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Designing for different climatic zones in India

Designing for different climatic zones in India

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Designing for different climatic zones in India

  1. 1. Climatology (AR-307) Presented to : Miss ST By: Gwahyulo Semy (Roll no: 08) R.Saizampiua Colney (Roll no: 06)
  2. 2. Topic Hot and Dry Climate Hot and humid Climate Composite Climate Tropical Upland Climate
  3. 3. CLIMATE IN INDIA India is home to an extraordinary variety of climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall. The nation's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert.
  4. 4. Zonal Distribution
  5. 5. Nature of the climate  Hot-dry desert and semi-desert climates are characterized by very hot, dry air and dry ground.  Day-time air temperatures may range between 27 and 49°C (normally higher than the 31 to 34°C skin temperature), but at night it may fall as much as 22°C Humidity is continuously moderate to low.  There is little or no cloud cover to reduce the high intensity of direct solar radiation.  The clear skies do, however, permit a considerable amount of heat to be reradiated to outer space at night.  The dry air, low humidity and minimal rainfall discourage plant life, and the dry, dusty ground reflects the strong sunlight, producing an uncomfortable ground glare.  Local thermal winds often carry dust and sand.
  6. 6. CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT AND DRY CLIMATE • Hot dry weather in summer and cold in winter • Very little rainfall • Very low humidity • Sandy or rocky ground with very low vegetation cover • High temp. difference between night and day • Hot winds and frequent dust-storms • High summer day time temp.(32° C - 36 °C) • High solar radiation
  7. 7. AREAS INFLUENCED BY THIS CLIMATE • GUJARAT • MADHYAM PRADESH • MAHARASTRA
  8. 8. The climates in Hot and Dry involves diverse conditions. The winters are mild, pleasant, and dry with average daytime temperatures around 29 °C (84 °F) and nights around 12 °C (54 °F) with 100 percent sunny days and clear nights. The summers are extremely hot and dry with daytime temperatures around 49 °C (120 °F) and at night no lower than 30 °C (86 °F). In the weeks leading up to the arrival of the monsoon rains the temperatures are similar to above but with high humidity which makes the air feel hotter. Relief when the monsoon season starts around in mid June. The day temperatures are lowered to around 35 °C (95 °F) but humidity is very high and nights are around 27 °C (81 °F). Most of the rainfall occurs in this season, and the rain can cause severe floods. The sun is often occluded during the monsoon season. Though mostly dry, it is deserted in the north-west, and wet in the southern districts due to a heavy monsoon season.
  9. 9. Form and planning • Out-door conditions are so hostile in this climate, that both the buildings and the external living spaces need to be protected as much as possible from the intense solar radiation and the hot, dusty winds. • Shading of roofs, walls and out-door spaces is critical. Projecting roofs, verandahs, shading devices, trees and utilization of surrounding walls and buildings are familiar techniques of solving this problem. • By aligning buildings close to each other, especially if east and west walls are placed close together, mutual shading will decrease the heat gains on external walls.
  10. 10. The main points: •Orientation and placement, to minimize sun exposure in summer. •Form, compact to reduce surface areas of heat gain. •Shade, for maximum sun protection in summer. •Allow adequate heat gain in winter by movable shading devices. •Ventilation, for regulation of air movement. Building Design
  11. 11. Orientation Of building Sun orientation • West orientation is the worst • The larger building dimension should face north and south
  12. 12. Wind orientation Main walls and windows should face the wind direction in order to allow maximum cross-ventilation of the rooms. To reduce the effect of hot dusty winds, the leeward side of the house is better.
  13. 13. General arrangement Houses arranged around courtyards in hot dry regions
  14. 14. Interiors • Deep room arrangements can be used as a cooling contrast to intense outdoor heat. • Use of flow emissive “cool” colors reduce heat reflection on interior surfaces. • Connections with patio areas, verandas and courtyards covered with pergolas have cooling effect on adjacent spaces. Main building connected with patio areas usually getting advantage of cooling elements Window below ground alley covered by balconies on a steep slope in hot dry climate
  15. 15. Colors • light external colors will minimizing internal daytime temperatures, and is better than increasing thermal resistance or capacity • It has added advantages that comfort at night is also improved • White paint has high reflection ratio on sun exposed surfaces. Dark absorptive colors are adaptable where reflections towards interior are expected (such as under eaves).
  16. 16. Vegetation Near or around the building • The roof, walls, windows and play and rest areas can be shaded with trees and plants. • Vegetation in turn reduces the temperature and filter’s the dust in and around the house and elevates the humidity level in too dry climates. • It may reduce as well as increase the wind speed where it is desired. Vertical Pergolas shade the facades
  17. 17. Openings and windows • Relatively small openings reduce intense radiation. Openings should be tight closing as protection against high diurnal heat. • Openings should be located on South, North, to a lesser degree, on East sides. • Low solar angles may bring radiation deep into the house from windows placed on either the eastern or western sides.
  18. 18. • Effective shading of windows and other glazed areas is one of the major requirements for indoor comfort in these regions during hot summer. • Such shading can be provided either by fixed shading devices; which are integral elements of the building’s structure, or by operable shades. • Operable shading devices, such as shutters,Awnings,Venetian blinds, etc., can be either internal; or external to the glazing. • Internal devices are much less effective than external shading in preventing solar heating of the interior space, although they can be very effective in controlling indoor natural lighting. SHADING Building fenestration and sun protection This south-facing view shows how the narrowness of the pathways and the use of vines trellised overhead both provide shade for pedestrians on summer days.
  19. 19. • The walls of daytime living areas should be made of heat-storing materials, while walls of night rooms of materials with light heat capacity • East and west walls should preferably be shaded. • Heavy masonry walls are desirable on the west and should be shaded by trees if possible. • Double wall construction with proper air ventilation should be constructed on westward side. • High reflective qualities are desirable for both thermal and solar radiation. WALLS
  20. 20. • Generally, heat storage insulation is the best, which uses the flywheel effect of out-going radiation for daily heat balance. • This can be accomplished by thick insulating materials, evaporative cooling on the exterior or radiation screen with ventilation between it and the roof. • A double roof or a damp-proof or white single roof will reduce the accumulation of heat. Water spray or pool on roof is effective. • High solar reflectivity is a basic requirement ; emissivity is essential for long-wave radiation. ROOFS
  21. 21. Hot And Humid Climate
  22. 22. Nature of the climate • The most prominent characteristics of this climate are the hot, sticky conditions and the continual presence of dampness. • Air temperature remains moderately high, between 21 and 32°C, with little variation between day and night. It seldom exceeds normal skin temperature. • Humidity is high during all seasons. • Heavy cloud and water vapor in the air act as a filter to direct solar radiation; it is thus reduced and mostly diffused – but clouds also prevent reradiating from the earth at night. • Moisture in the air combined with moderate heat and high rainfall is favorable to the growth of vegetation. • The plant cover of the ground reduces reflected radiation, and lessens the heating up of the ground surface. • Winds are generally of low speed, variable in speed, but almost constant in direction.
  23. 23. CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE • PRECIPITATION 2000 TO 5000 mm OF RAINFALL • WIND TYPICALLY LOW WIND VELOCITIES. STRONG WIND WITH TORRENTIAL RAINS. • SOLAR RADIATION THE INTENSITY OF SOLAR RADIATION IS HIGH DURING SUMMERS AND MODERATE DURING WINTERS.
  24. 24. AREAS INFLUENCED BY THIS CLIMATE COASTAL PLAINS OF PENINSULAR INDIA • GOA • MUMBAI (MAHARASHTRA) • VISHAKHAPATNAM (AP) • THIRUVANANTHAPURAM (KERALA) • CHENNAI (TAMIL NADU) • KOLKATA (WEST BENGAL) • PURI (ORISSA) • TRIPURA
  25. 25. TEMP. VARIATIONS THROUGHOUT INDIA CITY SUMMER DAY SUMMER NIGHT WINTER CITY SUMMER DAY (°C SUMMER NIGHT WINTER DAY WINTER NIGHT CHENNAI 37.3 27.6 28.2 21 KOLKOTA 34.1 26.7 27 14 MUMBAI 31.9 26.3 30.9 20.8 PURI 31.7 27.4 27.2 17.7 TRIVANDRUM 29.4 23.6 30.9 22.5 TRIPURA 36.2 20.5 27.1 7 GOA 30 20 25 15
  26. 26. CLIMATE AND ARCHITECTURE • Since beginning, climate has its effects on man, surroundings and architecture • Weather elements forced man to look for shelters • A climate responsive architecture takes advantage of the free energy in the form of heat and light. • An adaptive thermal comfort design is essential.
  27. 27. REQUIREMENTS IN A HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE • Minimization of the high day temp. • Avoidance of direct exposure of facades to solar radiations. • Reduction in the humidity levels • Continuous air circulation to reduce heat and relief from stickiness. • To create a temp. difference between the inside and outside environments to facilitate evaporation and heat dissipation.
  28. 28. From and planning • Building will have to be opened up to breezes and orientated to catch whatever air movement there is. Failure to do this would produce indoor conditions always warmer than a shaded external space which is open to air movement. • In this type of climate buildings tend to have open elongated plan shapes, with a single row of rooms to allow cross- ventilation. Such rooms may be accessible from open verandahs or galleries, which also provide shading. Door and window openings are, or should be, as large as possible, allowing a free passage of air. • Groups of buildings also tend to be spread out. Extended plans, in a line across the prevailing wind direction, afford low resistance to air movement and is therefore the ideal solution. • As the openings are far larger than in hot-dry climates, the shading devices will be much larger on both counts. Openness and shading will be the dominant characteristics of the building. • Shading of all vertical surfaces, of both openings and solid walls will be beneficial. This task will be much easier, if the building height is kept down. Very often the roof will extend far beyond the line of walls, with broad overhanging eaves, providing the necessary shading to both openings and wall surfaces.
  29. 29. Over Hanging Eaves
  30. 30. open elongated plan shapes, with a single row of rooms
  31. 31. THERMAL COMFORT • Comfort has been defined as the condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the environment.
  32. 32. FENESTRATION •Semi – open spaces for light and air movement •Larger windows for ventilation.
  33. 33. FACADE ARTICULATION •Max. ventilation •Orientation of smaller side of structure along east-west •North-south orientation for maximum air movement •High density of façade that is open and yet shaded. •Faint/pale colors on outer surfaces •Building materials with insulating/reflecting properties that resist heat transfer.
  34. 34. ROOFING PATTERN • Voids in roof and courtyards provide max. light and cross ventilation • Houses are tall with large openings to catch breeze • Light colors and reflective surfaces on roofs will deflect solar radiations and keep the building cool. • Light materials such as timber are used in Construction Sloping roof is a characteristic of these regions as it drains off rain water. Barrel vaulted roof can also be seen. • Dense growth of plantations in the outdoors
  35. 35. Composite climate
  36. 36. Composite climate • Usually occures in : Large land masses near the tropic of cancer and capricrn, which are far from equator. • Examples : New Delhi • Two seasons : 2/3 of the year is hot dry and 1/3 is warm humid. • Specific locations : in further north and south often have a third season, best described as cold-dry.
  37. 37. Building type • Courtyard type building are very suitable • A moderate dense , low rise development • Large projecting eves and wide verandahs are needed in the warm humid season as our door living ares, to reduce sly glare, keep out the rain and provide shades • Shading device should be of low thermal capacity
  38. 38. Exterior productes • Roofs and walls are constructed of solid masonry and concrete. • Resistance insulation are need and they are placed at the exterior wall or on the roof. • Large openings in opposite walls they are preferred with solid shutters.
  39. 39. Season Temperature(°C) Hot and dry Warm and humid Cold and dry Day time (Max temperature) 32-43 27-32 <27 Night time (min temperature) 21-27 24-27 4-10 Diurnal range 11-12 3-6 11-22 Humidity RS is low in day time : 20-55 % Wet season : rises to 55- 95 % Air tempearture
  40. 40. Topography • The geographical coordinates of New Delhi are 28.636 deg latitude, 77.224 deg longitude, and 712 ft elevation. • The topography within 2 miles of New Delhi contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 177 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 721 feet. Within 10 miles also contains only modest variations in elevation (328 feet). Within 50 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (797 feet). • The area within 2 miles of New Delhi is covered by artificial surfaces (99%), within 10 miles by artificial surfaces (79%) and cropland (14%), and within 50 miles by cropland (91%).
  41. 41. Temperature Of Delhi • The temperature in the summer months can be unbelievably hot with temperatures soaring as high as 113°F (45°C), often accompanied by dry desert winds – not a good combination in anyone’s books. But the cooler months of October to March can be pleasant and mild with warm sunny days and little rainfall, most of which falls between July and September.
  42. 42. Precipitation Of Delhi • New Delhi earns an average of 790 mm (31.1 in) of rainfall per year, or 65.8 mm (2.6 in) per month. • On average there are 57 days per year with more than 0.1 mm (0.004 in) of rainfall (precipitation) or 4.8 days with a quantity of rain, sleet, snow etc. per month. • The driest weather is in November & December when an average of 9 mm (0.4 in) of rainfall (precipitation) occurs. • The wettest weather is in July when an average of 237 mm (9.3 in) of rainfall (precipitation) occurs.
  43. 43. Sky Condition Of Delhi • Clouds • In New Delhi, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year. • The clearer part of the year in New Delhi begins around September 2 and lasts for 10 months, ending around July 5. On October 14, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy96% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 4% of the time. • The cloudier part of the year begins around July 5 and lasts for 1.9 months, ending around September 2. On July 31, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 59% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 41% of the time. Rainy season Winter season Summer season
  44. 44. Solar Radiation in Delhi • Solar radiation is radiant energy emitted by the sun, particularly electromagnetic energy. About half of theradiation is in the visible short- wave part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The other half is mostly in the near-infrared part, with some in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum Monthly Average JAN 3.24 FEB 4.92 MAR 6.32 APR 5.79 MAY 5.38 JUN 4.13 JUL 2.79 AUG 3.50 SEP 4.67 OCT 4.24 NOV 3.45 DEC 3.12 Annual Average : 4.29 kWh/m2/day Unit : kW/m2
  45. 45. Humidity • We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night. • New Delhi experiences extreme seasonal variation in the perceived humidity. • The muggier period of the year lasts for 5.0 months, from May 20 to October 20, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 25% of the time. The muggiest day of the year is August 17, with muggy conditions 99% of the time. • The least muggy day of the year is January 28, when muggy conditions are essentially unheard of.
  46. 46. Wind Condition • Wind • This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages. • The average hourly wind speed in New Delhi is gradually decreasing during June, decreasing from 4.5 miles per hour to 4.0 miles per hour over the course of the month. • For reference, on May 30, the windiest day of the year, the daily average wind speed is 4.5 miles per hour, while on October 16, the calmest day of the year, the daily average wind speed is 2.7 miles per hour The hourly average wind direction in New Delhi throughout June is predominantly from the west, with a peak proportion of 63% on June 1. N 8 % NE 3 % E 18 % SE 8 % S 5 % SW 5 % W 33 % NW 19 % Wind-direction ( 2000 - 2017)
  47. 47. Vegetagtion • The main kinds of topography that exist in Delhi are the Yamuna Food Plains, • The Delhi Ridge and The Plains. • The vegetation in each of this condition is quite distinct and unique. Rich and rare varieties of cactus plants and acacia grow on the ridge during the dry seasons. • when it rains during monsoons, there are lots of herbaceous plants that one can see along the ridge. The Plains of Delhi have an abundance of Shisham trees on it whereas the Yamuna Food Plains have a lot of vegetation that resembles the riverine type.
  48. 48. Tropical upland climates Regions throughout the globe
  49. 49. Tropical upland climates Nature of the climate • Climate is similar to the composite or monsoon climates • It is dominated by strong solar radiation • Warmest part of the year air temperature rarely reaches 30°C • Diurnal variation can be as much as 20°C • Humidities are not excessive and there is an almost constant air movement
  50. 50. Form and planning • Compact building type slowing down the response to changing thermal conditions • The building plan should be reasonably compact • Compact building type reduce heat gain during the day and heat loss during the night. • Windows and openings have to be protected from solar radiation.
  51. 51. Orientation • Orientation of the building and of its major openings can greatly influence the solar heat gain. • North and south facing vertical walls receive the least amount of radiation. • facing north on the northern hemisphere and facing south on the southern half of the globe. • East, south-west and northwest walls will receive about the same amount of radiation • West will receive the most. Building orientation proposal •the longer walls should face north and south •major openings should be located in these walls •Windows facing east would admit the sun • If air temperature is still quite low. Windows facing west should be avoided. •This arrangement would reduce incident solar radiation and would also minimise the extent (and cost) of shading devices, as north and south facing windows can be shaded by the simplest of means. •This arrangement would reduce incident solar radiation and would also minimise the extent (and cost) of shading devices, as north and south facing windows can be shaded by the simplest of means.
  52. 52. Openings • As the air temperature rarely reaches the upper comfort limit • no need for cross-ventilation (if solar control is adequately solved) • there is no need to capture winds and cooling breezes. • the wind direction need not be considered. (since ther are no strong wind) • It is essential to provide for the adequate closing of openings • Solar heat gain will be the only factor governing the orientation of windows • In summer Well-shaded external spaces should be provided:- 1. many activities are going on out-of-doors - as in all warm climates 2. the very strong radiation would create hot discomfort, even with quite low air temperatures • In the cooler period of the year sunshine may be welcome in external spaces. Two possibilities are open to the designer:- 1 to provide some form of adjustable shading device to the external activity area 2 to provide alternative external spaces for use in the different seasons: shaded for the hot period and unshaded, wind protected for the cool part of the year .
  53. 53. Shading
  54. 54. Shading • In summer Well-shaded external spaces should be provided:- 1. many activities are going on out-of-doors - as in all warm climates 2. the very strong radiation would create hot discomfort, even with quite low air temperatures • In the cooler period of the year sunshine may be welcome in external spaces. Two possibilities are open to the designer:- 1 to provide some form of adjustable shading device to the external activity area 2 to provide alternative external spaces for use in the different seasons: shaded for the hot period and unshaded, wind protected for the cool part of the year . • The former can be achieved by some form of canvas awning • cantilevered or supported by a pergola-like frame • In some situations the same external space may be shaded or unshaded in different parts of the year. The latter arrangement may be wasteful of space, duplicating the out-door area, but where space is not at a premium, it may be the easier and more economical solution.
  55. 55. Roofs and walls Nights are cool and solar radiation can cause overheating of buildings during the day Effective Factors • High thermal capacity structure. • A time- lag of 8 hours is advisable inner and outer temperature. • East, and especially the west walls should also be massive. • North and south walls will not receive much radiation and they may be of a lightweight construction, Aim 1 to limit the heat admitted during the strong sunshine hours 2 2 to store some heat, to be re-emitted during the cool perio (A 200 mm concrete slab, with screed and felt or a 150 mm concrete slab with an insulating screed would give this performance.)
  56. 56. Characteristics of Tropical Climates • Air temperature rarely reaches 30°C in summer • IN winter air temperture goes down to 16 °C • Diurnal variation 20 °C. • Temperature – average mean temperature (dbt) 20 – 30 deg.C • • Humidity Level – 50% to 100% Relative Humidity • • Wind Conditions – Slow wind flow

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