3. PROPERTIES :-
- Tenacity – The strength of cotton fibre is attributed
to the good alignment of its long polymers i.e. its
polymer system is about 70% crystalline, due to the
countless continuous hydrogen bond formations
between adjacent polymers, and the spiraling fibrils in
the primary and secondary cell walls. It is one of the
few fibres which gains strength when wet. This occurs
due to the improved alignment of polymers and increase
in hydrogen bond numbers.
- Elasticity – Relatively it is elastic due to its
crystalline polymer system and for this cause cotton
textiles wrinkle and crease readily.
4. Moisture Content
8.5 % moisture present in cotton
Static build up:
Cotton does not face any static problem
Cotton is flammable
Can grow on cotton, especially in Damp
water and surroundings
Bacteria in soil can also degrade cotton
5. - Hydroscopic Nature – The cotton fibre is because of
absorbent, owing to the countless polar OH groups. In its
polymers, these attract water molecules which are also
polar. The hydroscopic nature ordinarily prohibits cotton
textile materials from developing static electricity. The
polarity of the water molecules attracted to the hydroxyl
groups on the polymers distribute any static change which
- Thermal properties – Cotton is not thermoplastic
and hence excessive application of heat energy reasons the
cotton fibre to char and bum, without prior melting.
- Luster – Lintreated cotton has no pronounced luster.
Therefore in order to make it lustrous they need to be
6. - Effects of alkalis – These fibres are resistant to
alkalis and are comparatively unaffected by normal
laundering. The resistance is because of the lack of
attraction between the cotton polymers and alkalis.
- Effect of Acids – Cotton fibres are weakened and
destroyed by acids. Acids hydrolyze the cotton polymer at
the glycosidic oxygen atom which connects the two glucose
units to form the cellobiose unit. Mineral acids being
stronger than organic acids will hydrolyse the cotton
polymer more quickly.
- Effect of Bleaches – The most common bleaches
used on cotton textile materials are sodium hypochlorite
and sodium perborate. They are: oxidizing bleaches and
bleach because of the oxygen liberated from them.
7. Effect of Sunlight and weather – The ultra-violet rays of
sunlight provide photo chemical energy whilst the infra-red rays
provide heat energy essential to degrade the cotton polymers in
the pressure of atmospheric oxygen, moisture and air pollutants.
The breakdown of polymers takes place through diverse
hydrolysis reactions. The beginning degradation is noticed as a
slight fibre discoloration. Fading of colored cotton textile is
partially because the breakdown of the dye molecules in the
fibre’s polymer system.
- Color Fastness – Cotton is easy to dye and print. The
classes of dye which may be used to color cotton
are azoic, direct, reactive, sulphur and vat dyes. The polar
polymer system easily attracts any polar dye molecules into the
polar system. Therefore, dye molecules which can be dispersed
in water will be absorbed by the polymer system of cotton.
However, the dye molecules can enter solely the amorphous
regions of the polymer system of cotton. The small inter polymer
spaces in the crystalline regions of the polymer system prohibit
the entry of the crystalline molecules.
8. - Mildew – Cotton is damaged by fungi. Heat and
dampness support the growth of mildew. The fungi
produce a chemical compound which has the power of
changing cellulose to glucose. The fungi feed on the
molecules of sugar: Cotton treated with acrylo nitrite
is resistant to mildew.
- Insects – Moths and beetles do not change
cotton. Silver fish will eat cotton cellulose especially if
Strength and extension of cotton fiber:
Cotton fibre is fairly among natural fibres in relation to
tenacity which is 3-3.5g/dtex. Its tensile strength is
between wool and silk fibre but disadvantage is low
extension at break which is 5-7%.
9. Length of cotton fiber:
Physically the individual cotton fibres consist of a single
long tubular cell. Its length is about 1200-1500 times than
its breadth. Length of cotton fibre varies from 16mm to 52
mm depending upon the type of cotton.Indian cotton- 16-
1. American cotton- 20-30 mm
2. Sea Island- 38-52 mm
3. Egyptian cotton- 30-38 mm
Fineness of cotton fiber:
Longer the fibre, finer the fibre in case of cotton fibre. It is
expressed in term of decitex and it varies from 1.1 to2.3
1. American= 2.1-2.2 dtex
2. Egyptian= 1.2-1.8 dtex
3. Sea Island= 1.0-1.1 dtex
10. • Cross-section:
Cross-section of cotton fibre is some what ribbon like. The
cell wall is rather thin and the lumen occupies about two-
third of the entire breadth and shows up very prominent in
polarized light. Fibre cross-section becomes round when
Cotton fibre is more or less twisted on its longitudinal axis
which cab not be seen from out side is called convolution.
The twist in the fibre does not to be continuous in one
direction i.e. if at first right direction, then left direction.
This property of cotton fibre helps in spinning.
Cotton fibre is fairly short, fine and creamy white color.
Color of the fibre depends on soil of growth. By adding
chemicals in the soil, color of the cotton fibre may be
11. Good Strength:
If you want to seek an average strength which might be
enough for you; then cotton fiber can be your ultimate
choice. The strength of cotton fiber is quite good.
Cotton Fibre Drapes Well:
The drape-ability of cotton fibre is awesome. You can use
the cotton fibre made fabric in any kind of wear which
needs more flexibility and drapes.
Sewing & Handling Is Easy:
The sewing efficiency on Cotton made fabric is easier
and comfortable than other fiber. This is why the
demand of cotton made fabric is higher in all over the
12. USES :
o Because of its high capacity to absorb, hold and dry moisture,
cotton offers maximum comfort under extreme heat and
o It is a fiber that “breathes”. Consumer prefers cotton for its
comfort, laundrability, absorbency, ease finishing and dyeing.
o It is a preferred fabric for children & for anyone who has a
sensitive skin and is allergic to other fibers, since it is non
o A wide range of fabric construction methods can be employed
including weaving, knitting as well as non woven techniques.
13. o Cotton is used universally for a variety of apparel (both
inner and outer wear).
o It finds extensive usage in home textiles i.e towel,
pillow cover, bed spreads and table cloth etc.
o The fiber also has industrial applications including
medical & surgical.
o Blending of cotton fiber can be done at the fiber, yarn
or fabric stage.
14. o Cotton is also used to create fishing nets, tents and
cotton paper. Cotton paper is used to create banknotes
and high quality art paper.
o After the cotton is removed from the seeds there are
some fine fibers left attached to the seeds. These are
called linters and when processed are known as viscose
o The seed of the cotton plant also has some important
uses. Firstly, it can be used to produce cottonseed oil,
which is a popular vegetable oil for cooking. The
remains can be used as feed for cattle and other
15. Cotton fiber is a versatile fibre which has wide variety
of uses. But the Cotton fibre is mostly used on the
Apparel Industry to make the wearing cloth like
Sweaters, Skirts, Shirts, Swimwear, Kids wear, Blouses,
Pants, Hosiery and to make other type of dresses.
. It can either be used in knitted or woven fabrics, as it
can be blended with elastine to make a stretchier
thread for knitted fabrics, and apparel such as stretch
In addition to the textile industry, cotton is used
in fishing nets, coffee filters, tents, explosives
manufacture (seenitrocellulose), cotton paper, and
16. Every part of the cotton plant can be used. The long
cotton fibers are used to make cloth , the short fibers
can be used in the paper industry. You can make oil or
margarine out of the seeds of the cotton plant. The
leaves and stalks of the cotton plant are plowed into
the ground to make the soil better. Other parts of the
plant are fed to animals.
The cotton seed which remains after the cotton is
ginned is used to produce cotton seed oil which, after
refining, can be consumed by humans like any other
Shiny cotton is a processed version of the fiber that
can be made into cloth resembling satin for shirts and
18. PROPERTIES :
Tensile Strength: Linen is a strong fiber. It has a
tenacity of 5.5 to 6.5 gm/den. The strength is greater
than cotton fiber.
Elongation at break: Linen does not stress easily. It
has an elongation at break of 2.7 to 3.5 %.
Color: The color of linen fiber is yellowish to grey.
19. Elastic Recovery: Linen fiber has not enough elastic
recovery properties like cotton fiber.
Specific Gravity: Specific gravity of linen fiber is 1.50.
Moisture Regain (MR %): Standard moisture regain
is 10 to 12%.
Resiliency: Very poor.
Effect of Sun Light: Linen fiber is not affected by the
sun light as others fiber. It has enough ability to
protect sun light.
20. Effect of Acids: Linen fiber is damaged by highly
densified acids but low dense acids does not affect if it
is wash instantly after application of acids.
Effects of Alkalis: Linen has an excellent resistance to
alkalis. It does not affected by the strong alkalis.
Effects of Bleaching Agents: Cool chlorine and
hypo-chlorine bleaching agent does not affect the
linen fiber properties.
Effect of Organic Solvent: Linen fiber has high
resistance to normal cleaning solvents.
21. Effect of Micro Organism: Linen fiber is attacked by
fungi and bacteria. Mildews will feed on linen fabric,
rotting and weakling the materials. Mildews and bacteria
will flourish on linen under hot and humid condition. They
can be protected by impregnation with certain types of
chemicals. Copper Nepthenate is one of the chemical.
Effects of Insects: Linen fiber does not attacked by moth-
grubs or beetles.
Dyes: It is not suitable to dye. But it can be dye by direct
and vat dyes.
22. Thermal properties- Flax has the best heat
resistance and conductivity of all the commonly used
Length: 18 to 30 inch in length.
Lusture: It is brighter than cotton fiber and it is
Effect of Heat: Linen has an excellent resistance to
degradation by heat. It is less affected than cotton
fiber by the heat.
23. USES :
• Linen is knowing for its high luster and good moisture
• Linen is used in apparel, particularly in women
• As one of the leading fashion fabric, linen linen is
being used by almost every designer.
• The fact that it is cool in summer, extremely durable
and becomes better with age.
• Defence forces use linen fabrics to make water bottles
and water storage tanks that can be folded up and
carried to remote locations like deserts and hill areas
24. The use of flax for heavier grade purposes, such as
canvas and towelling, has declined in recent times and
its main use now is for finer fabric yarns
Flax is grown for its oil, used as a nutritional
supplement, and as an ingredient in many wood-
Papermakers often blend pulp from several sources to
get the lowest cost combination of properties that they
need in the type of paper they want to produce and
25. Geotextiles are broadly defined as textile related
products utilized as some form of ground cover. They
can be made in a mat or loose form and are used for
such purposes as weed suppression, erosion control,
rainwater filtration, site remediation and dust and
Flax is grown on the Canadian prairies for linseed oil,
which is used as a drying oil in paints and varnish
26. Shive refers to the small broken pieces of flax straw
that remains after the fiber is extracted from the straw
and can easily represent 60 to 85 percent of the total
weight of the straw being processed for fiber. Hence
shive represents a very important co-product and a
potential source of additional revenue to a biofiber
processor. Most higher value uses for shive require
consistent sized pieces with different end users
wanting different sizes (i.e. the shive for different end
users would be the same except for their size). Shive is
also being investigated as sources of energy and
naturally occurring compounds. One current product
destination for larger size shive is horticultural mulch,
for medium size, animal bedding and small size can be
used as a plastic filler.
27. Livestock Feed:
Linseed oil meal is an excellent protein source for
livestock containing about 35% crude protein. Flax
straw on the other hand, makes a very poor quality
forage because of its high cellulose and lignin content.
Recently there has been some interest in seed flax as a
health food because of its high amount of
polyunsaturated fatty acids in the oil.
Flax could conceivably be mixed with excess grass seed
straw or softwood fiber in composite boards
29. PROPERTIES :
Natural and renewable – wool is grown not made;
every year sheep grow a new fleece. Wool products
also use less energy than man-made fibres during
Sunsafe – wool has naturally high UV protection.
Flame retardant – wool fibre has a higher ignition
threshold than many other fibres and is flame
retardant up to 600º C. It also produces less toxic
fumes in a fire.
30. Biodegradable – when disposed of, natural wool fibre
takes only a few years to decompose, and with a high
nitrogen content, wool can even act as a fertilizer.
Breathable – wool’s natural structure allows it to
absorb and release water vapour into the atmosphere,
keeping you warm in winter and cool in summer.
Non allergenic – wool is not known to cause allergy
and does not promote the growth of bacteria. With
microscopic scales, wool fibres can trap dust in the top
layers until vacuumed away.
31. Durable and elastic – wool fibre can be bent 20,000 times
without breaking and still have the power to recover and
return to its natural shape. Quality wool garments look
good for longer.
Easy care – modern wool can be machine-washed;
retaining a small amount of natural oil, wool fibre resists
dirt and grease.
Multi-Climatic – wool acclimatizes to its surroundings.
Naturally insulating – wool can insulate the home
providing and retaining warmth, and reducing energy
32. Fibre crimp affects wool’s properties
The crimp in wool fibres makes it
soft and springy to touch. It also adds bulk and traps a
large volume of air between the fibres, giving it good
insulation properties. Finer fibres with more crimp
such as Merino create fabrics that drape better than
Wool is Fire Resistant:
Wool is naturally safe. It does not have to be specially
treated to become non-flammable. While it can catch
alight, it will not flare up nor support a flame. Instead
of burning freely, once the flame is removed a cold ash
is left which can be brushed away immediately.
33. Wool is Water Repellent
While wool can absorb moisture, it repels liquids. The
scales on the outside of the fibre cause liquid to roll off
the surface of the wool fabric. For instance, if you
accidentally spill water on the floor, it is no use trying
to mop it up with an old wool jumper because the wool
will not absorb the liquid. Similarly, if you are caught
in a shower or rain, it will take quite some time before
the rain penetrates your wool clothing, and so wool
keeps you dry. Even if wool does eventually get wet it
generates heat and keeps you warm, not cold and
34. Wool is Elastic
Wool's natural elasticity, greater than that of any other
fibre, makes it comfortable to wear because it fits the
shape of the body. Wool can be twisted, turned and
stretched, and yet it returns to its natural shape.
Wool is Versatile
Wool fabric, knitwear and carpets are made from a
wide range of wool types varying from extra-fine for
suits and knitwear through to broad fibres which give
carpets their strength and character.
35. Wool Dyes Beautifully
Wool dyes so easily and the range of colours is
limitless. The scales on the surface of the wool fibre
tend to diffuse light giving less reflection and a softer
Wool is Fashionable
Leading designers throughout the world prefer to use
wool - it comes in a wide choice of textures, weaves
and weights, and is suitable for any style required. No
fabric drapes like wool fabric
One of the major uses of wool is in garment
production, but this fiber can be used for many other
things. Around 80% of the world's wool goes into
garments like sweaters, hats, and coats, leaving 20% to
be used in some surprising and interesting ways. Many
of the uses of wool are very ancient, but people are
constantly developing new applications for this
37. Varying grades of wool can range from extremely soft
fibers which can be used against the skin to more
coarse fibers which are more suited to tasks such
as stuffing and insulating. The variety of uses of wool
ensure that every little is wasted.
Wool utilized in garment production can be woven,
knitted, crocheted, felted, and worked in other ways.
In addition to being used as a fabric for clothes such
as sweaters, hats, pants, coats, and scarves, wool can
also be used for embroidery and other threadwork
38. In addition to being suitable for wear by humans, wool
can also be utilized to make saddle pads, blankets, and
other equipment for working animals such as horses
Stuffing for furniture can be made from wool.
recycled wool can be utilized to make insulation and
Wool also has a long history of being used in carpets
and carpet padding. Wool carpets are famously
durable, with rich, long-lasting colors, and wool
carpet padding adds additional insulation and height
39. Other uses for wool include lining pads for other types
of flooring, such as floating wood floors.
Uses of wool felt include shoes, hats, and waterproof
It is also famously used in pianos to muffle the impact
of the hammers, creating the distinctive sound which
differentiates pianos from harpsichord.
Other uses of wool which has been felted include
padding for table legs, bookshelves, and other
furnishings which could otherwise gouge a wood floor,
and tablecloths, with the felt creating traction so that
the tablecloth cannot slide off.
41. PROPERTIES :
The reeds of Jute fibre vary from 3 to 14 feet long,
depending on the grade, and they show taper from
root to end. Thick reeds contain coarse fibre and thin
reeds contain finer fibre. It constitutes with ultimate
fibres of average length of 2.5mm.
It is a coarse fibre. Its diameter varies from 6 to 20
FIbres are not so strong when compared with some other bast
fibres but have good tensile strength. Fibres are naturally hard
and brittle and break off with abrasion. Resistance to mechanical
wear is low and not durable especially on exposure in moisture
reduces its strength. Its extension at break is 2%.
The best quality fibres are pale white or silvery grey, common
qualities are brownish and greenish are inferior, roots are usually
darker without any luster. Better quality fibres shows matt and
pitted surface with very poor strength.
Better quality fibres have fairly high luster but inferior quality
fibres shows matt and pitted surface with very poor strength.
Base portion of the Jute stems is more rigid and has a
stronger supporting bark than the rest of the stem.
This is due to longer exposure of this part to the action
of the sunlight and water. During grade shorting, the
root portion are removed by cutting and baled
separately known as bale cutting.
Cleanliness of fibre is an essential factor for high grade.
Adhering portions of bark, specks sticks etc. are
undesirable which affects grading according to their
degree of presence.
44. Effect of chemicals
1. Water: Jute is a hygroscopic fibre i.e. it takes in or
gives out moisture to its surrounding atmosphere.
Under standard testing atmosphere, moisture
content value is 12.8% and moisture regain value of
this fibre is 14.6%.
2. Acid: This fibre is damaged by the action of strong
acid hence wet processing on Jute fibre is not done in
3. Alkali: It is safe in alkali medium; hence wet
treatment is done on alkali medium.
45. Effect of biological agents and light
It is attacked and damaged by the action of micro-
biological agents like bacteria, fungus, moths, insects
etc. in worm damp condition. Yellowing of the fibre is
observed due to the effect of sunlight.
1. Chemical composite of Jute fibre are as follows:
2. Cellulose: 65.2%
3. Hemi cellulose: 22.2%
4. Lignin: 10.8%
5. Water: 1.5%
6. Fats and Wax: 0.3%
46. Diameter of Jute:
Diameter of jute is between 0.015 to 0.002 mm.
Jute fiber can be White, Yellow, Brown or Grey.
Specific Gravity: Its specific gravity is 1.48
Moisture Regain of Jute:
13.75 % (Standard).
Breaking Extension 1.8% and Elastic Recovery very low.
Dimensional Stability of Jute: Good on average
Packaging - bags, sacks, wrapping material ie cotton
packs and wool packs.
Geotextiles - landfill covering, embankment
Protection of rooting plants.
Hessian cloths of various types.
48. Braids and webbing.
Fine and coarse yarns.
Industrial and domestic twine.
Specialist pulp and paper.
Recently being used as a filler with Abaca and Sisal.
49. Jute matting is used to prevent flood erosion while
natural vegetation becomes established. For this
purpose, a natural and biodegradable fiber is essential.
Jute is the second most important vegetable fiber after
cotton due to its versatility.Jute is used chiefly to
make cloth for wrapping bales of raw cotton, and to
make sacks and coarse cloth.
The fibers are also woven
into curtains, chaircoverings, carpets, area
rugs, hessian cloth, and backing for linoleum.
50. While jute is being replaced by synthetic materials in
many of these uses, some uses take advantage of
jute's biodegradable nature, where synthetics would be
unsuitable. Examples of such uses include containers
for planting young trees, which can be planted directly
with the container without disturbing the roots, and
land restoration where jute cloth prevents erosion
occurring while natural vegetation becomes
Jute is regularly used in the production of clothes,
particularly sweaters and underwear,
51. Its soft fabric structure is known to be very
comfortable to the person wearing it and therefore,
popularity for jute clothes has increased significantly
over the last decade.
The fibers are used alone or blended with other types
of fiber to make twine and rope
Jute butts, the coarse ends of the plants, are used to
make inexpensive cloth. Conversely, very fine threads
of jute can be separated out and made into imitation
52. As jute fibers are also being used to make pulp and
paper, and with increasing concern over forest
destruction for the wood pulp used to make most
paper, the importance of jute for this purpose may
increase. Jute has a long history of use in the sackings,
carpets, wrapping fabrics (cotton bale), and
construction fabric manufacturing industry.
Traditionally jute was used in traditional textile
machineries as textile fibers having cellulose
(vegetable fiber content) and lignin(wood fiber
Composition: The silk fibre is chiefly composed of
80% of fibroin, which is protein in nature and 20% of
sericin, which is otherwise called as silk gum.
Strength: Silk as a fibre, has good tensile strength,
which allows it to withstand great pulling pressure.
Silk is the strongest natural fibre and has moderate
abrasion resistance. The strength of the thrown yarns
is mainly due to the continuous length of the fibre.
Spun silk yarn though strong is weaker than thrown
silk filament yarns.
55. Elasticity: Silk fibre is an elastic fibre and may be
stretched from 1/7 to 1/5 of its original length before
breaking. It tends to return to its original size but
gradually loses little of its elasticity. This would mean
that the fabric would be less sagging and less binding
resulting in the wearers comfort.
Resilience: Silk fabrics retain their shape and have
moderate resistance to wrinkling. Fabrics that are
made from short – staple spun silk have less resilience.
Drapability: Silk has a liability and suppleness that,
aided by its elasticity and resilience, gives it excellent
56. Heat Conductivity: Silk is a protein fibre and is a
non-conductor of heat similar to that of wool. This
makes silk suitable for winter apparel.
Absorbency: Silk fabrics being protein in nature have
good absorbency. The absorptive capacity of the silk
fabric makes comfortable apparel even for warmer
atmosphere. Fabrics made from silk are comfortable in
the summer and warm in the winter. Silk fibre can
generally absorb about 11 percent of its weight in
moisture, but the range varies from 10 percent to as
much as 30 percent. This property is also a major
factor in silk’s ability to be printed and dyed easily.
57. Cleanliness and Washability: Silk fabric does not
attract dirt because of its smooth surface. The dirt,
which gathers can be easily removed by washing or dry
cleaning. It is often recommended for the silk
garments to be dry-cleaned. Silk fabrics should always
be washed with a mild soap and strong agitation in
washing machine should be avoided. Silk water – spot
easily, but subsequent washing or dry cleaning will
restore the appearance of the fabric.
Reaction to Bleaches: Silk, like wool, is deteriorated
with chlorine bleaches like sodium hypochlorite.
However, mild bleach of hydrogen peroxide or sodium
per borate may be used for silk.
58. Shrinkage: Silk fabrics are subjected only to normal
shrinkage which can be restored by ironing. Crepe
effect fabrics shrink considerably in washing, but
careful ironing with a moderately hot iron will restore
the fabric to its original size.
Effect of Heat: Silk is sensitive to heat and begins to
decompose at 330° F (165° C). The silk fabrics thus
have to be ironed when damp.
Effect of Light: Silk fabric weakens on exposure to
sun light. Raw silks are more resistant to light
than degummed silk.
59. Resistance to Mildew: Silks will not mildew unless
left for sometime in a damp state or under the extreme
conditions of tropical dampness.
Resistance to Insects: Silk may be attacked by the
larvae or clothe moths or carpet beetles.
Reaction to Alkalis: Silk is not as sensitive as wool to
alkalis, but it can be damaged if the concentration and
the temperature are high. A mild soap or detergent in
lukewarm water is thus advisable.
60. Reaction to Acids: Concentrated mineral acids will
dissolve silk faster than wool. Organic acids do not
Affinity for Dyes: Silk has good absorbency and thus
has good affinity for dyes. Dyed silk is colourfast under
most conditions, but its resistance to light is
Resistance to Perspiration: Perspiration and
sunlight weakens and yellows silk fabrics. The silk
itself deteriorates and the colour is affected causing
staining. Garments worn next to the skin should be
washed or other wise cleaned after each wearing.
61. Tenacity: The silk filament is strong because of its linear
polymers and crystalline nature (parallel to one another).
This allows more hydrogen bonds to be formed in a
continuous manner. When the silk is wet, it loses its
strength. This is because of water molecules hydrolyzing a
great number of hydrogen bonds and in the process
weakening the silk polymer.
Elastic-plastic nature: Because of crystalline nature, the
silk polymer cannot have much movement, if silk textile is
in stretched state. Stretching ruptures a significant number
of hydrogen bonds. When stretching ceases; the polymers
do not return to their original position but remain in their
new positions. This disorganizes the polymer system of silk
which is seen as a distortion and wrinkling or creasing of
the silk material.
It is often used for clothing such as shirts, ties, blouses,
formal dresses, high fashion
clothes,lining, lingerie, pajamas, robes, dress suits, sun
dresses and Eastern folk costumes.
For practical use, silk is excellent as clothing that
protects from many biting insects that would
ordinarily pierce clothing, such as mosquitoes
63. Silk's attractive lustre and drape makes it suitable for
many furnishing applications.
It is used for upholstery, wall coverings, window
treatments (if blended with another
fiber), rugs, bedding and wall hangings
While on the decline now, due to artificial fibers, silk
has had many industrial and commercial uses, such as
inparachutes, bicycle tires, comforter
filling and artillery gunpowder bags
64. Fabrics that are often made from silk
include charmeuse, habutai, chiffon, taffeta,crepe de
chine, dupioni, noil, tussah, and shantung, among
A special manufacturing process removes the outer
irritant sericin coating of the silk, which makes it
suitable as non-absorbable surgical sutures
Clothes in which Silk fibres are combined with other
natural and synthetic fibres are in great demand not
only in India but also in foreign countries. Seeing this
demand many textile industries are manufacturing
clothes like Teri-silk, cotsilk etc.
65. It is also used in other industries and for military
It is used in the manufacture of fishing fibres,
parachutes, cartridge bags, insulation coils for
telephones and wireless receivers, tyres of racing cars,
filter clothes for flour mills, and in medical dressings
and suture materials.
Insulation coils for telephones and wireless receivers,
tyres of racing cars, filter clothes for flour mills, and in
medical dressings and suture materials.
It absorbs more moisture than cotton. Moisture Content of
Coton is 6% at 70 deg F and 65% RH, and for Viscose
Rayon it is 13% under the same conditions.
The Tensile Strength of the fibre is less when the fibre is
wet than when dry. It is 1.5-2.4 gpd in the dry state and 0.7-
1.2 gpd in the wet state. For high tenacity variety the values
are 3-4.6 gpd and 1.9 to 3.0 gpd.
The elasticity of Viscose Rayon is less than 2-3%. This is
very important in handling viscose yarns during weaving,
stentering etc when sudden tensions are applied.
Elongation at Break
Ordinary Viscose rayon has 15-30% elongation at break,
whule high tenacity rayon has only 9-17% elongation at
The density of Viscose rayon is 1.53 g/cc. Rayon filaments
are available in three densities: 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5
69. Action of Heat and Light
At 300 deg F or more, VR loses its strength and begins to
decompose at 350-400 deg F. Prolonged exposure to
sunlight also weakens the fibre due to moisture and
ultraviolet light of the sunlight.
Viscose rayon consists of cellulose of lower DP than cotton
cellulose. Also amorphous region of Viscose rayon is
present to a greater extent, therefore, Viscose rayon reacts
faster than cotton with chemicals. Acids like H2SO4 HCL
breaks the cellulose to hydrocellulose. Oxidising agents like
Na(OCl)2, Bleaching powder, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4- form
oxycellulose. Cold acid solutions for a short time do not
attack viscose rayon.
70. Action of Solvents
Textile solvents can be used on Viscose rayon without any
deteriorating effect. Viscose rayon dissolves in
cuprammonium hydroxide solution.
Effect of Iron
Contact with iron in the form of ferrous hydroxide weakens
viscose rayon yarns. Therefore staining, marking or
touching of rayon to iron or iron surface should be avoided.
Action of Microorganisms
Microorganisms ( moulds, mildew, fungus, bacteria) affect
the colour, strength, dyeing properties and lustre of rayon.
Clean and dry viscose rayon is rarely attacked by moulds
71. Longitudinal View
The longitudinal view of these fibres show many
striations running parallel to the long axis of the fibre.
The cross section of viscose has striated periphery,
having many sharp indentations, and cross sectional
contours vary from circular and oval to ribbon-like
Effect of Iron
Contact with iron in the form of ferrous hydroxide
weakens viscose rayon yarns. Therefore staining,
marking or touching of rayon to iron or iron surface
should be avoided.
72. Action of Soaps:
Ordinary soaps in usual textile concentration have no
direct effect on regenerated cellulose materials. Improper
use of soap or use of poorly made soap results in rancidity
and odor in rayon fabrics or yarns. When soaps alone is
used ,there is a tendency for the ionized fatty acid from the
soap to adhere tenaciously to the individual rayon
Action of Dry Heat:
Most regenerated celluloses, under the influence of heat as
well as light ,show rapid loss in strength, this change being
accompanied by a increase in copper number and alkali
solubility. In a study of effect of drying conditions of textile
yearns, Wiegerink in 1940 showed that the quality index of
cellulose fibers decreases either as the temperature is
increased or as the moisture content of the surrounding
atmosphere is increased
73. Action of Acids:
The resistance of regenerated cellulose rayon’s to acids is
generally less than that of cotton to the same
concentrations of the same acids. Therefore , acid
treatments must not be too drastic with respect to
concentration ,temperature and time .Organic acids can be
safely used in 1 to 2 percent concentration without injury to
the fiber. Inorganic acids such as hydrochloric & nitric can
be used in surprisingly strong concentrations provided the
temperatures are not too high and the treatment is brief.
Oxalic acid for removal of iron stains is not recommended
except at temperatures lower than 150°F.At high
temperatures and concentrations all acid will destroy or
carbonize regenerated rayon’s. No harmful action will
result if applied at .5 to 3 percent solution at room
• Mainly, Rayon fibres are used in apparel
industry such as Aloha shirts, blouses, dresses, Jackets,
Lingerie, scarves, suits, ties, hats and socks.
For industrial purposes such as medical surgery
products, non-woven items, tire cord and some other
uses like diapers, towels, feminine hygiene products..,
76. Industrial end uses :Industrial products, medical
surgical products, nonwoven products, tire cord
It is used in making umbrella cloths and protective
It is used as sewing embroidery threads and in making
(Special type of rope yarn).
Viscose + cotton: This blend is used for reducing cost
Tenacity: Polyester filaments and staple fibre are
strong due to their crystalline nature. The crystalline
nature permits for the formation of highly effective
Vander wall’s forces as well as since hydrogen bonds
which provided the fibre its good tenacity. The
tenacity remains unchanged when wet since the fibre
resists the entry of water molecules to a significant
79. Hygroscopic nature: Filaments and staple fibres are
hydrophobic. The lack of polarity and the very
crystalline structure resists the entry of water
molecules into the polymer system. The hydrophobic
nature of the polymer system attracts fats, greases,
oils, acid or any other greasy soils. It is believed to be
oleophilic. The oleophilic nature makes it not easy to
remove grease by soap but by dry-cleaning with
Micro-Organisms: It is resistant to bacteria and other
80. Effetc of alkalis: Alkaline conditions as seen in
laundering hydrolyse the ester groups in polyester
polymers. The crystalline nature prohibits hydrolysis
to a greater extent and it is the surface of filament
which gets hydrolysed. Continued laundering results
in hydrolysis and materials get fewer as the surface
film of the fibre gets lost.
Effect of bleaches: It does nor requie bleaching. It
retains its whiteness and requires only chlorine
bleaches to be used when essential.
81. Elastic plastic nature: The very crystallinity of the
fibre prevents wrinkling and creasing. Repeated
stretching and straining causes, distortion of the
polymer system as the Vander wall’s forces cannot
withstand much stretching.
Effect of bleaches: It does nor requie bleaching. It
retains its whiteness and requires only chlorine
bleaches to be used when essential.
82. Thermal properties: It is a poor heat conductor and
it has low resistance to heat. It melts on heating.
Polyester textile materials can be permanently heat-
set. It is a thermoplastic fibre meaning that it is
capable of being shaped or turned when heated.
Thermoplastic fibres heated under strictly controlled
temperatures soften and can then be made to similar
to a flat, creased or pleated configuration. When
cooled thermoplastic fibres retain the new
Effect of acids: These polymers are resistant to acids
83. Sunlight: It withstands the sun’s ultra-violate
radiations and is resistant to acidic pollutants in
Color Fastness: It is not easy for dye molecule to
penetrate the fibre when dyed, it retains its color after
Effect of bleaches: It does nor requie bleaching. It
retains its whiteness and requires only chlorine
bleaches to be used when essential.
Polyester blends with cotton fibre and virgin wool
fibre are much admired. They are frequently referred
to as the “classical blend”. Polyester fibres are created
by the melt spinning process.
Fabrics made from polyester thread or yarn is used
expansively in apparel and home furnishing products.
85. Those products from shirts and pants to jackets
and hats, bed sheets, blankets, upholstery furniture
and computer mouse mats.
Industrial polyester fibers, yarns and ropes are used in
tyre strengthening process
• Polyester fabrics used for conveyor belts, safety belts,
coated fabrics and plastic supporting with high-energy
86. Polyester fiber is used as cushioning and padding
material in pillows, quilts and upholstery
Polyesters are also used to make bottles, films,
oilcloth, sheeting, canoes, liquid crystal flaunts,
holograms, filters, dielectric film for capacitors,
film insulation for wire and insulating tapes.
• Polyesters are widely used as a finish on first-class
wood products such as guitars, pianos and
87. Generally synthetic clothing is perceived by many as
having a lower natural feel when compared to natural
fibres including cotton and wool, Polyester fabrics can
provide specific advantages over natural fabrics as
Improved wrinkle resistance,
• Good durability and
• High color preservation.
88. Cure polyesters can be sanded and polished to a high-
luster, durable finishing.
• Polyester fibres are mainly resistant to brightness and
climatic conditions and can endure geographical
And at the end, polyester fibres are occasionally spun
mutually with natural fibres to produce fabrics with
blended properties [such as poly-cotton]. Synthetic
fibres can also produce materials with better moisture,
wind and ecological resistance compared to plant-
Acetate filament: It is in broken strands. The length
relies on the capacity of winding mechanism. Modern
winders hold many pounds of yarns with one or two
knots per cone.
Acetate staple fibre: It can be cut into desired length.
Commonly desired lengths are 1.50, 2, 2.50 and 3
inches till 7 inches for silk industries.
Fineness: The diameter of the strand ranges from 1.5
to 4.1 deniers for filaments and 1.5 to 20 deniers for
91. Appearance and Color: The luster and color may be
as desired. Bright luster may be received by lesser
twist. Staple are not as lustrous as filaments. Various
shades from paler tints to heavy may be acquired as
they are the whitest fibres.
Density: The density ranges from 1.25 to 1.33 gm per
cc. relying on the methods of measurement and
moisture at the time of making.
Absorption: The hygroscopicity is corresponding to
cellulose but absorption is much less since hydroxyl
groups are removed by acetyl groups.
92. Tenacity: The wet strength is 65% of dry strength. The
fibres can be changed in tenacity by the manufacturers.
Elasticity: Under general situations, elastic recovery of
fibre is completed within few seconds. But for longer time
and heavier load creep, deterioration or clearage occurs.
Thermal properties: It is a thermoplastic material. With
temperature it becomes soft. It can be ironed at the
temperature up to 2500 F. Above this sticking and melting
Conductivity: It is a perfect insulator. The static electricity
is created by friction.
- See more at:
93. Effect of alkalis: It is stable to water even at boil and
can withstand soap solutions and alkalis at normal
Effect of acids: It is unaffected by thin solution but is
attacked by strong acids. The degradation of
molecules occurs and the chain breaks.
Effect of oxidizing agents: Mild oxidizing agents
may be utilized i.e. chlorine is old and mild peroxide.
Effect of organisms: It is resistant to attack by
bacteria and mildew but it is attacked by moth which
makes holes in fabric
Blouses, dresses, linings, wedding and party attire,
home furnishings, draperies, upholstery, Cigarette
It is used in cigretts.
Triacetate fibers are fibers to which more acetic acid is
combined than to acetate fibers.
Acetate (staple tow) is used for almost all cigarette
Women's Formal Wear, Women's Nightgown, Coats,
Printed One-piece, Accessories for Japanese Dresses,
Neckties, Blouses, Sweaters, Scarves, etc.
[FOR HOME FURNISHINGS AND BEDDING]
Blankets, Bedclothes, Fabrics for Curtains, etc.
[FOR OTHER USES]
Umbrellas, Cigarette Filters, et