURATION • One of the most important steps in planning a project is estimating the time required to complete each activity. The duration of each activity is a function of quantity of work and work production rate. Work production rates are based on planned composition of labor and equipment used to perform the task. Careless estimates of production rates may cause un economical use of personnel, materials, equipment and time. • When the project bid estimate is prepared, the estimator calculates the quantity of material that must be put in place and assumes a production rate to get the cost of each work, which is based construction method and technique. The bid preparation information can be served as the tool for calculating g an activity duration. • All Activities in a schedule should have same unit of time, which may be in months, weeks, days and hours.
  25. 25. ESTIMATION: EXAMPLE-1 (a) a) In estimating a five storey office building, it was determined that 480 light fixtures would be installed on each floor. The production rate of Five fixtures per man hour may be used for installation. The company has five electrician. The normal working day will be 8 hours. What will be the duration (in days) to install all lights in the building. b) If the cost of one fixture is 1500 PKR and electrician takes around 1500 PKR per 8 hour working day. Then, considered 5% breakage of fixtures during installation, find the budget of the activity. SOLUTION: Production Rate: 5 fixture x 5 electrician = 25 fixtures per man hour 1-man hour Activity Duration = 480 fixture x 5 floors = 96 hours 25 Activity Duration = 96 hours = 12 day 8 hours
  26. 26. ESTIMATION: EXAMPLE-1 (b) The following items of works were to be conducted in a project; 1. Excavation of 4768 cubic meter 2. Driving of RCC Piles (48 Nos.) Dia 2ft. 200 ft deep. Find Duration and Budget of Project. Assume missing data. SOLUTION:
  27. 27. IMPORTANCE OF ACCURATE ESTIMATES 29  Inaccurate time estimates can result in unrealistic schedule  Inaccurate time estimates can result in inefficient use of resources and late delivery.  Inaccurate cost estimates can result in insufficient budget being allocated, or excess budget being set aside for the project when it could be used for other projects.  If the cost or benefits estimates are inaccurate this can lead to incorrect decisions about proceeding with the project being made.
  28. 28. BASIC DEFINITIONS OF CPM TERMS • Activity:- The performance of a task required to complete the project e.g. foundation design, contract document, RCC form work, pouring of concrete. • Network:- A diagram to represents the relationship of activities to complete the project. • Duration:- The estimated time required to perform an activity. • Early Start (ES):- The earliest time an activity can be start. • Early Finish (EF):- The earliest time an activity can be finished. • Late Finish (LF):- The latest time an activity can be finished. • Late Start (LS):- The latest time an activity can be started without delaying the completion of project. (LS = LF – D) • Total Float (TF):- The amount of time an activity may be delayed without delaying the completion date of project. Mathematically, TF = LF – EF = LS – ES. • Critical Activity:- If total float for an activity is zero, activity is called critical activity. • Critical path is a longest path in terms of time unit in a network, which gives minimum overall duration to complete the project.
  29. 29. NETWORK CONSTRUCTION The performance of a task required to complete the project. Activity must have a specific duration except the dummy activity, having zero duration. Each activity is represented as can arrow or node. Arrows are not drawn according to scale. The brief description about activity is written over arrow or node. Duration (hours, week, months) to complete that activity is written under the arrow, where 1 and 2 are the event. Which are written inside the circles or boxes. The starting event is masked at the tail and finish event at the head of the arrow. Rules: 1. Each activity should be represented by a separate arrow. 2. The arrow may be straight or inclined lines. 3. Dummy activity should be represented with dotted lines. 4. Critical path must be shown clearly with double line. 5. Intersection of activity is not allowed. 6. Boxes are provided for event times (ES, EF, LS, LF) 7. EST is some reference time, normally EST = 0 at the start of the project / work. EFT = EST + Duration. 8. Each activity is followed by a predecessor and successor except start and finish activities. Any starting activity must have predecessor none, or finish activity must have no successor.
  30. 30. EXAMPLE 2. CPM Activity Duration (days) Preceding Activity (Predecessor) A 3 None B 5 A C 8 A D 10 B E 5 B F 7 C G 12 D H 8 E, F I 3 G,H 1. Construct AOA network 2. Find ES, EF, LS and LF of all activities 3. Find total float of all activities (days) 4. Find the project duration (days) 5. Mark critical path on the network
  31. 31. EXAMPLE 3. CPM
  32. 32. EXAMPLE-4. CPM Activity Duration Predecessor Resource Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Total Float (TF) Remark O 8 None 10 N 3 O 2 M 13 N 5 L 7 O 15 K 12 O 8 J 3 K 4 I 10 L 3 H 8 L 10 G 6 H,M 8 F 20 I 4 E 16 I 6 D 8 J 4 C 4 G, E 20 B 5 F 6 A 3 B, C,D 3 1. Construct AOA network 2. Find ES, EF, LS and LF of all activities 4. Find the project duration (days) 5. Mark critical path on the network Find total float of all activities (days)
  33. 33. EXAMPLE 5. CPM Activity Duration Predecessor Resource ES EF LS LF (TF) Remark Q 8 None 5 P 10 Q 6 O 7 Q 10 N 6 O 2 M 9 Q 5 L 5 M 15 K 4 O 8 J 7 L, K 4 I 9 L, K 3 H 20 P 10 G 12 H 8 F 9 N 4 E 20 N 6 D 11 I 4 C 7 E, J 20 B 7 G, F 6 A 3 B, C,D 3 1. Construct AON network 2. Find ES, EF, LS and LF of all activities Find total float of all activities (days) 4. Find the project duration (days) 5. Mark critical path on the network
  34. 34. EXAMPLE-6: CRITICAL PATH Solution: Critical Path = Q – P – H – G – B – A, Project Duration = 60 days 2nd Path = Q – O – N – F – B – A, Duration = 40 days 3rd Path = Q – O – N – E – C – A, Duration = 51days 4th Path = Q – O – K – J – C – A, Duration = 36 days 5th Path = Q – O – K – I – D – A, Duration = 42 days 6th Path = Q – M – L – J – C – A, Duration = 39 days 7th Path = Q – O – K – I – D – A, Duration = 45 days
  35. 35. RECOURSE PROFILE & HISTOGRAMS
  36. 36. RESOURCE HISTOGRAM  It is a graphical representation of time on X- axis and resources on Y-axis.  It is a view of project data in which resource requirements, usage, and availabilities are shown against a time scale. The personnel, equipment, materials, and services needed to complete tasks in a project are resources.
  37. 37. TYPES OF RESOURCE HISTOGRAM 1. Labor Resource Histogram 2. Material Resource Histogram 3. Equipment Resource Histogram 4. Cost Histogram In these resource histograms time is taken on x axis and the resource is taken on y axis. For a construction project total resources are mentioned according to that particular time these histograms also help us to calculate cost for a particular resource of a project at a particular time because resource can be converted in terms of cost.
  38. 38. PROCEDURE FOR RESOURCE LEVELING 1. Plan and Schedule project activities. 2. Construct a Network for the project. 3. Mark Critical Path (CP). 4. Construct the Bar Chart for the Project. 5. For each working day show resources of each activity at their respective duration on Bar Chart. 6. Sum up the total resources vertically for each working day. 7. Plot the histogram for the resource. 8. Mark the sudden drop or rise in resource histogram. 9. Utilize the total float available for non critical activity to level the resources by hit & trial method. 10. Recheck the leveled histogram and prepare a new schedule of work / execution.
  39. 39. Activity Duration Pred. Labour (Per Day) Total Cost of Activity ES EF LS LF Float A 6 None 4 PKR60,000 0 6 0 6 0 B 20 A 8 PKR400,000 6 26 15 35 9 C 5 A 12 PKR100,000 6 11 6 11 0 D 8 A 4 PKR240,000 6 14 17 25 11 E 10 D 10 PKR300,000 14 24 25 35 11 F 14 C 10 PKR280,000 11 35 11 35 0 G 8 C 3 PKR320,000 11 19 45 53 34 H 12 C 20 PKR360,000 11 23 31 43 20 I 6 B, F 9 PKR180,000 14 20 37 43 23 J 10 E, H 6 PKR400,000 23 33 43 53 20 K 18 G, I, J 4 PKR180,000 35 53 35 53 0 PKR 2,820,000 EXAMPLE-7: CONSTRUCTING COST & LABOR HISTOGRAM
  40. 40. EXAMPLE-7: CONSTRUCTING COST & LABOR HISTOGRAM
  41. 41. S-CURVE
  42. 42. 29 November 2022 45
  43. 43. EXAMPLE-8: CONSTRUCT S-CURVE FOR EXAMPLE NO. 7
  44. 44. CONSTRUCTING RESOURCE HISTOGRAM
  45. 45. EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EVMS) 52 • EVM is a project performance measurement technique that integrates scope, time, and cost data. • Given a baseline (original plan plus approved changes), you can determine how well the project is meeting its goals. • You must enter actual information periodically to use EVM. • More and more organizations around the world are using EVM to help control project costs.
  46. 46. EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EVMS) • It’s a Management Tool – Used for project status: (1) previous work accomplished and (2) where the project was planned to be. – Early warning system to detect deficient or endangered progress.
  47. 47. EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EVMS) Why Use EVMS? • Ensures a clear definition of work prior to beginning that work • Presents a logical plan for accomplishing the work • Provides an objective measure of accomplishments • Early and accurate identification of trends and problems • Accurate picture of contract status – cost, schedule, and scope • Basis for course correction • Supports mutual goals of contractor and customer – bring project in on schedule and cost
  48. 48. Earned Value Management System (EVMS) • Budgeted cost for work scheduled • Amount /level of effort or apportioned effort scheduled to be accomplished in a given time period Planned Value (PV) BCWS • Budgeted cost for work performed • Budgeted for level of effort or apportioned effort activity completed within a given time period • Sometimes referred to as “earned value.” Earned Value (EV) BCWP • Actual cost for work performed • Amount reported as actually expended in completing the work accomplished within a given time period Actual Cost (AC) ACWP Core Concept of Terms
  49. 49. EVMS Indicators
  50. 50. Cost variance (CV): CV = BCWP – ACWP = EV – AC A negative variance indicates a cost-overrun condition. Schedule variance (SV): SV = BCWP – BCWS = EV – PV A negative variance indicates a behind-schedule condition. Cost performance index (CPI) = Schedule performance index (SPI) = If CPI = 1.0, we have perfect performance, If CPI > 1.0, project is under budgeted. If CPI < 1.0, project is over budgeted. If SPI = 1.0, we have perfect performance, If SPI > 1.0, project is ahead of schedule. If SPI < 1.0, project is behind Schedule. The cost and schedule performance index is most often used for trend analysis as shown the figure. Three-month, four-mouth, or six-month may be used to predict trends. Trend analysis provides an early warning system and allows managers to take corrective action. Variance and Index Earned Value Management System (EVMS)
  51. 51. Variance and Index Earned Value Management System (EVMS) Critical Ratio (CR): This indicator combines both the cost performance index (CPI) and schedule performance index (SPI) to represent the project status Critical Ratio (CR) = SPI x CPI Project Status (PS): This indicator is the average of both the cost performance index (CPI) and schedule performance index (SPI) to represent the project status Project Status (PS) = (SPI + CPI)/2 Schedule Variance in Time (SV.t) Variance in Schedule at a particular time on project timeline. Schedule Variance in time (duration) = (SV x T) / BAC Earned Schedule (ES) The measure of work performed in terms of schedule as on status date Earned Schedule (ES) = T - SV(t)
  52. 52. TIME COST SCHEDULE ANALYSIS BAC Data Date AC EV PV Progress at end of 3rd Month: Project Budget (BAC): 37.22 lakhs Funds Used (AC): 16.40 lakhs Utilization = 44.1 % Additional EV Parameters: Planned (PV): 19.82 lakhs Earned (EV): 14.50 lakhs Schedule Performance Planned (PV): 19.82 lakhs Earned (EV): 14.50 lakhs Schedule Variance = EV-PV = -5.32 Schedule Performance Index = EV/PV = 0.73 SV
  53. 53. TIME COST Cost Analysis BAC Data Date AC EV PV Progress at end of 3rd Month: Project Budget (BAC): 37.22 lakhs Funds Used (AC): 16.40 lakhs Utilization = 44.1 % Additional EV Parameters: Planned (PV): 19.82 lakhs Earned (EV): 14.50 lakhs Cost Performance Actual Cost (AC): 16.40 lakhs Earned (EV): 14.50 lakhs Cost Variance = EV-AC = -1.90 Cost Performance Index = EV/AC = 0.88 CV
  54. 54. TIME COST ESTIMATE AT COMPLETIONBAC Data Date AC EV PV Progress at end of 3rd Month: Project Budget (BAC): 37.22 lakhs Funds Used (AC): 16.40 lakhs Utilization = 44.1 % Additional EV Parameters: Planned (PV): 19.82 lakhs Earned (EV): 14.50 lakhs Estimate at Completion Actual Cost (AC): 16.40 lakhs Earned (EV): 14.50 lakhs EAC = BAC/CPI = 42.3 Variance at Completion = BAC-EAC = -5.07
  55. 55. PROJECT STATUS AT MONTH 3 Progress at end of 3rd Month: Project Budget (BAC): 37.22 lakhs Funds Used (AC): 16.40 lakhs Utilization = 44.1 % Additional EV Parameters: Planned (PV): 19.82 lakhs Earned (EV): 14.50 lakhs Sheet 1 of 1 Ac ti vi ty I D Ac ti vi ty De s cri p ti o n Ori g Du r Bu d ge t (BAC) P l a nn e d (BCW S ) E a rne d (BCW P ) Ac tua l (ACW P ) R ural H ealth C linic T o t a l 2 1 0 3 , 7 2 2 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 , 9 8 2 , 8 0 0 . 0 0 1 , 4 5 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 , 6 4 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 G ener al S u b to t a l 2 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 0 P r o j e c t S t a rt 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 1 1 0 P r o j e c t C o m p l e t e 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 Foundation S u b to t a l 5 4 8 5 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 8 5 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 8 5 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 9 5 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 1 0 E a r t h w o r k s 1 8 5 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 6 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 2 0 F o u n d a t i o n u p t o P li n t h 2 4 8 0 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 8 0 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 8 0 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 8 9 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 S tr uctur e W or k S u b to t a l 5 1 1 , 5 3 6 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 , 1 3 2 , 8 0 0 . 0 0 6 0 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 6 9 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 3 0 S u p e r - s t r u c t u r e 5 0 1 , 4 4 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 , 0 3 6 , 8 0 0 . 0 0 5 0 4 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 5 8 4 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 4 0 B l o c k M a s o n r y 1 5 9 6 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 9 6 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 9 6 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 6 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 Finishes S u b to t a l 1 0 5 1 , 3 3 6 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 0 P l a s t e r 4 0 1 9 2 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 1 0 0 P l u m b i n g 1 5 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 9 0 E l e c t r i c a l W o r k s 2 5 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 7 0 F l o o r i n g 4 5 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 6 0 P a i n t 4 0 1 4 4 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 8 0 W o o d W o r k 2 0 4 0 0 ,0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 M o nth s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 P ro j ec t S ta rt P ro j ec t Co m p l e te E a rthwo rk s F o u nd a ti o n u p to P li n th S u p er-s tru ctu re Bl o ck M a s on ry P l a ste r P l u m b i n g E l e ctri c a l W o rk s F l o ori n g P a i nt W o od W o rk R e s o u rc e / Co s t P ro fi l e L e g e n d P l a n n e d v a l u e c u rv e E a rn e d v a l u e c u rv e C u rre n t e s t im a t e c u rv e T o t a l e a rl y c o s t p e r M o n t h ( C u rre n t E s t i m a t e ) T o t a l o f A l l R e s o u rc e s D e t a i l s c a l e ( l e f t ) : X 1 0 0 0 0 0 C u m u l a t i v e s c a l e (ri g h t ) : X 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 M o nth s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 4 8 1 2 1 6 2 0 2 4 2 8 3 2 3 6 4 0 x 1 0 0 0 0 0 x 1 0 0 0 0 0 Sheet 1 of 1 PV EV AC EAC BAC
  56. 56. EXAMPLE-7 EVMS
  57. 57. PROGRAMME EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE (PERT)
  58. 58. PROGRAMME EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE (PERT)  PERT is an inherent planning technique forces the manager to develop a comprehensive plan and allows realistic scheduling. The procedure for monitoring, forecasting and simulating allows the manager to respond quickly to unexpected changes in the project, detect trouble areas early and evaluate proposed alternative courses of action. PERT also helps to evaluate alternatives at any time during projects duration by looking effect of each change on its completion date. PERT also helps to simulate the project time & cost and effects of alternate decisions.  It is a planning & Control techniques that precuts statistical information regarding the uncertainties associated with completing the different activities associated to a project. Expected Value of activity direction
  59. 59. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PERT AND CPM CPM PERT CPM uses one time estimate that represents the normal time. PERT uses three time estimates (optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic) to derive an expected time. CPM is deterministic in nature. PERT is probabilistic in nature, CPM is used for those projects where percent complete can be determined with reasonable accuracy such as construction. PERT is used for R&D, where percent complete is almost impossible to determine except a completed milestones. CPM is activity oriented and can be used as an arrow diagram network. PERT is event oriented rather than activity oriented and can be used as an arrow diagram network. CPM as a controlling device for the simple reason that one must repeat the entire evaluation of the project each time the changes are introduced into the network PERT serves a useful control device as it assist the management in controlling a project by calling attention through constant review to such delays in activities which might lead to a delay in the project completion date. Cannot be used for risk analysis and management Can be used for risk analysis and management CPM Gives Critical Path PERT gives probability in % to achieve critical path May be used successfully for projects without uncertainties and risks May be used successfully for projects with uncertainties and risks
  60. 60. a) Draw net work for PERT b) Find Expected Time “te” for all activities and “TE “ c) Find Variance “σ2” for all activities d) Find “Z” value, when Ts= 40 days e) Find the probability to complete the project in 40 days f) Find the scheduled duration (Ts) for project completion with 80% probability EXAMPLE-6: PERT Activity Duration Pred. Expected Time Variance O M P te σ2 A 4 8 15 Nil B 8 10 20 Nil C 11 12 15 Nil D 13 15 20 C E 2 3 4 B F 2 3 5 A G 3 4 8 A H 1 2 3 G I 5 8 12 D,E,F J 3 5 7 H,I
  61. 61. EXAMPLE-7: PERT Activity Duration Pre d. Expect ed Time Varianc e O M P te σ2 A 8 10 15 Nil B 8 10 12 A C 11 12 13 B D 18 20 26 B E 1 2 4 B F 1 2 5 C G 3 4 7 E H 1 2 3 F I 10 15 21 D J 3 5 7 G K 32 40 56 H,I, J L 4 8 13 K (i)Draw net work for PERT (ii)Find Expected Time “te” for all activities (iii)Find Variance “σ2” for all activities (iv)Find “Z” value, when Ts= 103 (v)What is the probability that project will finish in 104 days? (vi)What is the probability that activity “K” will start on 55th day of project execution? Calculations:
  62. 62. SOLUTION Activity Duration Pred Expecte d Time Variance O M P te σ2 A 8 10 15 Nil B 8 10 12 A C 11 12 13 B D 18 20 26 B E 1 2 4 B F 1 2 5 C G 3 4 7 E H 1 2 3 F I 10 15 21 D J 3 5 7 G K 32 40 56 H,I,J L 4 8 13 K = 10.5 days = = = 1.36
  63. 63. EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EVMS)
  64. 64. SOFTWARE BASED SCHEDULING & MONITORING OF PROJECTS
  65. 65. PLANNING, SCHEDULING AND CONTROL • MS Project • Primavera (P3, P6) • Risky Project • Pertmaster • Cloud based Software application
  66. 66. Process Overview

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